Semantic Categories in UD v2
Some of the relations in v1, in particular
neg), primarily encoded semantic distinctions (rather than syntactic). We therefore make the following changes for v2:
negand instead encode negation as a feature
nameto u-dep/flat and extend its usage beyond names (for example, include titles)
We have decided to get rid of the
neg relation which is not syntactic. Instead we will use
- ordinary syntactic relations like u-dep/advmod, u-dep/aux, etc.
- a feature Polarity=Neg on the negative word to preserve the information about negation
Rename name and modify its use
name label is another one that has led to confusion. It was not intended to be used for all named entities, but only for names consisting of multiple nominal elements. We suggest keeping the relation but renaming it to
flat to (a) avoid the impression that it should capture named entities in general, and (b) indicate that the relation is only appropriate when there is no clear syntactic head. After we have dropped the direct association with names, we can also extend the use of this relation to titles (“Mrs.”, “President”, etc.) in languages where they do not show clear head or dependent properties. A subtype
flat:name can be used to preserve information in existing treebanks.
Hillary Rodham Clinton flat(Hillary, Rodham) flat(Hillary, Clinton)
Monsieur Louis Pignon flat(Monsieur, Louis) flat(Monsieur, Pignon)
In case of foreign phrases that are phrasal or clausal names and where we do not (or cannot) give a compositional analysis, we now use the new relation
flat instead of the old
foreign, which is removed in v2. A subtype
flat:foreign may be used to preserve information in existing treebanks.
The French title of the book is " Harry à l' école des sorciers ". flat(Harry, à) flat(Harry, l') flat(Harry, école) flat(Harry, des) flat(Harry, sorciers)