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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

POS tags

Open class words Closed class words Other
ADJ ADP PUNCT
ADV AUX SYM
INTJ CONJ X
NOUN DET
PROPN NUM
VERB PART
PRON
SCONJ

ADJ: adjective

Definition

Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns and specify their properties or attributes. In Italian, adjectives can be used predicatively (as in La casa è gialla “The house is yellow”) and attributively (as in La casa gialla è a destra “The yellow house is on the right side”).

Adjectives in Italian normally agree in number and gender with the noun they modify (both in attributive and predicative position), e.g. la casa gialla (feminine singular), le case gialle (feminine plural).

The class of adjectives in Italian UD also includes ordinal numbers and participial adjectives, both behaving as adjectives morphologically and syntactically.

To conform to the UD guidelines, possessive adjectives are handled as determiners DET.

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

A: Adjective

NO: Ordinal Number

Examples

edit ADJ

ADP: adposition

Definition

Adposition is a cover term for prepositions and postpositions. In Italian, there are only prepositions.

Italian prepositions can take the form of fixed multi-word expressions, such as invece di “instead of”, a causa di “because of”, davanti a “in front of”. The component words are then still tagged according to their basic use (i.e. a is ADP, causa is NOUN, di is ADP) and their status as a multi-word expression is accounted for at the level of syntactic annotation. See mwe for more details on the representation of multi-word expressions.

Italian prepositions are also used for introducing non-finite clausal complements, as in Maria ha deciso di partire “Mary decided to leave” or Maria è andata a congratularsi con loro “Mary went to congratulate them”.

Italian distinguishes between simple and articulated prepositions: note however that to comply with the UD Tokenization guidelines the latter are systematically splitted into the following sequence of part-of-speech tags, ADP and DET (e.g. nello “in the” is splitted into in ADP lo DET).

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

E: Preposition

Examples

edit ADP

ADV: adverb

Definition

Adverbs are words that typically modify verbs for such categories as time, place, direction or manner. In Italian, they may also modify adjectives (as in palesemente falso “clearly fake”), other adverbs (as in molto bene “very well”), or even nouns / pronouns (as in proprio lui “exactly him”).

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

B: Adverb

BN: Negation adverb

Examples

edit ADV

AUX: auxiliary verb

Definition

Italian auxiliary verbs can be divided into:

Following the UD guidelines, Italian modal verbs are handled as modal auxiliaries (e.g. potere “can”, dovere “must”).

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

VA: Auxiliary verb

VM: Modal verb

Examples

edit AUX

CONJ: coordinating conjunction

Definition

A coordinating conjunction is a word that links words or larger constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other and expresses a semantic relationship between them.

For subordinating conjunctions see SCONJ.

Examples

edit CONJ

DET: determiner

Definition

Determiners are words that modify nouns or noun phrases and express the reference of the noun phrase in context. Like adjectives, Italian determiners typically agree with the noun they modify for gender and number, e.g. questo libro “this book” (masculin singular), i libri “the books” (masculin plural), la carta “the paper” (feminine singular).

In Italian, usually a nominal allows for one DET modifier only, with the following exceptions:

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

RD: Definite article

RI: Indefinite article

DE: Exclamative determiner

DI: Indefinite determiner

DQ: Interrogative determiner

DR: Relative determiner

DD: Demonstrative determiner

T: Predeterminer

AP: Possessive adjective

Examples

edit DET

INTJ: interjection

An interjection is a form, typically brief, which is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation.

As a special case of interjections, we recognize feedback particles such as: “yes” and no “no”. Note that uses of and no syntactically related to other accompanying expressions in a sentence are recognized as ADV.

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

I: Interjection

Examples

Marked as interjections:

Marked as adverbs:

edit INTJ

NOUN: noun

Definition

Nouns are a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea.

The NOUN tag is intended for common nouns only. See PROPN for proper nouns and PRON for pronouns.

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

S: Common noun

Examples

edit NOUN

NUM: numeral

Definition

A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as a determiner, adjective or pronoun, that expresses a number and a relation to the number, such as quantity, sequence, frequency or fraction.

Cardinal numerals are covered by NUM whether they are used as determiners or not (as in Windows Seven) and whether they are expressed as words (four), or digits (4).

There are numerals belonging to other parts of speech in the universal tagging scheme, based mainly on syntactic criteria: e.g. ordinal numerals are tagged as adjectives or pronouns (first, second, third, …). In Italian there are no adverbial numerals like [cs] poprvé “for the first time” nor multiplicative numerals such as [en] (once, twice).

Note that, since Roman numerals (IV) are only used as ordinal numerals in Italian (Enciclopedia Treccani), are tagged ADJ for coherence with other ordinal numerals. In this case we specify NumType=Ord as morphological feature. A similar treatment is reserved to a cardinal with a suffix such as a, o, esimo, esima, or the symbol ° (similar to the English use of the suffix “th”).

Other words functioning as determiners (including quantifiers such as many and few) are tagged DET.

Examples

Tagged as NUM:

Tagged as ADJ:

Tagged as PRON:

References

Enciclopedia Treccani

edit NUM

PART: particle

The use of PART is limited to possessive markers, in English names: [en] ‘s.

According to the UD guidelines, particles may also encode grammatical categories such as negation, e.g.

In Italian however we tag negation particles, such as non, as a negation adverb. See ADV.

Examples

edit PART

PRON: pronoun

Definition

Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns or noun phrases, whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context.

Specializations of pronouns correspond to different language specific PoS leading to different values for the PronType feature.

Correspondance between language specific PoS and PronTypes

Note: the PronType=Clit feature is specific for Italian.

Examples

edit PRON

PROPN: proper noun

Definition

A proper noun is a noun that is the name (or part of the name) of a unique entity, be it an individual, a place, or an object.

Acronyms of proper nouns, such as UN and NATO, are also tagged as PROPN.

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

SP: Proper noun

Examples

edit PROPN

PUNCT: punctuation

Definition

Punctuation marks are non-alphabetical characters and character groups used to delimit linguistic units in printed text.

Punctuation is not taken to include logograms such as $, %, and §, which are instead tagged as SYM.

Examples

edit PUNCT

SCONJ: subordinating conjunction

Definition

A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of the other. The subordinating conjunction typically marks the incorporated constituent which has the status of a (subordinate) clause.

We recognize these two subclasses as subordinating conjunctions:

For coordinating conjunctions see CONJ.

Examples

edit SCONJ

SYM: symbol

Definition

A symbol is a word-like entity that differs from ordinary words by form, function, or both.

We recognize as symbols:

The following are not symbols:

Examples

edit SYM

VERB: verb

Definition

A verb is a member of the syntactic class of words typically denoting events and actions, constituting a minimal predicate in a clause, governing the number and types of dependents which may occur in the clause. In Italian verbs are associated with the following grammatical categories: tense, mood and voice, which can either be expressed inflectionally or using auxilliary verbs or particles.

Note that the VERB tag covers main verbs (content verbs) and copulas but it does not cover auxiliary verbs, for which the AUX tag is used.

Participles used as adjectives are classified as ADJ.

Corresponding language-specific part-of-speech tags

V: Main verb

Examples

edit VERB

X: other

Definition

The tag X is used for words that for some reason cannot be assigned a real part-of-speech category.

Note that the universal guidelines recommend the usage of X for cases of code-switching where it is not possible (or meaningful) to analyze the intervening language grammatically (and where the dependency relation foreign is typically used in the syntactic analysis). The PoS tag for Italian in such cases is SW (foreign noun) and is mapped into X in the conversion.

This usage does not extend to ordinary loan words where it is assigned a normal part-of-speech.

Examples

edit X