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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
nmod:agent
nmod:poss
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
  acl:relcl
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
compound:prt
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl is used for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun, including cases of secondary predication. Note that in Swedish relative clauses get assigned a specific relation acl:relcl, a subtype of acl.

Non-relative clausal dependents of nouns are limited to complement clauses with a subset of nouns like faktum (fact). We analyze them as acl (parallel to the analysis of this class as “content clauses” in Huddleston and Pullum 2002). Such clausal complements are usually finite (though there are occasional remnant Swedish subjunctives).

Hur förenas detta med det faktum att många äktenskap upplöses ? \n How can that be reconciled with the fact that many marriages break up?
acl(faktum, upplöses) 

In addition, interrogative clauses can be linked to nouns by prepositions.

En bild av vad som händer \n A picture of what happens
acl(bild, händer)
Ta ansvar för vad du gör \n Take responsibility for what you do
acl(ansvar, gör)

The acl relation is also used for secondary predicates modifying a nominal.

Han lämnade rummet gråtande . \n He left the room crying .
acl(Han, gråtande)

edit acl

acl:relcl: relative clause modifier

The acl:relcl relation is used for relative clauses modifying a nominal. The relation points from the head of the nominal to the head of the relative clause. Relative clauses are always finite in Swedish and the relative pronoun can be omitted when it does not have the subject function.

Jag såg den man som älskar dig \n I saw the man who loves you
acl:relcl(man-4, älskar)
nsubj(älskar, som)
obj(älskar, dig)
Jag såg den man som du älskar \n I saw the man who you love
acl:relcl(man-4, älskar)
nsubj(älskar, du)
obj(älskar, som)
Jag såg den man du älskar \n I saw the man you love
acl:relcl(man-4, älskar)
nsubj(älskar, du)

edit acl:relcl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.) as a modifier, not as a core complement. This includes things like temporal, conditional and purpose clauses, etc. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.

Han gör inte ett dugg hemma när han kommer hem \n He doesn't do anything around the house when he gets home
advcl(gör, kommer)
Jag måste arbeta för att ekonomin ska gå ihop \n I have to work to make ends meet
advcl(arbeta, gå)

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

Det bör kraftigt understrykas \n It should be strongly emphasised
advmod(understrykas, kraftigt)
mindre ofta \n less often
advmod(ofta, mindre)

The advmod relation is also used (from v2) for negations (which carries a special feature Polarity=Neg):

En social gemenskap existerar inte \n A social community doesn't exist
advmod(existerar, inte)

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier of a nominal is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the nominal head.

Olle äter rött kött \n Olle eats red meat
amod(kött, rött)
Den ortodoxa kyrkans praxis \n The Orthodox Church's custom
amod(kyrkans, ortodoxa)
De tre största hjälpinsatserna \n The three biggest helping efforts
amod(hjälpinsatserna, största)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier of a nominal is a nominal immediately following the first that serves to define or modify it. Appositional modifiers include parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

Olle , min bror , kom \n Olle , my brother , arrived
appos(Olle, bror)
Sebastian ( Davids kusin ) \n Sebastian ( David 's cousin )
appos(Sebastian, kusin)
Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB , SKB \n Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB)
appos(AB, SKB)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause.

Exception: An auxiliary verb used to construct the passive voice is not labeled aux but auxpass.

vilka funktioner den tidigare har haft \n which functions it previously has had
aux(haft, har)
Vilka konsekvenser kan det ha ? \n What consequences can this have ?
aux(ha, kan)

edit aux

aux:pass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which contains the passive information.

Kennedy blev mördad \n Kennedy was murdered
aux:pass(mördad, blev)
nsubj(mördad, Kennedy)

Other auxiliaries associated with the same main verb are not labeled aux:pass since they do not themselves indicate passive voice.

Kennedy har blivit mördad \n Kennedy has been murdered
aux:pass(mördad, blivit)
aux(mördad, har)
nsubj(mördad, Kennedy)

edit aux:pass

auxpass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which contains the passive information.

Kennedy blev mördad \n Kennedy was murdered
auxpass(mördad, blev)

Other auxiliaries associated with the same main verb are not labeled auxpass since they do not themselves indicate passive voice.

Kennedy har blivit mördad \n Kennedy has been murdered
auxpass(mördad, blivit)
aux(mördad, har)

edit auxpass

case: case marking

The case relation is used for any preposition in Swedish. Prepositions are treated as dependents of the noun they attach to or introduce in an “extended nominal projection”. Thus, UD does not treat a preposition as a mediator between a modified word and its object. The case relation aims at providing a uniform analysis of prepositions and case in morphologically rich languages.

Individuell beskattning av arbetsinkomster \n Individual taxation of employment income
case(arbetsinkomster, av)
Du måste börja från början \n You must start from the beginning
case(början, från)
Nytt system för ersättning \n New system for compensation
case(ersättning, för)

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

A coordinating conjunction relation holds between the head conjunct of a coordinate structure and any of the coordinating conjunction involved in the structure. This also includes the first element in paired conjunctions like både … och “both … and” and antingen … eller “either … or”. From v2, coordinating conjunctions are attached to the immediately following conjunct. Note that we never treat punctuation as coordinating conjunctions. For more on coordination, see the conj relation.

1500 kr per barn och år \n 1500 kr per child and year
cc(år, och)
conj(barn, år)
både äpplen och päron \n both apples and pears
cc(äpplen, både)
cc(päron, och)
conj(äpplen, päron)
äpplen , apelsiner och päron \n apples , oranges and pears
punct(apelsiner, ,)
cc(päron, och)
conj(äpplen, päron)
conj(äpplen, apelsiner)
Och du har inte bara en chans \n And you don't have just one chance
cc(har, Och)

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause where the subject is not determined by obligatory control, either because the clause has its own overt subject or because the subject is arbitrary or determined anaphorically. (This contrasts with the xcomp relation, which is used for clausal complements with obligatory control.)

Han säger att du gillar att simma \n He says that you like to swim
ccomp(säger, gillar)
Jag är säker på att han gjorde det \n I am certain that he did it 
ccomp(säker, gjorde) 

edit ccomp

compound: compound

The compound relation is used in Swedish only for compounds borrowed from other languages and therefore written as two (or more) separate words. Compounds in Swedish are normally written as a single word without space between the compound elements. A subtype, compound:prt, is used for verb particles in phrasal verbs.

Hon gillar corn flakes \n She likes corn flakes
obj(gillar, flakes)
compound(flakes, corn)

edit compound

compound:prt: verb particle

The verb particle relation compound:prt is used for the particle element of a particle verb construction.

Paketet har kommit fram \n The package has arrived
compound(kommit, fram)
Vilka får vara med ? \n Who can join ?
compound(vara, med)

edit compound:prt

conj: conjunct

The conjunct relation holds between coordinated elements. We treat coordination asymmetrically: The head of the relation is the first conjunct and other conjuncts depend on it via the conj relation.

1500 kr per barn och år \n 1500 kr per child and year
conj(barn, år)
cc(år, och)
En sekunds tvekan eller dröjsmål eller slarv \n A second's hesitation or delay or carelessness
conj(tvekan, dröjsmål)
conj(tvekan, slarv)
cc(dröjsmål, eller-4)
cc(slarv, eller-6)

edit conj

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb. Copular heads are avoided when possible.

Bill är en ärlig man \n Bill is an honest man
cop(man-5, är)
nsubj(man-5, Bill-1)
amod(man-5, ärlig)
det(man-5, en)

Prepositional phrases are annotated similarly, the only difference being that the nominal predicate has an additional case marker.

Bill är från Kalifornien \n Bill is from California
case(Kalifornien, från)
cop(Kalifornien, är)
nsubj(Kalifornien, Bill-1)

When an adjective or adverb is being predicated of a nominal phrase, the adjective/adverb is the root, the nominal phrase is the nsubj, and the copula is the cop.

Bill är ärlig \n Bill is honest
nsubj(ärlig, Bill-1)
cop(ärlig, är)
Det var igår \n It was yesterday
nsubj(igår, Det)
cop(igår, var)

Prepositions may also project a cop dependent.

Ljuset är på \n The light is on
cop(på, är)
nsubj(på, Ljuset)

In predicative wh-constructions, the fronted wh-word is the head, and the copula is another cop.

Vad är det ? \n What is that ?
cop(Vad, är)
nsubj(Vad, det)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb.

Vad han säger stör mig . \n What he says bothers me .
csubj(stör, säger)

edit csubj

csubj:pass: clausal passive subject

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause. In the example below, att hon ljög is the subject.

Att hon ljög misstänktes av alla . \n That she lied was suspected by everyone .
csubj:pass(misstänktes, ljög)
mark(misstänktes, att)
nsubj(misstänktes, hon)
obl:agent(misstänktes, alla)
case(alla, av)

edit csubj:pass

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause. In the example below, att hon ljög is the subject.

Att hon ljög misstänktes av alla . \n That she lied was suspected by everyone .
csubjpass(misstänktes, ljög)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

A dependency is labeled as dep when a system is unable to determine a more precise dependency relation between two words. This may be because of a weird grammatical construction, a limitation in software, a parser error, or because of an unresolved long distance dependency.

In the current version of the Swedish UD treebank, the dep relation is not used at all.

edit dep

det: determiner

A determiner is the relation between the head of a nominal phrase and its determiner.

Den engelska parken är vacker \n The English park is beautiful
det(parken, Den)
Vilken bok föredrar du ? \n Which book do you prefer ?
det(bok, Vilken)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

This is used for interjections and other discourse particles and elements, which are not clearly linked to the structure of the sentence except in an expressive way.

Wow , det var kul :) \n Wow , that was fun :)
discourse(kul, :)-6)
discourse(kul, Wow)

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

The dislocated relation is used for fronted or postposed elements that do not fulfill the usual core grammatical relations of a sentence. Dislocated elements are attached to the same governor as the dependent that they double for.

Peter , honom gillar jag inte \n Peter, I don't like him
dislocated(gillar, Peter)
obj(gillar, honom)

In addition, the dislocated relation is used for the focus element in a cleft sentence. This is a slight abuse of the relation, because the focus element is not a dislocated dependent of its syntactic head, but rather of the predicate in the relative clause making up the second part of the cleft construction.

Det var Peter som gjorde det \n It was Peter who did it
dislocated(var, Peter)
expl(var, Det)
acl:relcl(Peter, gjorde)
nsubj(gjorde, som)
obj(gjorde, det)

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

A direct object is a nominal which is the (accusative) object of the verbal predicate.

Han äter en smörgås . \n He eats a sandwich .
dobj(äter, smörgås)

If there is only one object present, it is always analyzed as dobj regardless of the semantic relation to the predicate. If there are two objects, the one most directly related to the verb is treated as the direct object.

Han informerar dig . \n He informs you .
dobj(informerar, dig)
Han skickar dig information . \n He sends you information .
dobj(skickar, information)
iobj(skickar, dig)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

This relation captures an existential det in extraposition constructions. Note that in some dialects of Swedish där can be used in the same way. Only det is currently attested in the treebank. There is further discussion and examples on the universal dependency page (u-dep/expl).

Det finns inga vetenskapliga belägg \n There is no scientific evidence
expl(finns, Det)

edit expl

fixed: multi-word expression

The fixed relation is one of the three relations (compound, fixed, flat) for special kinds of multiword expressions. It is used for fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials. The first word is always taken as the head, with all subsequent words as direct dependents.

i dag \n today
fixed(i, dag)
över huvud taget \n at all
fixed(över, huvud)
fixed(över, taget)
när det gäller \n when it comes to
fixed(när, det)
fixed(när, gäller)

edit fixed

flat: flat

The flat relation is one of three relations (compound, fixed, flat) used for special kinds of multiword expressions. It is used for expressions that are semi-flexible (as opposed to fixed) and do not have a clear head (as opposed to most cases of compound). The structure of the annotation attaches all non-first elements to the first, but this should not be interpreted as an indication of headedness.

A special case of flat is constituted by complex names like Olof Palme and Carl XVI Gustaf, which are annotated with the subtype flat:name.

edit flat

flat:name: flat:name

The flat:name relation is used for complex names without a clear head. Non-first elements are always attached to the first element.

Carl XVI Gustaf
flat:name(Carl-1, Gustaf-3)
flat:name(Carl-1, XVI-2)

For names with a clear syntactic modification structure, the dependencies should instead reflect the syntactic modification structure using regular syntactic relations, as in:

Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt \n The government institute for veterinary medicine
nmod:poss(anstalt, Statens)
amod(anstalt, veterinärmedicinska)

edit flat:name

foreign: foreign words

The foreign relation can be used to label sequences of foreign words. These are given a linear analysis: the head is the first token in the foreign phrase.

I anslutning till satsen consensus facit nuptiam
foreign(consensus, facit)
foreign(consensus, nuptiam)

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This relation links two parts of a word that are separated in text that is not well edited. The head is in some sense the “main” part, often the second part.

Frivillig sär beskattning \n Voluntary individual taxation
goeswith(beskattning, sär)

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

An indirect object is a nominal which is the second object of the verb, often corresponding to a dative object.

Han skickar mig ett brev . \n He sends me a letter .
iobj(skickar, mig)

In Swedish, the indirect object can never be constructed with a preposition. In that case, the nmod relation is used even if the meaning is very similar to that of an indirect object.

Han skickar ett brev till mig . \n He sends a letter to me .
nmod(skickar, mig)
case(mig, till)

edit iobj

list: list

The list relation is used for chains of comparable items. It is not currently attested in the Swedish treebank.

Web text often contains passages which are meant to be interpreted as lists but are parsed as single sentences. Email signatures in particular contain these structures, in the form of contact information: the different contact information items are labeled as list; the key-value pair relations are labeled as appos.

In lists with more than two items, all items of the list shoud modify the first one.

Steve Jones Mobil: 555-9814 Mejl: jones@abc.edf
flat:name(Steve-1, Jones-2)
list(Steve-1, Mobil:-3)
list(Steve-1, Mejl:-5)
appos(Mobil:-3, 555-9814-4)
appos(Mejl:-5, jones@abc.edf-6)

edit list

mark: marker

A marker is the word introducing a clause subordinate to another clause. The marker is a dependent of the subordinate clause head.

Han säger att du gillar att simma \n He says that you like to swim
mark(gillar, att-3)
Om det regnar , blir man blöt \n If it rains , one gets wet
mark(regnar, Om)

The infinitive marker att is analyzed as a mark.

Det är svårt att tolka \n It is difficult to interpret
mark(tolka, att)

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

The multi-word expression (modifier) relation is one of the three relations (compound, mwe, name) for compounding. It is used for certain fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials. The first word is always taken as the head, with all subsequent words as direct dependents.

i dag \n today
mwe(i, dag)
över huvud taget \n at all
mwe(över, huvud)
mwe(över, taget)
när det gäller \n when it comes to
mwe(när, det)
mwe(när, gäller)

edit mwe

name: name

The name relation is one of the three relations for compounding in UD (together with compound and mwe). It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements. For example, name would be used between the words of Hillary Rodham Clinton, New York, or Carl XVI Gustaf but not to replace the usual relations in a phrasal or clausal name like The king of Sweden or the novels The Lord of the Rings and Captured By Aliens.

Words joined by name should all be part of a minimal noun phrase; otherwise regular syntactic relations should be used. This is basically similar to the treatment of noun compounds with compound, except that in many cases parts of the name may be another nominal element such as an adjective (United Airlines).

In general, names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the first one using the name label.

Carl XVI Gustaf
name(Carl-1, Gustaf-3)
name(Carl-1, XVI-2)

For names with a clear syntactic modification structure, the dependencies should instead reflect the syntactic modification structure using regular syntactic relations, as in:

Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt \n The government institute for veterinary medicine
nmod:poss(anstalt, Statens)
amod(anstalt, veterinärmedicinska)

edit name

neg: negation modifier

The negation modifier is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies.

En social gemenskap existerar inte \n A social community doesn't exist
neg(existerar, inte)
Det är inte fråga om att hjälpa till \n It's not a question of helping
neg(fråga, inte)
De är icke jämförbara \n They are not comparable
neg(jämförbara, icke)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers of nouns. nmod is a noun functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct. In Swedish, nmod is used for prepositional modifiers:

Ekonomiska bidrag till staten \n Financial contributions to the state
nmod(bidrag, staten)
case(staten, till)

But also for preposed nominal modifiers:

Doktor Andersson \n Doctor Andersson
nmod(Andersson, Doktor)

One subtype of nmod is introduced in Swedish: nmod:poss for possessive/genitive modifiers.

edit nmod

nmod:agent: agent nominal modifier

The relation nmod:agent is used for agents of passive verbs

~~~ sdparse Börjar hennes jobb att delas av den moderne mannen ? \n Will her job start being shared by the modern man ? nmod:agent(delas, mannen) case(manne, av) ~~~

~~~ sdparse Samhällsordningen hotas av social revolution \n Social order is threatened by social revolution nmod:agent(hotas, revolution) case(revolution, av) ~~~

edit nmod:agent

nmod:poss: possessive nominal modifier

The relation nmod:poss is used for a genitive/possessive nominal modifier, expressed either by a nominal in the genitive or by a possessive determiner.

Livets hårda sida \n The difficult side of life
nmod:poss(sida, Livets)
Alla våra hem \n All our homes
nmod:poss(hem, våra)

edit nmod:poss

nsubj: nominal subject

The dependency type nsubj marks nominal subjects of a clause. Subjects are direct dependents of the main predicate of the clause, which may be a verb, noun or adjective.

Pappa hjälper till med tvätten . \n Dad helps with the laundry .
nsubj(hjälper, Pappa)
Pappa är sjuk . \n Dad is sick .
nsubj(sjuk, Pappa)
Pappa är en bra kock . \n Dad is a good cook .
nsubj(kock, Pappa)

edit nsubj

nsubj:pass: passive nominal subject

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause.

En ändring krävs av politiker . \n A change is required by politicians .
nsubj:pass(krävs, ändring)

edit nsubj:pass

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause.

En ändring krävs av politiker . \n A change is required by politicians .
nsubjpass(krävs, ändring)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.

Sam åt 3 får \n Sam ate 3 sheep
nummod(får, 3)
År 1962 tog nära 13 procent studenten \n In 1962 almost 13 percent took the graduation exam
nummod(År, 1962)
nummod(procent, 13)
Erik tjänar ungefär 400 kr \n Erik earns approximately 400 kr
nummod(kr, 400)

edit nummod

obj: object

An object is a nominal which is the (direct) object of a verbal predicate.

Han äter en smörgås . \n He eats a sandwich .
obj(äter, smörgås)
nsubj(äter, Han)
det(smörgås, en)

If there is only one object present, it is always analyzed as obj regardless of the semantic relation to the predicate. If there are two objects, the one most directly related to the verb is treated as the direct object.

Han informerar dig . \n He informs you .
obj(informerar, dig)
nsubj(informerar, Han)
Han skickar dig information . \n He sends you information .
obj(skickar, information)
iobj(skickar, dig)
nsubj(skickar, Han)

edit obj

obl: oblique modifier

The obl relation is used for non-core nominal dependents of clausal predicates. In Swedish, nmod is used for prepositional complements/modifiers:

Mamma har hand om barnen \n Mother takes care of the children
obl(har, barnen)
case(barnen, om)
Han växte upp i en kollektiv miljö \n He grew up in a collective environment
obl(växte, miljö)
case(miljö, i)

But also for bare nominals used as oblique modifiers:

Hon kom förra helgen \n She came last weekend
obl(kom, helgen)

One subtype of obl is introduced in Swedish: obl:agent for agents of passive verbs.

edit obl

obl:agent: agent modifier

The relation obl:agent is used for agents of passive verbs

~~~ sdparse Samhällsordningen hotas av social revolution \n Social order is threatened by social revolution obl:agent(hotas, revolution) case(revolution, av) nsubj:pass(hotas, Samhällsordningen) amod(revolution, social) ~~~

edit obl:agent

orphan: orphan in ellipsis

The orphan relation is used to analyze cases of ellipsis where there is no function word that can be promoted to take the place of the elided content word.

Marie åkte till Paris och Miriam till Prag \n Marie went to Paris and Miriam to Prague
nsubj(åkte, Marie-1)
obl(åkte-2, Paris-4)
case(Paris-4, till-3)
cc(Miriam-6, och-5)
orphan(Miriam-6, Prag-8)
case(Prag-8, till-7)
conj(åkte-2, Miriam-6)

edit orphan

parataxis: parataxis

The parataxis relation (from Greek for “place side by side”) is a relation between the main verb of a clause and other sentential elements, such as a sentential parenthetical, a clause after a “:” or a “;”, or two sentences placed side by side without any explicit coordination or subordination. More information can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/parataxis)

Barn leker nästan jämt , leken är deras arbete \n Children play all the time , play is their work  
parataxis(leker, arbete)
Barn har rätt till fritid ( se nedan ) \n Children have a right to free time ( see below )
parataxis(har, se)
Det är tanken : barn är framtiden \n That is the thought : children are the future
parataxis(tanken, framtiden)

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause, regardless of its function. The punctuation mark is attached to the head of the phrase or clause to which it belongs unless this introduces a non-projective dependency. More discussion on punctuation can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/punct).

Och alla vinsterna och skattefria ! \n And all profits are tax-free !
punct(skattefria, !)
Om det regnar , blir man blöt . \n If it rains , one gets wet .
punct(regnar, ,)
punct(blir, .)

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

The remnant relation is used to analyze cases of ellipsis where there is no function word that can be promoted to take the place of the elided content word. For a full discussion of its use, see the universal dependency description (u-dep/remnant).

Marie åkte till Paris och Miriam till Prague \n Marie went to Paris and Miriam to Prague
nsubj(åkte, Marie-1)
nmod(åkte-2, Paris-4)
case(Paris-4, till-3)
cc(åkte, och)
remnant(Marie-1, Miriam-6)
case(Prague-8, till)
remnant(Paris-4, Prague-8)

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reparandum: overridden disfluency

The reparandum relation is used to indicate disfluencies overridden in a speech repair. The disfluency is the dependent of the repair. There are currently no attested uses of this relation in the Swedish treebank.

Gå till höge- till vänster . \n Go to the righ- to the left .
obl(Gå, vänster)
reparandum(vänster, höge-)
case(höge-, till-2)
case(vänster, till-4)

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root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A fake node “ROOT” is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with “0”, since the indices of real words in the sentence start at 1.

ROOT Jag älskar pommes frites . \n ROOT I love French fries .
root(ROOT, älskar)
ROOT Bill är en ärlig man \n ROOT Bill is an honest man
root(ROOT, man-6)

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vocative: vocative

The vocative relation is used to mark a dialogue participant addressed in text (common in conversations, emails and newsgroup postings). The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.

Killar , ta det lungt ! \n Guys , take it easy!
vocative(ta, Killar)
David , hur är läget ? \n David, how 's it going ?
vocative(hur, David)

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xcomp: open clausal complement

An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp (normally by the object of the next higher clause, if there is one, or else by the subject of the next higher clause). These complements are always non-finite, and they are complements (arguments of the higher verb or adjective) rather than adjuncts/modifiers, such as a purpose clause. The name xcomp is borrowed from Lexical-Functional Grammar.

Han säger att du gillar att simma \n He says that you like to swim
xcomp(gillar, simma)
Nu kan vi låta barnen studera om de vill \n Now we can let the children study if they want to
xcomp(låta, studera)
Jag betraktar honom som min vän \n I consider him as my friend
xcomp(betraktar, vän)

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