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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Japanese BCCWJ

Language: Japanese (code: ja)
Family: Japanese

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Mai Omura, Masayuki Asahara, Yusuke Miyao, Takaaki Tanaka, Hiroshi Kanayama, Yuji Matsumoto, Shinsuke Mori, Sumire Uematsu, Yugo Murawaki.

Repository: UD_Japanese-BCCWJ
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.2

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 International. The underlying text is not included; the user must obtain it separately and then merge with the UD annotation using a script distributed with UD

Genre: news, nonfiction, fiction, blog, web

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Japanese-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [masayu-a (æt) ninjal • ac • jp]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas not available
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS not available
Features not available
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


This Universal Dependencies (UD) Japanese treebank is based on the definition of UD Japanese convention described in the UD documentation. The original sentences are from `Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese’(BCCWJ).

The Japanese UD treebank contains the sentences from BCCWJ [1] http://pj.ninjal.ac.jp/corpus_center/bccwj/en/ with BCCWJ-DepPara[2] annotation.

The word units is based on Short Unit Word in BCCWJ [1]. We prepared conversion rules from BCCWJ-DepPara to UD_Japanese v2.1 guidelines [3][4].

Recovering data

The data is provided in the CoNLL format, but original texts are stripped off due to the license issue.

The corpus is obtained by running the following command:

./merge/merge.sh -c BCCWJ_CORE_FILE

where BCCWJ_CORE_FILE denotes the file of BCCWJ core file (core_SUW.txt)


The BCCWJ DVD edition purchaser can download the data with the original text from https://bccwj-data.ninjal.ac.jp/mdl/


Each data set contains UD annotations for the following parts in BCCWJ

training: annotation C, D, E subsets development: annotation B subset test: annotation A subset

See also https://github.com/masayu-a/BCCWJ-ANNOTATION-ORDER


You are encouraged to cite the following paper when you refer to the Universal Dependencies Japanese Treebank.

Asahara, M., Kanayama, H., Tanaka, T., Miyao, Y., Uematsu, S., Mori, S., Matsumoto, Y., Omura, M., & Murawaki, Y. (2018). Universal Dependencies Version 2 for Japanese. In LREC-2018.


The original treebank was provided by:

The corpus was converted by:

through discussion and validation with

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grants Numbers JP17H00917 and is a project of the Center for Corpus Development, NINJAL.

Statistics of UD Japanese BCCWJ

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Relations Overview