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This page pertains to UD version 2.


The UD annotation assumes the nominal, or noun phrase, as one of the basic structures that we expect to find in all languages. A nominal minimally consists of a noun, proper noun or pronoun.

hon såg filmen . \n she saw the-film
obj(såg, filmen)
hon såg Batman \n she saw Batman
obj(såg, Batman)
hon såg den \n she saw it
obj(såg, den)

Modifier Dependents

A nominal head does not take any core arguments but may be associated with different types of modifiers:

  1. An nmod is a nominal phrase modifying the head of another nominal phrase, with or without a special case marker. Treebanks may optionally use nmod:poss to distinguish non-adpositional possessives.
  2. An appos is a nominal phrase that follows the head of another nominal phrase and stands in a co-reference or other equivalence relation to it.
  3. An amod is an adjective modifying the head of a nominal phrase.
  4. A nummod is a numeral modifying the head of a nominal phrase.
  5. An acl is a clause modifying the head of a nominal phrase, with the relative clause acl:relcl as an important subtype.
the office of the Chair
nmod(office-2, Chair-5)
the Chair 's office
nmod:poss(office-4, Chair-2)
Sam , the manager
appos(Sam, manager)
Sam eats red meat
amod(meat, red)
Sam spent forty dollars
nummod(dollars, forty)
Sam spent everything he had
acl:relcl(everything, had)
Sam spent everything that he had
acl:relcl(everything, had)
obj(had, that)

Function Word Dependents

Nominals may also contain the following typical function word dependents:

the Chair 's office
det(Chair-2, the-1)
nmod(office-4, Chair-2)
case(Chair-2, 's-3)
the office of the Chair
det(office-2, the-1)
nmod(office-2, Chair-5)
case(Chair-5, of-3)
det(Chair-5, the-4)
sān gè xuéshēng \n three clf student
nummod(xuéshēng, sān)
clf(sān, gè)