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Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl is used for dependent finite and non-finite clauses that modify a nominal (either a noun or a pronoun). The head of the acl relation is the noun/pronoun that is modified, and the dependent is the head of the clause that modifies the noun/pronoun: it can be the verb itself or an adjective part of a verbal predicate.

acl is used in the following cases:

Commossa/VERB[Tense:Past|VerbForm=Part] , Fiona/PROPN May/PROPN ha/AUX parlato/VERB
acl(Fiona, Commossa)
nsubj(parlato, Fiona)
name(Fiona, May)
aux(parlato, ha)
Due persone/NOUN armate/VERB[Tense:Past|VerbForm=Part] di pistola
acl(persone, armate)
Gli altri/PRON indicati/VERB[Tense:Past|VerbForm=Part] dalla legge . 
acl(altri, indicati)
il fatto che Gianni faccia/VERB[VerbForm=Fin] l' attore
acl(fatto, faccia)
Ha bisogno di vedere/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] cambiamenti concreti subito . 
acl(bisogno, vedere)
Ogni volta che fai/VERB[VerbForm=Fin] la doccia . 
acl(volta, fai)
in modo che la loro applicazione porti/VERB[VerbForm=Fin] all' eliminazione della disuguaglianza . 
acl(modo, porti)
non è il caso/NOUN di pensare/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] 
acl(caso, pensare)
quello/PRON di agevolare/VERB[VerbForm=Inf]  l' accesso
acl(quello, agevolare)
Sono stati ritrovati sani e salvi cinque americani .
acl(ritrovati, sani)
cc(sani, e)
conj(sani, salvi)

In Italian relative clauses get assigned a specific relation acl:relcl, a specification of acl. Also note that the acl relation contrasts with the advcl relation, which is used for adverbial clauses that modify a predicate.

edit acl

acl:relcl: relative clauses

A relative clause is an instance of acl, characterized by finiteness and usually omission of the modified noun in the embedded clause. The noun can be omitted or, more frequently, substituted by a relative pronoun (il quale, cui), relative conjunction (che), or an adverb (dove).

L' inchiesta che coinvolge Bernard Tapie
acl:relcl(inchiesta, coinvolge)
La vita , in cui il mutamento avviene
acl:relcl(vita, avviene)
In un bar di piazza San Giovanni dove hanno fatto irruzione gli agenti
acl:relcl(bar, fatto)
Tutti gli esseri umani sanno di poter essere più di ciò che sono .
acl:relcl(ciò, sono)

acl:relcl is also used for case of partitive relative clauses, i.e. propositional phrases introduced by tra cui, fra cui where the verb of the subordinate clause can be elided.

Persone tra cui molti bambini .
acl:relcl(Persone, bambini)

edit acl:relcl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier, not as a core complement. This includes things such as a temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (otherwise it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause (a verbal predicate or a noun if the verb is omitted).

advcl covers the following typology of cases:

Muore folgorata/VERB[VerbForm=Part] sotto la doccia
advcl(Muore, folgorata)
Quando lui muore/VERB[VerbForm=Fin] l' azienda sbanda paurosamente
advcl(sbanda, muore)
Mi fecero pagare gli hezbollah per liberare/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] due ostaggi
advcl(pagare, liberare)
risolvere i problemi di approvvigionamento alimentare acquistando/VERB[VerbForm=Ger] una fazenda
advcl(risolvere, acquistando)

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word. In Italian adverbial modifiers cover all adverbs functioning as modifiers as well as pronominal adverbs.

advmod is used in the following cases:

Si abbatte/VERB indistintamente su uomini e donne
advmod(abbatte, indistintamente)
Poco/ADV dopo/ADV li fucilarono/VERB .
advmod(dopo, Poco)
advmod(fucilarono, dopo)
una strada abbastanza/ADV frequentata/ADJ 
advmod(abbastanza, frequentata)
cinque anni/NOUN fa/ADV
advmod(anni, fa)
di questi problemi se ne occupano/verb i preti
advmod(occupano, ne)
ogni fatto costituisce di/ADP per/ADP sé/PRON inadempimento .
advmod(costituisce, di)
mwe(di, per)
mwe(di, sé)
meno/ADV che/SCONJ meno/ADV quella di essere a conoscenza dei segreti 
advmod(quella, meno-1)
mwe(meno-1, che)
mwe(meno-1, meno-3)
vale/VERB a/ADP dire/VERB il cuore della Finanziaria
advmod(cuore, vale)
mwe(vale, a)
mwe(vale, dire)

NB For prepositional multiword expressions the correct relations are case or mark.

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier is any adjective that serves to modify the meaning of a nominal head. In Italian, adjectival modifiers can occur both in pre- and post-nominal position. Note that in Italian the class of adjectives also includes ordinal numerals which thus can be adjectival modifiers (always depending on the context). Adjectives can be found as modifiers of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adverbs and other adjectives.

la magistratura/NOUN militare
amod(magistratura, militare)
i prossimi giorni/NOUN
amod(giorni, prossimi)
la prima segnalazione/NOUN
amod(segnalazione, prima)
Qualcun/PRON altro/ADJ 
amod(Qualcun, altro)
Lasciato/VERB solo/ADJ 
amod(Lasciato, solo)
adottare principi/NOUN il più/ADV possibile/ADJ semplici/ADJ 
amod(semplici, possibile)
amod(principi, semplici)
advmod(possibile, più)

There are no instances of adjectives as sentence root in Italian, unless they are part of a verbal predicate with the verb essere as copula.

ROOT I magistrati sono inamovibili/ADJ .
root(ROOT, inamovibili)
cop(inamovibili, sono)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier of a noun is a nominal immediately following the first noun that serves to define or modify that noun. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations.

una società italo libica , la Gatoil
appos(società, Gatoil)
la ragazza , figlia dei custodi del caseggiato dove abita
appos(ragazza, figlia)
" Mondo Giusto " , una organizzazione non governativa
appos(Mondo, organizzazione)
una giovane turista , Tiziana Amone di 20 anni
appos(turista, Tiziana)

In case of more than one appositive nominal, all nouns should be marked as modifying the first noun, rather than being chained:

due ordigni , il primo destinato a Hiroshima ; il secondo , tre giorni dopo , a Nagasaki .
appos(ordigni, primo)
appos(ordigni, secondo)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause. In Italian the two main auxiliary verbs are form of essere (to be), avere (to have); in periphrastic tenses with the progressive form is used the verb stare instead. Modals are also marked as auxiliary (fare to do, sapere to know, volere to want, potere to can or dovere must).

hanno sparato a sangue freddo
aux(sparato, hanno)
il sequestro era avvenuto
aux(avvenuto, era)
stavano realizzando un serbatoio
aux(realizzando, stavano)
non l' hanno potuto ascoltare
aux(ascoltare, potuto)
dovrà sparire la figura
aux(sparire, dovrà)

Note that the auxiliary verb used to construct the passive voice is not labeled aux but auxpass.

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary (essere/venire) of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which conveys information about the passive voice.

L' escursione era guidata da Castiglioni
auxpass(guidata, era)
Le norme sono determinate da leggi speciali
auxpass(determinate, sono)

Sometimes the verb essere to be can be substituted by other verbs that assume the same function, like andare (to go) and venire (to come).

Andare is used both to express a very strong need (see the first example below), or for passive progressive forms with an impersonal value.

I programmi vanno coordinati .
auxpass(vanno, coordinati)
Il documento è andato perduto .
auxpass(perduto, andato)
aux(perduto, è)

Venire is used as auxpass to clearly express the passive information when the main verb is ambiguous: some verbs, like lavare to wash, with essere as auxiliary might seem a description of a property rather than passice forms, while with venire the passive construction is evident (la finestra è lavata vs * la finestra viene lavata [da qualcuno]). Note in fact that *venire is only used for simple tenses, because in past tenses the passive action is expressed by the participle (see the next section for how to annotate it).

Quando venne costruito il Titanic ?
auxpass(costruito, venne)
Cosa viene prodotto da la Oracle ?
auxpass(prodotto, viene)
La sua immagine viene liquidata
auxpass(liquidata, viene)

Note that periphrastic tenses in passive constructions are marked as follows, by distinguishing between the passive auxiliary (i.e. that immediately preceding the verbal head) which is marked as auxpass and the tense auxiliaries (the preceding ones) which are marked as aux.

è stato trovato
auxpass(trovato, stato)
aux(trovato, è)
potrebbe essere stato trovato
auxpass(trovato, stato)
aux(trovato, essere)
aux(trovato, potrebbe)

edit auxpass

case: case marking

In Italian, the case relation is used for any preposition introducing a noun, pronoun, adjective or adverb. Prepositions are treated as dependents of the element they attach to (or introduce) in an “extended nominal projection”.

Avevano da poco lasciato la cima
case(poco, da)
Camminata da spia
case(spia, da)
Sono d' accordo su il principio
case(principio, su)
det(principio, il)
nmod(Sono, accordo)
nmod(accordo, principio)
il ministro di l' Interno
case(Interno, di)
det(Interno, l')
nmod(ministro, Interno)

The case relation can also be used for multiword expression introducing a complement.

Prima di tutto 
case(tutto, Prima)
mwe(Prima, di)

If the head of the relation is a verb in a subordinate clause, than the correct relation is mark. If the verb is used as a noun infinitive, than case is the correct relation.

La consegna consiste in il fare ronde notturne .
case(fare, in)
det(fare, il)
Si finisce con l' esaltare il genio maschile .
case(esaltare, con)
det(esaltare, l')
nmod(finisce, esaltare)

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

A coordinating conjunction relation (cc) holds between the head conjunct of a coordinate structure (which is taken to be the first conjunct) and any of the coordinating conjunctions involved in the structure. This also includes the first element in paired conjunctions like “sia … sia” (both…and).

cc also marks the relation between a sentence initial coordinating conjunction and the sentence root.

Due bambini e quattro tecnici
cc(bambini, e)
a il mare e su le strade
cc(mare, e)
Gli occhi luccicano e la bocca si tende .
cc(luccicano, e)
né auspicabile né fattibile
cc(auspicabile, né-1)
cc(auspicabile, né-3)
Ma già si parla di epurazioni
cc(parla, Ma)
Ma non è il caso di pensare
cc(caso, Ma)

Elements that can assume the role of cc are POS tagged as CONJ and SCONJ, but there are also some ADV elements that have the role of conjunctions because they are used in a multiword expressions (for more on that see mwe).

Il nome di Sartori , così come il quello di Alma , compare .
cc(nome, così)
mwe(così, come)

NB Note that punctuation is never treated as coordinating conjunction.

For more on coordination, see the conj relation.

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement (ccomp) of a verb or a verbal predicate is a dependent clause which is a core argument. In a clausal complement the subject is not determined by obligatory control, either because the clause has its own overt subject or because the subject is arbitrary or determined anaphorically. Such clausal complements can have the following structures:

Le ha detto/VERB che il rapimento era avvenuto/VERB a scopo di furto
ccomp(detto, avvenuto)
nsubj(avvenuto, rapimento)
mark(avvenuto, che)
Non so se/VERB qualche agenzia organizza/VERB viaggi
ccomp(so, organizza)
nsubj(organizza, agenzia)
mark(organizza, se)
zio Adelio avrebbe preferito/VERB studiassero/VERB in Italia
ccomp(preferito, studiassero)
aux(preferito, avrebbe)
nsubj(preferito, zio)
Dimmi/VERB dove si trova/VERB la compagnia DuPont .
ccomp(Dimmi, trova)
nsubj(trova, compagnia)
era sicuro/ADJ che non ci fossero/VERB pericoli
ccomp(sicuro, fossero)
mark(fossero, che)
nsubj(fossero, pericoli)
Sono convinto/ADJ che la storia di Moretti sia segnata/VERB da le sue origini romane .
ccomp(convinto, segnata)
auxpass(segnata, sia)
nsubjpass(segnata, storia)
Certo che possiedo delle prove .
ccomp(Certo, possiedo)
bisogna/VERB avviare/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] un dialogo
ccomp(bisogna, avviare)
dobj(avviare, dialogo)
si fa/VERB per dire/VERB[VerbForm=Inf]
ccomp(fa, dire)
mark(dire, per)
Mi fecero pagare/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] per liberare/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] due ostaggi .
ccomp(fecero, pagare)
iobj(fecero, mi)
advcl(pagare, liberare)
il problema allora non è domandar/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] si
ccomp(è, domandar)
expl(domandar, si)
neg(è, non)
La differenza è che Tudjman ha sempre giocato/VERB di rimessa .
nsubj(è, differenza)
ccomp(è, giocato)
nsubj(giocato, Tudjman)
aux(giocato, ha)
C' era sempre Franca a risolvere/VERB[VerbForm=Inf] i problemi .
ccomp(era, risolvere)
nsubj(era, Franca)
mark(risolvere, a)

NB Note that if the subject of the clausal complement is controlled (that is, it is the same as the higher subject, object or indirect object, with no other possible interpretation) the appropriate relation is xcomp.

edit ccomp

compound: compound

compound in Italian is used for noun compounds and numbers (e.g. numbers expressed alphabetically). compound is not used to mark only traditional compounds, but also terms that frequently appear together, words juxtaposed or separated by graphical signs (like “-“).

gli uffici leva
compound(uffici, leva)
il campo profughi
compound(profughi, campo)
la data limite
compound(data, limite)
tra donne deputate
compound(donne, deputate)
la parola chiave
compound(parola, chiave)
l' indirizzo e-mail
compound(indirizzo, e-mail)
Oggi la 10 km donne
compound(km, donne)
det(km, la)
nummod(km, 10)
200 mila
compound(mila, 200)
Centro - destra
compound(Centro, destra)
punct(Centro, -)

edit compound

conj: conjunct

A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as e, o, etc. The head of the relation is the first conjunct and all the other conjuncts depend on it via the conj relation. Here are some examples of the use of the conj relation.

Siamo andati alla stazione Termini e lo abbiamo chiesto
cc(andati, e)
conj(andati, chiesto)
sparatorie e rapine
cc(sparatorie, e)
conj(sparatorie, rapine)
qua e là
cc(qua, e)
conj(qua, là)
Per il fratello di Luigi , la cognata , i nipoti
conj(fratello, cognata)
conj(fratello, nipoti)
punct(fratello, ,-6)
punct(fratello, ,-9)
quanto gli piaceva , quanto ne era innamorato
conj(piaceva, innamorato)
aux(innamorato, era)
l' ho vista brutta , ma poi si è ripreso
conj(vista, ripreso)
punct(vista, , )
cc(vista, ma)

The dependent of the relation automatically inherit the syntactic relations of the head, unless they have different dependencies explicitly expressed. Here, for instance, the subject of the two verbs is the same (so cominciare inherits it from lasciare), but the direct object is different (so not inherited).

I tre avevano da poco lasciato la cima e stavano cominciando la discesa .
conj(lasciato, cominciando)
nsubj(lasciato, tre)
dobj(lasciato, cima)
dobj(cominciando, discesa)
cc(lasciato, e)

edit conj

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb essere (in Italian this is the only verb that can be a copula). The copula be is not treated as the head of a clause, but rather as the dependent of a lexical predicate, as exemplified below, which can be an adjective, a noun or a pronoun.

I cinque sarebbero tutti immigrati clandestini
nsubj(immigrati, cinque)
cop(immigrati, sarebbero)
Per questo sono ambiziosi
cop(ambiziosi, sono)
Secondo l' Onu sono 200 mila le persone
nsubj(mila, persone)
compound(mila, 200)
cop(mila, sono)

In predicative wh-constructions, the fronted wh-word is the head, and the copula is another cop.

Qual è la capitale della Nuova Zelanda ?
nsubj(Qual, capitale)
cop(Qual, è)

If the copula comes together another verbal auxiliaries (e.g. because of the tense), they are taken as dependents of the lexical predicate:

Non venne mai chiarito quale formazione era stata responsabile
det(formazione, quale)
nsubj(responsabile, formazione)
aux(responsabile, era)
cop(responsabile, stata)

The verb essere is not always marked as copula, but can also be the main verb of the clause. This analysis is generally adopted when:

ROOT Vi sono migliaia di casi di questo genere
root(ROOT, sono)
expl(sono, Vi)
nsubj(sono, migliaia)
ROOT In armeria ci sono 300 armature
root(ROOT, sono)
expl(sono, ci)
nsubj(sono, armeria)
ROOT Il Presidente è in il mirino dei suoi attacchi
root(ROOT, è)
nsubj(è, Presidente)
nmod(è, mirino)
ROOT La scultura è di il pachistano Hamad Butt
root(ROOT, è)
nsubj(è, scultura)
case(Hamad, di)
det(Hamad, il)
nmod(è, Hamad)
amod(Hamad, pachistano)
name(Hamad, Butt)
ROOT Oggi è in grado di dir ci qualcosa
root(ROOT, è)
nmod(è, grado)
case(grado, in)
acl(grado, dir)
mark(dir, di)
iobj(dir, ci)
Per essere in forma
cop(forma, essere)
case(forma, in)
ROOT La verità è che la spesa sanitaria sta esplodendo
root(ROOT, è)
nsubj(è, verità)
ccomp(è, esplodendo)
nsubj(esplodendo, spesa)
mark(esplodendo, che)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb. The dependent is the main lexical verb or other predicate of the subject clause.

Examples:

È ora che il divario con l' uomo venga salvato
csubj(ora, salvato)
aux(salvato, venga)
È stato facile ricostruire le telefonate
csubj(facile, ricostruire)
aux(facile, È)
cop(facile, stato)
Sbarcare a l' aeroporto di Kinshasa è una vera e propria avventura
csubj(avventura, Sbarcare)
cop(avventura, è)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause (or more generally, any voice where the proto-agent argument does not become the subject of the clause).

Ci viene spiegato come fossero fatti , in gran parte , da giovani ebrei 
csubjpass(spiegato, fatti)
auxpass(spiegato, viene)
iobj(spiegato, Ci)
aux(fatti, fossero)
mark(fatti, come)
Gli venne chiesto se si ricordasse di Honoré
csubjpass(chiesto, ricordasse)
Mi è stato detto che il gruppo socialista vorrebbe che questo punto venisse ritirato
csubjpass(detto, vorrebbe)
ccomp(vorrebbe, ritirato)
iobj(detto, Mi)
aux(detto, è)
auxpass(detto, stato)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

A dependency is labeled as dep when a system is unable to determine a more precise dependency relation between two words. This may be because of a weird grammatical construction, a limitation in software, a parser error, or because of an unresolved long distance dependency. This is also the case of “broken” sentences like the one below.

è opportuno estendere tale programma vista la necessità di :
dep(necessità, di)

edit dep

det: determiner

The determiner relation holds between a nominal head and its determiner.
The dependent of a determiner relation is always a word of POS DET. If a POS DET word appears before another determiner, than it is marked as det:predet. See below for the description of this relation.

Alcune chiamate partirono da il Quirinale . 
det(chiamate, Alcune)
det(Quirinale, il)
E' finita la guerra ? 
det(guerra, la)
Casi di questo genere . 
det(genere, questo)

edit det

det:poss: possessive determiner

Whenever there is a possessive determiner, det:poss should be used instead of det. All possessive determiners have the feature Possessive defined as Yes and the only instances of the det:poss relation attested in the Italian Treebank appear with those elements.

Sarà mia cura verificare . 
det:poss(cura, mia)
Ha da poco annunciato le proprie dimissioni . 
det:poss(dimissioni, proprie)

edit det:poss

det:predet: predeterminer

A predeterminer is the relation between the head of an NP and a word that precedes and modifies the meaning of the NP determiner. In Italian this relation is used for the lemmas tutto, entrambi and ambedue (all and both), when they appear in front of another determiner.

Tutte le persone 
det:predet(persone, Tutte)
Entrambi i satelliti 
det:predet(satelliti, Entrambi)

edit det:predet

discourse: discourse element

This is used for interjections and other discourse particles and elements (which are not clearly linked to the structure of the sentence, except in an expressive way). In Italian the use of discourse is attested for interjections (or nouns used as interjections) only, but is also generally recommended for emoticons or elements POS tagged as SYM not elsewhere classified.

Grazie/INTJ Italia , ti ho dato l' oro .
discourse(dato, Grazie)
Sì/INTJ , proprio l' Italia .
discourse(Italia, Sì)
Brava , brava , complimenti/INTJ .
discourse(Brava, complimenti)

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

dislocated is not used.

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

The direct object of a verb is the second most core argument of a verb after the subject. Typically, it is the noun phrase that denotes the entity acted upon or which undergoes a change of state or motion (the proto-patient). A direct object is a nominal which is the (accusative) object of the verbal predicate.

Stravince le elezioni del 1990 . 
dobj(Stravince, elezioni)

The dobj relation is also used to mark real reflexive constructions where the clitic pronoun is a direct object of the verb.

Mi ami ? 
dobj(ami, Mi)

dobj is also used in those cases where the direct object has no independent semantic value but it creates a unique semantic element together with the verb.

Hanno fatto fuoco prima su mio marito . 
dobj(fatto, fuoco)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

This relation captures expletive or pleonastic nominals. These are nominals that appear in an argument position of a predicate but which do not themselves satisfy any of the semantic roles of the predicate. The main predicate of the clause (the verb or predicate adjective) is the governor. In Italian, this relation is used only with clitic pronouns in the following cases:

Allora mi sono innervosita .
expl(innervosita, mi)
Dove si trova Hebron ?
expl(trova, si)
E si massacrano ancora .
expl(massacrano, si)
Si erano slegati tra loro .
expl(slegati, Si)
In armeria ci sono 300 armature .
expl(sono, ci)
C'è gente nuova da ieri in pista .
expl(è, C')

NB Whenever possible, clitic pronouns are assigned a label that reflect their grammatical function. For this reason, if the pronoun appears in a reflexive construction of a transitive or intransitive active verb, than it’s treated as dobj or iobj. In Italian clitics also appears in passive and impersonal constructions. For that, see the subclasses expl:pass and expl:impers.

edit expl

expl:impers: expletive impersonal

The relation expl:impers is a sub-class of expl, specific for the impersonal use of the clitic pronoun si. We can have an impersonal construction for every verb (transitive or intransitive) when the role of subject is played by the clitic itself, as an undefined subject.

Si prevede che viaggerà .
expl:impers(prevede, Si)

If there’s a clitic in a construction with a modal or an auxiliary verb, than generally it is an impersonal construction.

Si può procedere a sequestro .
expl:impers(procedere, Si)

In the construction with both ci and si (construction of the impersonal ci), the first clitic is marked as expl, while si as expl:impers, as follows.

E' stata quello che ci si attendeva .
expl:impers(attendeva, si)
expl(attendeva, ci)

edit expl:impers

expl:pass: expletive passive

The relation expl:pass is a sub-class of expl, specific for the passivizing use of the clitic si. We can have this construction only for transitive verbs at the 3° singular or plural person form. The verb comes with the clitic pronoun, which does not cover any syntactic or semantic role of the verb. The role of subject is played by the syntactic object, which becomes a passive subject (nsubjpass).

Fra quattro giorni si aprirà il Salone internazionale di l' automobile
expl:pass(aprirà, si)
nsubjpass(aprirà, Salone)
Si puniscano i praticanti stregnoni .
expl:pass(puniscano, Si)
nsubjpass(puniscano, praticanti)

edit expl:pass

foreign: foreign words

We use foreign to label sequences of foreign words. These are given a linear analysis: the head is the first token in the foreign phrase. In the Italian Treebank, the only cases attested appear with words POS tagged as X. The only exception to that happens when foreign proper names are part of a sequence of foreign words (as in the last example).

Dulcis/X in/X fundo/X, il portamento .
foreign(Dulcis, in)
foreign(Dulcis, fundo)
Home/X run/X .
foreign(Home, run)
Il primo disco si chiama Greetings/X from/X Asbury/PROPN Park/PROPN .
foreign(Greetings, from)
foreign(Greetings, Asbury)
foreign(Greetings, Park)

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

goeswith is not used.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

The indirect object of a verb is a pronominal complement which corresponds to a dative object. In Italian the iobj only appears as clitic pronoun because when the indirect object is realized as a prepositional phrase, it is labeled as nmod (ex. Dare a qualcuno qualcosa, give something to someone).

Lui le regalò un porcellino salvadanaio .
iobj(regalò, le)
Mi pare che siano proposte serie e condivisibili .
iobj(pare, Mi)

edit iobj

list: list

list is not used. We analyse items in a list as separate sentences or conjunctions.

edit list

mark: marker

A marker is the word introducing a finite clause subordinate to another clause. Similar to case, it can be a preposition, a subordinate conjunction or an adverb. Unlike case though, it introduces clauses, not complements. The mark element is a dependent of the subordinate clause head.

Bossi quando parla si copre di ridicolo, dovrebbe bastare questo a punirlo . 
mark(parla, quando)
mark(punirlo, a)
Abbiamo cercato di presentare una interpretazione diversa. 
mark(presentare, di)
Nessuno può essere obbligato se non per disposizione di legge .
mark(disposizione, se)

It is used also on the head of mwe relations when they refer to verbs.

Prima di gettarsi in mare . 
mark(gettarsi, Prima)
mwe(Prima, di)

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

The multi-word expression (modifier) relation is one of the three relations (compound, mwe, name) for compounding. It is used for certain fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials. Any grammatical class can take part in a multiword expression, but usually they are a combination of adverbials and prepositions (usually a or di).

Some of the most common mwe for Italian are listed in the examples below.

Oltre a le tradizionali uniformi . 
mwe(Oltre, a)
Grazie a la moglie .
mwe(Grazie, a)
Fino a Forlì . 
mwe(Fino, a)
Vediamo prima di tutto i fatti . 
mwe(prima, di)
Pur se . 
mwe(Pur, se)

edit mwe

name: name

name is one of the three relations for compounding in UD (together with compound and mwe). It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements. It is not used to replace the usual relations in a phrasal or clausal name, like titles of books, where the actual dependencies should be preserved.

Ecco l'arringa di Tiziana Maiolo . 
name(Tiziana, Maiolo)

Names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the first one using the name label. This also works for prepostions or determiners and numerals that are part of the names.

Formula 1/NUM . 
name(Formula, 1)
Marcello Dell' Utri . 
name(Marcello, Dell')
name(Marcello, Utri)

Words joined by name should all be part of a minimal noun phrase; otherwise regular syntactic relations should be used. For organization names with clear syntactic modification structure, the dependencies should reflect the syntactic modification structure using regular syntactic relation.

L' ordine Mauriziano . 
det(ordine, L')
amod(ordine, Mauriziano)
Il Ministero di gli Interni 
det(Ministero, Il)
nmod(Ministero, Interni)
det(Interni, gli)
case(Interni, di)

In addition, regular syntactic relations are used:

Mariatersa Di Lascia
name(Mariatersa, Lascia)
case(Lascia, Di)
Università di Pristina 
name(Università, Pristina)
case(Pristina, di)

edit name

neg: negation modifier

The negation modifier is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies. Modifiers labeled neg depend either on a noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”). All the instances of neg relation in Italian apply to POS ADV elements.

Non è mai stato accertato . 
neg(accertato, Non)
Non in base a l'estensione del terreno . 
neg(base, Non)
Neanche per il celebre Protezione erano state incontrate simili resistenze. 
neg(Protezione, Neanche)
Loro no . 
neg(Loro, no)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers. They depend either on another noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).
In Italian, nmod is used for non-prepositional and prepositional complements; the most common complements are temporal, place and specification.

Vi sono migliaia di casi di questo genere . 
nmod(migliaia, casi)
nmod(casi, genere)
Da il '93 dirige il Festival di Taormina 
nmod(dirige, '93)
nmod(Festival, Taormina)
Esodo controllato a Civitavecchia . 
nmod(Esodo, Civitavecchia)
E' stato trent' anni fa parlamentare comunista. 
nmod(parlamentare, anni)

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

A nominal subject (nsubj) is a nominal which is the syntactic subject of a clause. The governor of this relation is typically a verb with an exceptions: when the verb is a copular verb, the nsubj relation is headed by the complement of the copular verb, which can be an adjective or a noun.

Ai balconi si affacciano donne/NOUN anziane.
nsubj(affacciano, donne)
Chi/PRON ha ucciso l'ingegner Reali?
nsubj(ucciso, Chi)
La situazione arbitrale è pessima/ADJ.
nsubj(pessima, situazione)
cop(pessima, è)
Questa ricchezza è tutta apparenza/NOUN.
nsubj(apparenza, ricchezza)
cop(apparenza, è)

The nsubj role is only applied to semantic arguments of a predicate. When there is an empty argument in a grammatical subject position (sometimes called a pleonastic or expletive), it is labeled as expl or better expl:impers

Si può procedere .
expl:impers(procedere, Si)

NB Note that when the verb is used in the passive voice the nominal syntactic subject is marked as nsubjpass. When the subject is clausal, it’s preferable to use other specialized relations (csubj or csubjpass).

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause (or more generally, any voice where the proto-agent argument does not become the subject of the clause).

Orejuela è stato trasferito a Bogotà.
nsubjpass(trasferito, Orejuela)
Vengono applicate placche .
nsubjpass(applicate, placche)
Tutte le persone sono state poi trasportate a Brindisi.
nsubjpass(trasportate, persone)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity, both when the number is written in letters. In Italian this relation is only attested for POS NUM elements, so please do not use it with indefinite quantifiers, which are DET elements.

Corriere Sport da pagina 23 a pagina 26 .
nummod(pagina-4, 23)
nummod(pagina-7, 26)
Due ragazze e un uomo .
nummod(ragazze, Due)
nmod(uomo, un)

Please note that ,in dates, years should be marked as nmod, while the day is a numeric modifier. The month is the head.

Feb 26 , 2014 .
nummod(Feb, 26)
nmod(Feb, 2014)

There are very few cases where nummod is used to mark indices of lists.

a ) trasporti ad hoc \n b ) emanazioni di norme nazionali
nummod(trasporti, a)
nummod(emanazioni , b)

edit nummod

parataxis: parataxis

The parataxis relation (from Greek for “place side by side”) is a relation between a word (often the main predicate of a sentence) and other elements, such as a sentential parenthetical or a clause after a “:” or a “;”, placed side by side without any explicit coordination, subordination, or argument relation with the head word. In Italian it is used with direct dialogs, introduced by declarative verbs, or lists.

" Ma no , non è così - replica Ante - .
cop(così, è)
parataxis(così, replica)
Romana elettricità , azioni 1400 ; Terni , azioni 300 ; Montecatini , azioni 2000 ;
parataxis(Romana, Terni)
parataxis(Romana, Montecatini)

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This element is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause. The last punctuation mark of the sentence (usually a full stop or interrogative/exclamation point) always depends on the root; commas, apexes and punctuation elements depend on the head of the clause, or the complement, they refer to. In general, tokens with the relation punct always attach to content words (except in cases of ellipsis) and can never have dependents on their own.

" Chirac , ricorda ti Hiroshima "
punct(Chirac, "-1)
punct(Chirac, ,)
punct(Chirac, "-7)
I carri armati , quando si muovevano , andavano a Budapest
punct(carri, ,-4)
punct(muovevano, ,-8)

Punctuation marks separating coordinated units must be all attached to the first conjunct.

Proiettavano Dreyer , Bergman , Kazan , De Sica 
punct(Dreyer, ,-3)
punct(Dreyer, ,-5)
punct(Dreyer, ,-7)

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

remnant is not used.

edit remnant

reparandum: overridden disfluency

reparandum is not used.

edit reparandum

root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence, so there’s only one root for each sentence. In Italian the root is usually a verbal predicate, unless we are analysing a nominal phrase, where the root is a noun.

ROOT Alcune chiamate partirono/VERB da il Quirinale .
root(ROOT, partirono)
ROOT Questa ricchezza è tutta apparenza/NOUN .
root(ROOT, apparenza)
cop(apparenza, è)
ROOT Ecco l' arringa/NOUN di Tiziana Maiolo .
root(ROOT, arringa)

If the main predicate is not present due to ellipsis and there are multiple orphaned dependents, the leftmost dependent should be promoted to the head (root) position and the other orphans should be attached to it.

ROOT Sorpresa/NOUN in la sorpresa .
root(ROOT, Sorpresa)
nmod(Sorpresa, sorpresa)
punct(Sorpresa, .)

edit root

vocative: vocative

The vocative relation is used to mark a dialogue participant addressed in a text (common in conversations, dialogue, emails, newsgroup postings, etc.). The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.

Carissimi , ho ricevuto con grande piacere la vostra lettera 
vocative(ricevuto, Carissimi)
Signor presidente , onorevoli colleghi , buon anno e buon nuovo millennio .
vocative(anno, Signor)
vocative(anno, colleghi)

If the nominal is clearly vocative in intent, it is preferable to use the vocative relation.

Cittadini truffati da le piramidi , sostenete ci ancora e andate a protestare contro il Governo .
vocative(sostenete, Cittadini)

A vocative commonly co-occurs with a null subject.

" Chirac , ricorda ti Hiroshima "
vocative(ricorda, Chirac)

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb, or an adjective, is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp (usually by the object, if there is one, or else by the subject of the next higher clause). This reference is often referred to as obligatory control, that is there should be no available interpretation where the subject of the lower clause may be distinct from the specified role of the upper clause (in case the subject may or must be distinct from the subject of the higher clause, ccomp should be used). The predicates of these clauses appear always as a non finite verbs or participle, and they are core complements (arguments of the higher verb or adjective) rather than adjuncts/modifiers.

Evitate di parlare/VERB tra voi 
xcomp(Evitate, parlare)
Sapeva di essere umile/ADJ .
xcomp(Sapeva, umile)
cop(umile, essere)
Abbiamo cercato di presentare/VERB una interpretazione diversa .
xcomp(cercato, presentare)
Quale ditta è accusata di aver sfruttato/VERB il lavoro minorile ?
xcomp(accusata, sfruttato)

The xcomp relation is also used in constructions that are known as secondary predicates or predicatives.

Il sindaco rende nota la consegna .
xcomp(rende, nota)
Lo smog risulta nocivo a la salute .
xcomp(risulta, nocivo)
Ogni fosso si presume comune .
xcomp(presume, comune)
Il caso è diventato un' emergenza .
xcomp(diventato, emergenza)

NB xcomp can be used only when the element is a core argument of a clausal predicate. If the element is not a core argument acl should be used. Consider the example below, where we have a case of double predication (Sono stati ritrovati. They were found. Erano sani e salvi. They were safe and sound). But sani e salvi is not a core argument of ritrovare: leaving it out will neither affect grammaticality nor significantly alter the meaning of the verb.

Sono stati ritrovati sani e salvi cinque americani
acl(ritrovati, sani)
cc(sani, e)
conj(sani, salvi)

edit xcomp