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This page pertains to UD version 2.


The Italian section of Universal Dependencies currently comprises four resources:


It was obtained by conversion from ISDT (Italian Stanford Dependency Treebank), released for the dependency parsing shared task of Evalita-2014 (Bosco et al. 2014).

ISDT is a resource annotated according to the Stanford dependencies scheme (de Marneffe et al. 2008, 2013a, 2013b, 2014), obtained through a semi-automatic conversion process starting from MIDT (the Merged Italian Dependency Treebank). MIDT in turn was obtained merging two existing Italian treebanks, differing both in corpus composition and adopted annotation schemes:

The details of the harmonization and conversion process leading to MIDT were discussed in (Bosco, Montemagni, Simi, 2012). The Stanford annotation scheme, obtained from an enriched version of MIDT, was adapted to the specificity of the Italian language. We refer to (Bosco, Montemagni, Simi, 2013 and 2014) for a discussion.

The first preliminary release was issued in January 2015.


UD_Italian-ParTUT data is derived from the already-existing parallel treebank Par(allel)TUT.

ParTUT is a morpho-syntactically annotated collection of Italian/French/English parallel sentences, which includes texts from different sources and representing different genres and domains, released in several formats.

ParTUT comprises approximately 167,000 tokens, with an average amount of 2,100 sentences per language.

ParTUT data can be downloaded here and here (CoNLL format only).


PoSTWITA-UD was created by enriching the dataset used for the EVALITA 2016 task of Part-of-Speech tagging of Social Media (Bosco et al. 2016). The original corpus consists of 6,438 tweets of the development set (114,967 tokens) and 300 tweets of the test set (4,759 tokens), annotated at PoS level only. The conversion and syntactic annotation process was carried out through alternating steps of automatic scripting and manual revision, and finally with some out-of-domain parsing experiments. Parsing results also underwent a manual revision by two independent annotators.

The section of PoSTWITA that has been revised so far (approximately the first half of the corpus) consists of 3,510 tweets (61,887 tokens).


Github repository