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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD English ParTUT

Language: English (code: en)
Family: Indo-European, Germanic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.0 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Cristina Bosco, Manuela Sanguinetti.

Repository: UD_English-ParTUT

License: CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Genre: legal, news, wiki

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either English-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [msanguin (æt) di • unito • it]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
XPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD, with some manual corrections of the conversion


UD_English-ParTUT is a conversion of a multilingual parallel treebank developed at the University of Turin, and consisting of a variety of text genres, including talks, legal texts and Wikipedia articles, among others.

UD_English-ParTUT data is derived from the already-existing parallel treebank Par(allel)TUT.

ParTUT is a morpho-syntactically annotated collection of Italian/French/English parallel sentences, which includes texts from different sources and representing different genres and domains, released in several formats.

The treebank comprises approximately 167,000 tokens, with an average amount of 2,100 sentences per language. The texts of the collection currently available were gathered from a large number of sources and domains: * the Creative Commons open license; * the DGT-Translation Memory * the Europarl parallel corpus (section ep_00_01_17); * publicly available pages from Facebook website; * the JRC-Acquis multilingual parallel corpus (section jrc52006DC243); * several articles from Project Syndicate© [ABSENT IN UD_French-ParTUT]; * the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; * Wikipedia articles retrieved in the English section and then translated into Italian only by graduate students in Translation Studies [ABSENT IN UD_French-ParTUT]; * the Web Inventory of Translated Talks .

ParTUT data can be downloaded here and here.


We are deeply grateful to Project Syndicate© for letting us download and exploit their articles as text material, under the terms of educational use.


Statistics of UD English ParTUT

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

  • Gender
    • Fem
      • ADJ: innovative, sentimentale
      • DET: la, une, ma
      • NOUN: women, Madam, Mrs, policymakers, wellbeing, additionality, agriculture, bardolatry, codependency, cynicism
      • PRON: she, her, one
    • Masc
      • ADJ: Perdu, necessary
      • NOUN: Mr, man, men, king, crisis, mycelium, child, children, basis, genius
      • PRON: he, him, himself, Nothing
  • Number
    • Plur
      • ADJ: themselves, innovative
      • AUX: are, have, were, do, 're, 've, be
      • AUX-Fin: are, have, were, do, 're, 've
      • DET: these, those, Many, les
      • NOUN: countries, people, states, plays, years, rights, terms, measures, requirements, works
      • PRON: we, they, them, those, us, others, these, Many, ourselves, themselves
      • VERB-Fin: have, are, know, need, see, include, remain, like, believe, create
    • Sing
      • ADJ: particular, Lankan, clear, following, free, full, general, overall, possible, this
      • AUX-Fin: is, was, has, does, were, 's, have, am, do, 'm
      • AUX-Part: being
      • DET: a, this, an, its, my, that, another, each, every, la
      • NOUN: work, Commission, time, Parliament, President, member, license, growth, Directive, programme
      • PRON: it, I, he, this, him, everyone, one, what, she, that
      • VERB-Fin: is, has, makes, believe, provides, think, appears, comes, remains, seems
      • VERB-Part: including, emerging, regarding, concerning, developing, following, rising, amending, arising, growing
  • Definite
    • Def
      • DET: the, ’s, la, les, Le, une
    • Ind
      • DET: a, an, another, Une
  • Degree and Polarity

  • Degree
    • Cmp
      • ADJ: more, greater, better, higher, later, bigger, lower, closer, larger, smaller
      • ADV: more, less, later, longer
    • Pos
      • ADJ: other, new, European, economic, financial, social, many, important, first, own
      • ADV: real-time
    • Sup
      • ADJ: most, best, greatest, largest, highest, earliest, finest, latest, strongest, biggest
      • ADV: least
  • Polarity
    • Neg
      • ADV: no
      • PART: not
  • Verbal Features

  • Mood
    • Imp
      • AUX-Fin: do, can, Will, be, have
      • VERB-Fin: let, click, Learn, Reach, use, Create, choose, Adjust, Build, Connect
    • Ind
      • AUX-Fin: is, are, was, has, would, should, have, can, shall, will
      • VERB-Fin: is, has, have, wrote, know, are, believe, had, need, made
      • VERB-Part: annexed
    • Sub
      • AUX-Fin: be
      • VERB-Fin: be, express
  • Tense
    • Past
      • AUX-Fin: was, would, should, were, had, could, did, might, 'd, may
      • AUX-Part: been, had
      • VERB-Fin: wrote, had, made, became, began, did, provided, died, took, used
      • VERB-Part: given, based, made, taken, adopted, used, granted, set, done, entitled
    • Pres
      • AUX: is, are, has, have, can, will, shall, may, do, must
      • AUX-Fin: is, are, has, have, can, will, shall, may, do, must
      • AUX-Part: being
      • VERB-Fin: is, has, have, know, are, believe, need, think, makes, see
      • VERB-Inf: live, look
      • VERB-Part: including, emerging, developing, regarding, concerning, following, rising, relating, amending, arising
  • Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

  • PronType
    • Art
      • DET: the, a, an, another, Le, ’s, L, la, les, une
    • Dem
      • DET: this, such, these, that, those
      • PRON: this, that, those, these
    • Ind
      • DET: any, no, some, each, both, every, whatever, certain, numerous, Many
      • PRON: all, some, others, each, nothing, Many, other, one, Much, both
    • Int
      • DET: what, which
      • PRON: what, who
    • Neg
      • ADV: non, no, none
    • Prs
      • DET: his, their, its, our, your, my, her, ma
      • PRON: it, I, we, he, you, they, them, him, everyone, us
    • Rel
      • DET: which
      • PRON: which, that, who, what, where, whom, whose, when, whereby
    • Tot
      • DET: all
  • NumType
    • Card
      • NUM: two, one, 1, three, 2, four, 18, 3, 6, five
    • Ord
      • ADJ: first, last, second, third, II, III, sixth, I, IV, VI
      • PRON: first, third, latter, second
  • Poss
    • Yes
      • DET: his, their, its, our, your, my, her, ma
      • PRON: his, our, ours
  • Person
    • 1
      • AUX-Fin: have, am, do, 'm, was
      • PRON: I, we, us, me, ourselves
      • VERB-Fin: believe, think, have, hope, want, accept, allow, face, feel, know
    • 2
      • AUX-Fin: were, are, do, can, Will, have, may
      • PRON: you, second
      • VERB-Fin: let, Create, Imagine, Learn, Recall, accept, agree, enter, facilitate, own
    • 3
      • AUX-Fin: is, was, has, would, should, can, shall, will, may, had
      • AUX-Ger: being
      • PRON: it, he, they, them, him, everyone, one, she, himself, itself
      • VERB-Fin: is, has, wrote, had, made, became, makes, began, provides, did
      • VERB-Ger: adapting, guaranteeing, initiating, surpassing
      • VERB-Part: granted, coupled, placed, provided, resumed, spent
  • Other Features

  • Foreign
    • Yes
      • X: La, Comédie, humaine, De, Illusions, Le, Perdues, Chagrin, Peau, Père
  • Syntax

    Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

    Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

    Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

    Relations Overview