home issue tracker

This page still pertains to UD version 1.

POS tags

Open class words Closed class words Other
ADJ ADP PUNCT
ADV AUX SYM
INTJ CONJ X
NOUN DET
PROPN NUM
VERB PART
PRON
SCONJ

ADJ: adjective

Definition

Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns and specify their properties or attributes. They may also function as predicates, as in

In Turkish the Adjective do not inflect. Degree is specified using adverbs daha and en.

We distinguish between adjectives, determiners and numerals. We do not mark determiners as adjectives as is the case in most (traditional) dictionaries and grammars.

Examples

edit ADJ

ADP: adposition

Definition

Turkish only has postpositions. They occur after a complement noun phrase (or a nominal subordinate clause) and they form a single structure with the complement to express its grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause.

A number of postpositions in Turkish are complex, derived from a closed set of nouns (see Göksel & Kerslake 2005, ch.17). Examples include, alt-ın-da “below”, arka-sı-nda “behind”, konu-su-nda “about”. We also mark these expressions as ADP when they are used as postpositions (TODO: this requires discussion).

Examples

References

Aslı Göksel and Celia Kerslake. Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge, 2005.

edit ADP

ADV: adverb

Definition

Adverbs are words that typically modify verbs and adjectives. They may also modify other adverbs and nouns (see examples below).

Examples

edit ADV

AUX: auxiliary verb

Definition

In Turkish the verbs ol- and bulun- and the question particle mI (mı/mi/mu/mü) may function as auxiliary verbs. We (currently) use the AUX for the question particle. The verbs are marked as ol- and bulun- are always marked as VERB. The dependency label indicates their use (auxiliary, copula or content verb).

Examples

edit AUX

CONJ: coordinating conjunction

Definition

A coordinating conjunction is a word that links words or larger constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other and expresses a semantic relationship between them.

For subordinating conjunctions, see SCONJ.

Examples

edit CONJ

DET: determiner

Definition

Determiners are words that modify nouns or noun phrases and express the reference of the noun phrase in context. That is, a determiner may indicate whether the noun is referring to a definite or indefinite element of a class, to a closer or more distant element, to an element belonging to a specified person or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc.

Traditionally, Turkish grammars and dictionaries do not make the distinction between a determiner and an adjective (but modern grammars do, see Göksel and Kerslake 2005, ch.15).

Turkish does not have a definite article, but the numeral bir “one” also acts as an indefinite article. We mark it as DET in this usage.

Examples

References

Aslı Göksel and Celia Kerslake. Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge, 2005.

edit DET

INTJ: interjection

Definition

An interjection is a word that is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation. It typically expresses an emotional reaction, is not syntactically related to other accompanying expressions, and may include a combination of sounds not otherwise found in the language.

Examples

edit INTJ

NOUN: noun

Definition

Nouns are a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea.

The NOUN tag is intended for common nouns only. See PROPN for proper nouns and PRON for pronouns.

Turkish nouns inflect for tr-feat/Number, possessor and tr-feat/Case.

We also mark the non-root inflectional groups as NOUN in complex derivation involving some suffixes, and subordinate clauses that function as a noun phrase. For details, see the section on subordination in specific constructions.

All adjectives and some of the adverbs may function as a noun without additional derivation, in this cases, we keep the POS tag of the original word, but assign nominal features to the word. (TODO: this needs more discussion)

Examples

edit NOUN

NUM: numeral

Definition

A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as a determiner, adjective or pronoun, that expresses a number and a relation to the number, such as quantity, sequence, frequency or fraction.

Note that cardinal numerals are covered by NUM whether they are expressed as words (four), digits (4) or Roman numerals (IV).

In Turkish numbers may get features NumType=Ord (ordinal) or NumType=Dist (distributive) through suffixation.

We also mark interrogative kaç “how many” as NUM.

Examples

edit NUM

PART: particle

Definition

Particles are function words that must be associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning and that do not satisfy definitions of other universal parts of speech.

We current use the POS tag PART for the word değil “not” when used to negate a non-predicate word If değil modifies a predicate, it is marked as VERB since it functions as a copula and carries other verbal inflections as well.

edit PART

PRON: pronoun

Definition

Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns or noun phrases, whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context.

In Turkish, some pronouns also function as determiners (e.g., bu “this”, o “that”), these words are always marked according to their usage (PRON or DET).

Examples

edit PRON

PROPN: proper noun

Definition

A proper noun is a noun (or nominal content word) that is the name (or part of the name) of a specific individual, place, or object.

Note that PROPN is only used for the subclass of nouns that are used as names and that often exhibit special syntactic properties. When other phrases or sentences are used as names, the component words retain their original tags. For example, in İstanbul Büyük Şehir Belediyesi, Büyük is ADJ, Şehir and Belediyesi are NOUN.

Acronyms of proper nouns, such as TBMM and NATO, should be tagged PROPN.

Examples

edit PROPN

PUNCT: punctuation

Definition

Punctuation marks are non-alphabetical characters and character groups used in many languages to delimit linguistic units in printed text.

Punctuation is not taken to include logograms such as $, %, and §, which are instead tagged as SYM.

Examples

References

edit PUNCT

SCONJ: subordinating conjunction

Definition

A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of the other. The subordinating conjunction typically marks the incorporated constituent which has the status of a (subordinate) clause.

In Turkish subordinate clauses are mainly formed by suffixation (see the discussion in tr-overview/special-syntax). However, there are a few words that form subordinate clauses, notably ki and diye. The question particle mI (mı/mi/mu/mü) and clitic dA (da/de) may also form subordinate clauses. We also mark the words, such as madem and eğer, that are syntactically and semantically redundant but signal beginning of a subordinate clause.

For coordinating conjunctions, see CONJ.

Examples

edit SCONJ

SYM: symbol

Definition

A symbol is a word-like entity that differs from ordinary words by form, function, or both.

We follow the general/universal definition of SYM. See u-pos/SYM for details.

edit SYM

VERB: verb

Definition

A verb is a member of the syntactic class of words that typically signal events and actions, can constitute a minimal predicate in a clause, and govern the number and types of other constituents which may occur in the clause. Verbs are often associated with grammatical categories like tense, mood, aspect and voice, which can either be expressed inflectionally or using auxiliary verbs or particles.

We tag all verbs, including auxiliary and copula use of verbs “ol-“ and “bulun-“ as VERB.

Besides ordinary verb stems, we also mark the non-root inflectional groups that introduce a copular construction, as in Ali evdeydi “Ali was at home”.

Turkish verbs can get a complex set of inflections which assign voice, tense, aspect, mood, negation, person and number. Some feature assignments are ambiguous or non-trivial. See the section on verbal features in tr-overview/specific-syntax.

Examples

edit VERB

X: other

Definition

The tag X is used for words that for some reason cannot be assigned a real part-of-speech category.

We follow the general/universal definition of SYM. See u-pos/X for details.

edit X