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Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl stands for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a nominal.

Mă impresionează un copil plângând . \n Me impresses a child crying. (A crying child impresses me.)
acl(copil, plângând)
Am închis fereastra deschisă de Ion . \n Have-I closed window-the opened by John. (I closed the window opened by John.)
acl(fereastra, deschisă)
L-a ajutat un prieten care locuiește la Paris . \n Him-has helped a friend who lives at Paris. (A friend who lives in Paris helped him.)
acl(prieten, locuiește)
Dorința să trăiască l-a ajutat să învingă boala . \n Desire-the SĂ live him-has helped SĂ defeat disease-the. (The desire to live helped him to defeat the desease.)
acl(Dorința, trăiască)

edit acl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes things such as a temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.

Sunt bucuros pentru că am luat examenul . \n Am glad because have-I passed exam-the. (I am glad because I passed the exam.)
advcl(bucuros, luat)
Ajungând la birou, a observat că îi lipsește cheia . \n Arriving at office, has noticed that to-him lacks key-the . (When arriving at the office, he noticed that didn't have the key.)
advcl(observat, Ajungând)

edit advcl

advcl:tcl: advcl:tcl

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advcl:tcl.

edit advcl:tcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is an adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

Merg la munte mâine . \n Go-I at mountain tomorrow . (I am going into the mountains tomorrow.)
advmod(Merg, mâine)
Cititul noaptea nu este sănătos . \n Reading night not is healthy . (It is not healthy to read at night.)
advmod(Cititul, noaptea)

edit advmod

advmod:tmod: advmod:tmod

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advmod:tmod.

edit advmod:tmod

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier of a noun is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun.

Sunt o persoană timidă . \n Am a person shy . (I am a shy person .)
amod(persoană, timidă)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier serves to identify its head in a different way. This relation is usually established between noun phrases.

Am plecat cu Alexandru , vărul meu . \n Have-I left with Alexandru , cousin-the my . 
appos(Alexandru, vărul)

However, other parts of speech and even clauses can also be involved in the relation:

Gustul fructului era ciudat , adică dulce-amărui . \n  . Taste-the fruit-the-of was strange , that_is sweet-bitter .
appos(ciudat, dulce-amărui)
Ne-am întâlnit aici , unde am stabilit . \n Us-have met here , where have-we established .
appos(aici, stabilit)

The apposition can be introduced by an adverb (e.g. ‘adică’, ‘anume’, ‘respectiv’, ‘alias’, etc.), which is analysed as a ‘mark’ for the apposotion:

A reușind muncind , adică asudând . \n Has succeeded working , that_is sweating .
appos(muncind, asudând)
mark(asudând, adică)

It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

Venerabilul ( adică eu ) merge diseară la întrunire . \n Honorable-the ( that_is I ) goes tonight at meeting. 
appos(Venerabilul, eu)
Banca Comercială Română ( BCR ) \n Bank-the Commercial Romanian ( BCR )  
appos(Banca, BCR)

‘appos’ is also used to link key-value pairs in addresses, signatures, etc.:

Ana Ionescu , Str Rozelor , tel : 0245.756.547 , email : ana@yahoo.com
name(Ana, Ionescu)
list(Ana, Str)
appos(Str, Rozelor)
list(Ana, tel)
appos(tel, 0245.756.547)
list(Ana, email)
appos(email, ana@yahoo.com)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause.

Aș vrea o portocală . \n Would-I want an orange . 
aux(vrea, Aș)

Exception: The auxiliary verb used to construct the passive voice is not labeled ‘aux’, but ‘auxpass’.

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which contains the passive information.

A fost spânzurat . \n Has been hanged . 
auxpass(spânzurat, fost)

edit auxpass

case: case marking

The case relation is used for linking prepositions to their heads:

O văd pe Maria . \n Her see-I PE Mary . (I can see Mary.)
case(Maria, pe)
Pun cartea pe masă . \n Put-I book-the on table .
case(masă, pe)

When a preposition is used with non-finite verbs, it is analysed as mark:

Plecăm devreme pentru a nu întârzia . \n Leave-we early for to not be_late .
mark(întârzia, pentru)

Prepositions linking numerals to their nominal heads are dependents of the numerals.

30 de copii \n 30 of children
nummod(copii, 30)
case(30, de)

Compare this with numerals from 0 to 19 which take no preposition when modifying nouns:

3 copii \n 3 children
nummod(copii, 3)

Prepositions linking adverbs to their post-poned adjective or adverb heads are also mark on the modifying adverb:

incredibil de bun \n incredibly of good
advmod(bun, incredibil)
case(incredibil, de)
incredibil de bine \n incredibly of well
advmod(bine, incredibil)
case(incredibil, de)

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

A cc is the relation between the first conjunct and the coordinating conjunction delimiting another conjunct:

Maria și Ion tocmai au sosit . \n Mary and John just have arrived .
cc(Maria, și)
conj(Maria, Ion)

A coordinating conjunction may also appear at the beginning of a sentence. This is also called a cc, and it depends on the root predicate of the sentence. (In fact there is a coordination that spans multiple sentences. We cannot attach a word to the first conjunct because it is in another sentence. Thus we attach it to the first conjunct available in the current sentence: its main predicate.)

Și au salutat gazda . \n And have greeted host-the
cc(salutat, Și)

edit cc

cc:preconj: cc:preconj

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for cc:preconj.

edit cc:preconj

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause which is a core argument. That is, it functions like an object of the verb, or adjective. Such clausal complements may be finite or nonfinite.

Înțeleg că ești obosit . \n Understand-I that are-you tired .
ccomp(Înțeleg, obosit)
Noi putem schia . \n We can ski .
ccomp(putem, schia)

The clausal predicative of the copula verb a fi is also analysed as ccomp. NB: This is the only case when the copula verb a fi is treated as a head.

ROOT Noi suntem cum ne știi . \n We are how us know-you .
root(ROOT, suntem)
ccomp(suntem, știi)

edit ccomp

ccomp:pmod: ccomp:pmod

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for ccomp:pmod.

edit ccomp:pmod

compound: compound

compound is used for linking compound words of any part of speech:

Am patru mii de lei . \n Have-I four thousand of lei .
compound(mii, patru)

edit compound

conj: conjunct

A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as and, or, etc. We treat conjunctions asymmetrically: the head of the relation is the first conjunct and all the other conjuncts depend on it via the conj relation.

Ion și Maria au sosit . \n John and Mary have arrived .
conj(Ion, Maria)

Coordinate clauses are treated the same way as coordination of other constituent types:

Ion a sosit , dar Maria întârzie . \n John has arrived , but Mary is_late .
conj(sosit, întârzie)

edit conj

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb a fi (only). (We normally take a copula as a dependent of its complement.)

Maria este fericită . \n Maria is happy .
cop(fericită, este)

All other copula verbs are heads of clauses and their complements are in xcomp relation to them:

Maria a devenit designer . \n Mary has become designer .
xcomp(devenit, designer)

When the copula verb has auxiliaries, they are also dependents of the lexical predicate:

Maria va fi campioană . \n Mary will be champion .
cop(campioană, fi)
aux(campioană, va)

When the complement of the copula verb a fi is a clause, the copula is the head, and the subordinate clause is in ccomp relation with it:

ROOT Noi suntem cum ne știi . \n We are how us know-you .
root(ROOT, suntem)
ccomp(suntem, știi)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause.

Cine aleargă după doi iepuri nu prinde nici_unul . \n Who runs after two rabbits not catches none .
csubj(prinde, aleargă)
A greși e omenesc . \n To err is human .
csubj(omenesc, greși)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause:

Cine a încălcat legea a fost pedepsit de instanță . \n Who has broken law-the has been punished by court .
csubjpass(pedepsit, încălcat)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dep.

edit dep

det: determiner

The relation determiner (det) holds between a nominal head and its determiner:

Am văzut un okapi . \n Have-I seen an okapi .
det(okapi, un)
Spune-i lui Ion . \n Tell-him the-Dative  John.
det(Ion, lui)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for discourse.

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dislocated.

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

The direct object of a verb is the noun phrase that denotes the entity acted upon.

Citesc o carte . \n Read-I a book .
dobj(Citesc, carte)
O văd . \n Her see-I .
dobj(văd, O)

When the direct object is doubled by a pronoun, this is marked as expl.

O văd pe Mara . \n Her see-I PE Mara .
dobj(văd, Mara)
expl(văd, O)

Romanian allows for the occurrence of two Accusative objects with some (uses of certain) verbs: the [+Animate] object (the direct object in traditional grammar terms) is anlysed here as iobj, while the other Accusative object (the secondary object in traditional grammar terms) is dobj:

Bunica i-a învățat pe copii o poezie . \n Grandmother-the them-has taught PE children a poem .
dobj(învățat, poezie)
iobj(învățat, copii)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

Romanian does not have expletives of the English sort. However, we use the expl label for the following situations:

O văd pe Mara . \n Her see-I PE Mara .
dobj(văd, Mara)
expl(văd, O)
Am apucat - o la stânga . \n Have-I turned-her to left .
expl(apucat, o)
Cine nu știe că Pământul se învârtește în jurul Soarelui ? \n Who not knows that Earth-the SE spins around Sun-the ?
expl(știe, nu)
Mi- am vândut mașina .
expl:poss(vândut, Mi-)

edit expl

expl:impers: expl:impers

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl:impers.

edit expl:impers

expl:pass: expl:pass

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl:pass.

edit expl:pass

expl:poss: expl:poss

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl:poss.

edit expl:poss

expl:pv: expl:pv

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl:pv.

edit expl:pv

foreign: foreign words

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for foreign.

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for goeswith.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

The indirect object of a verb is any nominal phrase that is a core argument of the verb, usually expressing the recipient, the addressee or beneficiary of the predicate:

Îi dau Marei un trandafir . \n Her give-I Mara-Dat a rose .
iobj(dau, Marei)
Acesta este un concurs deschis elevilor din clasele a patra. \n This is a contest opened pupils-to-the from grades the fourth .
iobj(deschis, elevilor)
Conjunctura nu -mi este favorabilă . \n Conjuncture-the not -me-to is favourable .
iobj(favorabilă, -mi)

We also analyse as iobj the [+Animate] object (the direct object in traditional grammar terms) of verbs with two Accusative objects, whereas the other object (the secondary object in traditional grammar terms) is dobj:

Bunica i-a învățat pe copii o poezie . \n Grandmother-the them-has taught PE children a poem .
dobj(învățat, poezie)
iobj(învățat, copii)

edit iobj

list: list

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for list.

edit list

mark: marker

A marker is the word introducing a finite clause subordinate to another clause:

Văd că plouă . \n See-I that rains .
mark(plouă, că)
Vin , dacă pot . \n Come-I , if can-I .
mark(pot, dacă)

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mwe.

edit mwe

name: name

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for name.

edit name

neg: negation modifier

The negation modifier is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies.

Modifiers labeled neg depend either on a noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).

Copilul nu scrie frumos . Child-the not writes neatly .
neg(scrie, nu)
Maria a cumpărat nu trandafiri , ci lalele . Mary has bought not roses , but tulips .
neg(trandafiri, nu)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers. They depend either on another noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).

nmod is a noun (or noun phrase) functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct. This means that it functionally corresponds to an adverbial when it attaches to a verb, adjective or other adverb. But when attaching to a noun, it corresponds to an attribute.

Prietena fetei o așteaptă la masă . \n Friend-the girl-the-genitive her waits at table .
nmod(Prietena, fetei)
nmod(așteaptă, masă)

edit nmod

nmod:agent: nmod:agent

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nmod:agent.

edit nmod:agent

nmod:pmod: nmod:pmod

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nmod:pmod.

edit nmod:pmod

nmod:tmod: nmod:tmod

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nmod:tmod.

edit nmod:tmod

nsubj: nominal subject

A nominal subject is a nominal phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause.

El citește . \n He reads .
nsubj(citește, El)

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause.

Cântecul a fost compus de interpret . \n Song-the has been composed by singer .
nsubjpass(compus, Cântecul)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.

When analysing dates, only the day is marked as a nummod for the month, whereas the year is an nmod for the month:

3 august 1957
nummod(august, 3)
nmod(august, 1957)

Regarding the analysis of years, we show two ways in which they are analysed: (i) in strings such as ‘În anul 2000 am absolvit facultatea.’ (In year-the 2000 have-I graduated faculty-the.), the year is an nummod for ‘anul’; (ii) in strings such as ‘În 2000 am absolvit facultatea’ (In 2000 have-I graduated faculty-the.), the year is an nmod for the verb.

În anul 2000 am absolvit facultatea .
nummod(anul, 2000)
nmod(absolvit, anul)
În 2000 am absolvit facultatea .
nmod(absolvit, 2000)

edit nummod

parataxis: parataxis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for parataxis.

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for punct.

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

Dan a desenat o casă , iar Maria un copac .
remnant(Dan, Maria)
remnant(casă, copac)
ROOT Când a intrat preotul , toți în genunchi .
root(ROOT, genunchi)
nsubj(genunchi, toți)

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for remnant.

edit remnant

reparandum: overridden disfluency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for reparandum.

edit reparandum

root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A fake node “ROOT” is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with “0”, since the indexation of real words in the sentence starts at 1.

ROOT Copilul aleargă . \n ROOT Child-the runs .
root(ROOT, aleargă)
ROOT Vin imediat . \n ROOT Come-I immediately .
root(ROOT, Vin)
ROOT Fata este frumoasă . \n ROOT Girl-the is beautiful .
root(ROOT, frumoasă)
ROOT Este bine să mănânci de dimineață . \n ROOT Is well SA eat in morning.
root(ROOT, bine)

edit root

vocative: vocative

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for vocative.

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for xcomp.

edit xcomp