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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Coptic

Language: Coptic (code: cop)
Family: Afro-Asiatic, Egyptian

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.4 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Elizabeth Davidson, Amir Zeldes.

Repository: UD_Coptic

License: CC BY 4.0

Genre: bible, fiction, nonfiction

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Coptic-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [amir • zeldes (æt) georgetown • edu]. Development of the treebank happens directly in the UD repository, so you may submit bug fixes as pull requests against the dev branch.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually, natively in UD style
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features (unrecognized value: “automatic from treebank”)
Relations (undocumented)


UD Coptic contains manually annotated Sahidic Coptic texts, currently from the Gospel of Mark, Shenoute of Atripe’s “Not Because a Fox Barks”, the Letters of Besa, and several short stories from the Apophthegmata Patrum.

The Coptic Universal Dependency Treebank is a manually annotated corpus of Sahidic Coptic texts, currently containing excerpts from the Sahidic New Testament Gospel of Mark, Archmandrite Shenoute of Atripe’s “Not Because a Fox Barks”, the Letters of Besa, and several short stories from the Apophthegmata Patrum (Sayings of the Desert Fathers). Detailed information about the treebank is available here:


The data was digitized and annotated manually for part of speech in the project Coptic Scriptorium. For individual credit and further information see:


Coptic POS tags come from the Coptic Scriptorium tag set, which is available from the project and treebank websites.


The underlying POS tagged material was produced as part of the projects Coptic Scriptorium, KOMeT and KELLIA, funded by the NEH in the USA and BMBF and DFG in Germany (see http://copticscriptorium.org/ for more details). Treebank annotation was done by Liz Davidson and Amir Zeldes.

Statistics of UD Coptic

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

  • Gender
    • Fem
      • DET: ⲧ, ⲧⲉ, ⲡⲟⲩ, ⲧⲟⲩ, ⲛⲟⲩ, ⲧⲉⲓ, ⲧⲁⲓ, ⲡⲉⲥ, ⲧⲉⲥ, ⲛⲉⲥ
      • PART: ⲧⲉ
      • PRON: ⲥ, ⲉ, ⲧⲉ, ⲉⲣⲟ, ⲁⲣ, ⲛⲉⲣ, ⲙⲙⲟ, ⲉⲣ, ⲉⲣⲉ, ⲛⲧⲟ
    • Masc
      • DET: ⲡ, ⲡⲉ, ⲡⲉϥ, ⲛⲉϥ, ⲡⲉⲕ, ⲡⲁⲓ, ⲛⲉⲕ, ⲧⲉϥ, ⲡⲉⲓ, ⲧⲉⲕ
      • PART: ⲡⲉ
      • PRON: ϥ, ⲕ, ⲡⲉ, ⲛⲧⲟϥ, ⲅ, ⲛⲧⲟⲕ, ⲉⲕϣⲁⲛ, ⲉϥϣⲁⲛ, ⲛⲧⲕ
  • Number
    • Plur
      • DET: ⲛ, ⲛⲉ, ⲛⲉⲩ, ⲛⲁⲓ, ⲛⲉⲧⲛ, ⲡⲉⲩ, ⲛⲓ, ⲡⲉⲛ, ⲧⲉⲩ, ⲛⲉⲛ
      • PART: ⲛⲉ
      • PRON: ⲩ, ⲟⲩ, ⲧⲉⲧⲛ, ⲧⲛ, ⲥⲉ, ⲛⲉ, ⲛ, ⲉⲩⲉ, ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ, ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ
    • Sing
      • DET: ⲡ, ⲧ, ⲟⲩ, ϩⲉⲛ, ⲧⲉ, ⲡⲉ, ⲡⲉϥ, ⲛⲉϥ, ⲡⲉⲕ, ⲡⲁⲓ
      • PART: ⲡⲉ, ⲧⲉ
      • PRON: ϥ, ⲥ, ⲕ, ⲓ, ⲡⲉ, ϯ, ⲉ, ⲧⲉ, ⲛⲧⲟϥ, ⲅ
  • Definite
    • Def
      • ADV: ⲙⲙⲓⲛⲙⲙⲱ
      • DET: ⲡ, ⲛ, ⲧ, ⲧⲉ, ⲡⲉ, ⲛⲉ, ⲡⲉϥ, ⲛⲉϥ, ⲡⲉⲕ, ⲛⲉⲩ
      • PRON: ϥ, ⲩ, ⲟⲩ, ⲥ, ⲕ, ⲧⲉⲧⲛ, ⲧⲛ, ⲓ, ⲥⲉ, ϯ
    • Ind
      • DET: ⲟⲩ, ϩⲉⲛ, ⲩ
  • Degree and Polarity

  • Polarity
    • Neg
      • ADV: ⲁⲛ, ⲛ, ⲧⲙ, ⲙⲡⲣ, ⲟⲩⲕ, ⲙ
      • CCONJ: ⲙⲙⲟⲛ, ⲟⲩⲇⲉ
      • PART: ⲙⲙⲟⲛ
      • X: ⲟⲩ
  • Verbal Features

    Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

  • PronType
    • Art
      • DET: ⲡ, ⲛ, ⲧ, ⲧⲉ, ⲡⲉ, ⲛⲉ
    • Dem
      • DET: ⲡⲁⲓ, ⲛⲁⲓ, ⲡⲉⲓ, ⲧⲉⲓ, ⲛⲓ, ⲡⲓ, ⲧⲁⲓ, ⲛⲏ, ⲛⲉⲓ
    • Ind
      • PRON: ⲛⲓⲙ, ⲟⲩ
    • Int
      • PRON: ⲟⲩ, ⲁϣ, ⲛⲓⲙ, ⲧⲱⲛ, ⲟⲩⲏⲣ
    • Prs
      • ADV: ⲙⲙⲓⲛⲙⲙⲱ
      • DET: ⲡⲉϥ, ⲛⲉϥ, ⲡⲉⲕ, ⲛⲉⲩ, ⲛⲉⲕ, ⲡⲁ, ⲧⲉϥ, ⲛⲉⲧⲛ, ⲡⲟⲩ, ⲧⲟⲩ
      • PRON: ϥ, ⲩ, ⲟⲩ, ⲥ, ⲕ, ⲧⲉⲧⲛ, ⲧⲛ, ⲓ, ⲥⲉ, ϯ
    • Rcp
      • NOUN: ⲉⲣⲏⲩ
    • Tot
      • ADV: ⲧⲏⲣ
  • Poss
    • Yes
      • DET: ⲡⲉϥ, ⲛⲉϥ, ⲡⲉⲕ, ⲛⲉⲩ, ⲛⲉⲕ, ⲡⲁ, ⲧⲉϥ, ⲛⲉⲧⲛ, ⲡⲟⲩ, ⲧⲟⲩ
      • PRON: ⲟⲩ, ϥ, ⲕ, ⲥ, ⲧⲛ, ⲩ, ⲛ, ⲧ, ⲉ, ⲙⲙⲓⲛⲙⲙⲟ
  • Reflex
    • Yes
      • ADV: ⲙⲙⲓⲛⲙⲙⲱ
      • PRON: ⲙⲙⲓⲛⲙⲙⲟ
  • Person
    • 1
      • DET: ⲡⲁ, ⲧⲁ, ⲡⲉⲛ, ⲛⲁ, ⲛⲉⲛ, ⲧⲉⲛ
      • PRON: ⲓ, ϯ, ⲛ, ⲧⲛ, ⲁⲛⲟⲕ, ⲁⲛⲟⲛ, ⲉⲓ, ⲉⲓϣⲁⲛ, ⲁⲛⲅ, ⲧ
    • 2
      • DET: ⲡⲉⲕ, ⲛⲉⲕ, ⲛⲉⲧⲛ, ⲡⲟⲩ, ⲧⲟⲩ, ⲛⲟⲩ, ⲧⲉⲕ, ⲡⲉⲧⲛ
      • PRON: ⲕ, ⲧⲉⲧⲛ, ⲧⲛ, ⲉ, ⲅ, ⲧⲉ, ⲛⲧⲟⲕ, ⲛⲧⲱⲧⲛ, ⲉⲣⲟ, ⲧⲏⲩⲧⲛ
    • 3
      • DET: ⲡⲉϥ, ⲛⲉϥ, ⲛⲉⲩ, ⲧⲉϥ, ⲡⲉⲩ, ⲧⲉⲩ, ⲡⲉⲥ, ⲧⲉⲥ, ⲛⲉⲥ
      • PRON: ϥ, ⲩ, ⲥ, ⲟⲩ, ⲥⲉ, ⲛⲧⲟϥ, ⲉⲩⲉ, ⲛⲧⲟⲟⲩ, ⲉⲩϣⲁⲛ, ⲉϥϣⲁⲛ
  • Other Features


    Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

    Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

    Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

    Relations Overview