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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubj:cop
csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj xcomp:pred
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
nmod:poss neg
nmod:prep
nmod:tmod
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass mark:prt
expl cop punct
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos acl:relcl det
nmod  
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
compound:prt foreign
name
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
case:voc
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl is used for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun.

Note that in Irish, relative clauses get assigned a specific relation acl:relcl, a subtype of acl. The super type acl is not used in version 1.0 or 1.1 of the Irish treebank.

edit acl

acl:relcl: relative clause modifier

A relative clause modifier marks the relation between a relative clause and a noun phrase in a preceding clause.
The head of the relative clause is usually a verb.

Example

Chaill sé pé rud a bhí aige `He lost everything that he had

Chaill sé pé rud a bhí aige \n Lost he whatever thing that had he
acl:relcl(bhí, pé)

edit acl:relcl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes temporal, consequence, conditional and purpose clauses. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the head is the main predicate of the clause.

Examples

Nuair a bhí siad ag teacht ar ais, chonaic siad é ‘When they were coming back, they saw it’

Nuair a bhí siad ag teacht ar ais, chonaic siad é \n When [] were they at coming on back, saw they it
advcl(chonaic, bhí)

imríonn siad mar faoi is féidir leo, is dóigh liom go bhfillfidh siad ar Staid Semple ‘If they play as well as they can, I believe they will return to Semple Stadium’

Má imríonn siad mar faoi is féidir leo , is dóigh liom go bhfillfidh siad ar Staid Semple \n If play they as about be ability with-them , be belief with-me that will_return they to Stadium Semple
advcl(dóigh, imríonn)

Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad `Payments are not given if they are not asked for’

Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad \n Not given payments if_not requested them
advcl(thugtar, n-iarrtar)

Ach nuair a bhíodar ag dul aníos casadh mairnéalach leo `But when they were going down, they met sailors’

Ach nuair a bhíodar ag dul aníos casadh mairnéalach leo \n But when [] were_they at going down  were_met sailors with_them
advcl(casadh, bhíodar)

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase (ADVP) that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

Examples

Fuair mé fliú mór a bhí ag dul thart ‘I caught a bad flu that was going around

Fuair mé fliú mór a bhí ag dul thart \n Caught I flu big [] was at going around
advmod(dul, thart)

Chaithimid an oíche amuigh ar an fharraige ‘We spent the night out on the sea’

Chaithimid an oíche amuigh ar an fharraige \n 'Spent_we the night out on the sea'
advmod(Chaithimid, amuigh)

Níor tháinig sé go fóill ‘He hasn’t arrived yet

Níor tháinig sé go fóill \n Not arrived he [] yet
advmod(tháinig, fóill)

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier of an NP is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the NP.

Examples

tíortha forbathadeveloped countries’

tíortha forbatha \n countries developed
amod(tíortha, forbatha)

Baineann na prionsabail chéanna leis ‘The same principles apply’

Baineann na prionsabail chéanna leis \n Relate the principles same with_it
amod(prionsabail, chéanna)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier of an NP is an NP immediately to the right of the first NP that serves to define or modify that NP. It also includes parenthesized examples.

Examples:

Tá gearán déanta ag Unison, ceardchumann lucht na mbónaí bána, leis an gCoimisiún `Unison, the workers’ trade union, have made a complaint to the Commission’

Tá gearán déanta ag Unison , ceardchumann lucht na mbónaí bána , leis an gCoimisiún \n Is complaint made by Unison , trade_union group the collars white  , with the Commission
appos(Unison, ceardchumann)

Chas m’athair air sa tábhairne, O’ Shea’s i nDomhnach Broc `My father met him in the pub, O’ Shea’s in Donnybrook’

Chas m' athair air sa tábhairne , O' Shea's i nDomhnach Broc \n Met my father on him in_the pub , O' Shea's in Donnybrook []
appos(tábhairne, Shea's)

edit appos

case: case marking

The case relation is used for most prepositions in Irish. Prepositions are treated as dependents of the noun they introduce in an “extended nominal projection”. Thus, contrary to SD, UD abandons treating a preposition as a mediator between a modified word and its object. The case relation aims at providing a uniform analysis of prepositions and case in morphologically rich languages.

See nmod:pred for labelling of prepositional pronouns, and xcomp:pred for prepositional predicates.

Prepositions have many functions in Irish.

Examples

adjuncts

PPs can precede or follow the verb they modify, or follow the noun they modify.

(i) Sa bhliain sin, bhuaigh siad an Chorn `In that year, they won the Cup’

(ii) Bhuaigh siad an Chorn sa bhliain sin `They won the Cup in that year’

(iii) An teach sa chathair `The house in the city’

progressive aspectuals

The preposition ag is used with verbal nouns to form progressive aspectual phrases in Irish.

Tá sí ag rith ‘She is running’

Tá sí ag rith \n Is she at running
nmod(Tá, rith)
nsubj(Tá, sí)
case(rith, ag)

ownership/ state

Prepositions are also used in phrasal constructions to denote ownership or a state of being.

Tá airgead ag na daoine ‘The people have money’ (lit. Money is at the people)

Tá airgead ag na daoine \n Is pen at the people
nmod(Tá, daoine)
case(daoine, ag)

Tá brón ar an gcuairteoir `The visitor is sorry’ (lit. sorrow is on the visitor)

Tá brón ar an gcuairteoir \n Is sorrow on the visitor
nmod(Tá, gcuairteoir)
case(gcuairteoir, ar)

obliques

Oblique arguments are also labelled case.

Tá muintir Chorcaí an-mhíshásta le Fianna Fáil ‘The people of Cork are very unhappy with Fianna Fáil’

Tá muintir Chorcaí an-mhíshásta le Fianna_Fáil \n Be people Cork very_unhappy with Fianna_Fáil
nsubj(Tá, muintir)
compound(muintir, Chorcaí)
xcomp:pred(Tá, an-mhíshásta)
nmod(Tá, Fianna_Fáil)
case(Fianna_Fáil, le)

edit case

case:voc: vocative particle

A vocative particle precedes and marks the case of an addressee.

Example

Slán leat, a chara ‘Goodbye, friend’

Slán leat, a chara \n goodbye with_you, [] friend
case:voc(chara, a)

edit case:voc

ccomp: clausal complement

The ccomp relation marks a clausal complement of a verb or adjective, that has its own internal subject. In Irish, clausal complements are usually introduced by complementizers go, nach, and gur.

Examples

Tá a fhios agam gur imigh mo mháthair \n Is the knowledge at_me that left my mother
ccomp(Tá, imigh)

Creidimidne, go bhforbraíonn na mic léinn a gcuid tuisceana ar shaol proifisiúna na tionsclaíochta `We believe, that the students develop their understanding of professional life of industry’

Creidimidne , go bhforbraíonn na mic léinn a gcuid tuisceana ar shaol proifisiúna na tionsclaíochta \n  Believe_we , that develop the students  their own understanding on life professional the industry

ccomp(Creidimidne, bhforbraíonn)

edit ccomp

compound: compound

UD Irish uses the compound relation for noun compounding. In Irish, when two nouns are compounded, the second is in the genitive case. Compounds can denote ownership or an attribute.

Examples

Attributive:

Oifig an Phoist `Post Office’ (lit. Office the Post)

ag cosaint na n-oifigí poist tuaithe \n at protecting the offices post country
compound(n-oifigí, poist)
compound(n-oifigí, tuaithe)

roimh teacht na traenach ‘before the train’s arrival’

roimh teacht na traenach \n before arrival the train
compound(teacht, traenach)

Titles:

an tSúir Concepta \n Sr. Concepta
compound(Concepta, tSúir)

Reflexive Pronoun: féin

Similar to the emphatic pronoun self in English, e.g. himself, themselves.

Cé hiad féin ? \n Who are THEY ?
compound(hiad, féin)

Ownership:

It can also translate as ownership, yet the possessive pronoun will also be present in those constructions using féin:

ábalta a rá lena bpobal féin \n able to say to their own community
compound(bpobal, féin)
le bean Choilm \n with Colm's wife
compound(bean, Choilm)

edit compound

compound:prt: phrasal particles

In UD Irish, the subtype compound:prt (phrasal particle) is used in connection with phrasal verbs, where the particle is considered an integral part of the verb expression. The governor of the dependency is the verb, and the dependent is the phrasal particle.

Example

Na sonraí atá leagtha amach in Airteagal J ‘The details that are laid out in Article J’

Na sonraí atá leagtha amach in Airteagal J \n The details that are laid out in Article J.
compound:prt(leagtha, amach)

edit compound:prt

conj: conjunct

UD coordination has a right-adjunct structure (note that this differs from the structure of the Irish Dependency Treebank). The first conjunct (conjoined element) is the head of the conjoined phrase and all other conjuncts are dependents, labelled with the conj relation.

Examples

Tigh Tábhairne agus Lóistín atá anois ann ‘A Public Bar and Hotel is what is there now’

Tigh Tábhairne agus Lóistín atá anois ann \n Houses Tavern and Accommodation that_is now there
conj(Tábhairne,Lóistín)

ionaid oidhreachta, chultúrtha agus Ghaeilge ‘heritage, culture and Irish language centre’

ionaid oidhreachta , chultúrtha agus Ghaeilge \n centre heritage, culture and Irish_language
conj(oidhreachta,chultúrtha)
conj(oidhreachta,Ghaeilge)

edit conj

cop: copula

In Irish, there is a distinction between the substantive verb `to be’, which inflects for tense, mood and person as per all Irish verbs – and the copula is, which only has two tensed forms - present/future and past/conditional.

, as a verb, uses separate particles in negative and interrogative constructions. Is (copula) uses its own forms in these constructions. For example:

The order of elements in a copula construction is in general: copula, predicate (new or focussed information), and subject

cop is used to link the copula verb is and its predicate. See xcomp:pred to see how the verb is linked to a predicate.

Examples

#### equative construction

Is múinteoir é ‘He is a teacher’

Is múinteoir é \n is teacher him
cop(múinteoir, Is)

idiomatic expressions

Ba mhaith liom gan fanacht ‘I would like not to stay’

Ba mhaith liom gan fanacht \n Be good with_me without staying
cop(mhaith, Ba)

cleft constructions

Is iad a bheidh ina gcomhaltaí de na coistí sin ‘It is they who will be members of those committees’

Is iad a bheidh ina gcomhaltaí de na coistí sin \n Is they who will_be in_their members of the committees that
cop(iad,Is)

ownership constructions

An leatsa é? ‘Is it yours?’

An leatsa é ? \n Is with_you it ?
cop(leatsa, An)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

All clausal subjects in the current version of the treebank are subjects of the copula is. We use csubj:cop for clausal subjects in copular constructions when the clause contains its own subject. We use csubj:cleft for subjects of cleft constructions.

edit csubj

csubj:cleft: relative clause modifier

Irish cleft constructions use a copula and are analysed in line with other copular construction: COP PRED SUBJ. In contrast to English, Irish clefts are much less restrictive with regards to the type of element that can be fronted: nouns, prepositional phrases, adverbial phrases, adjectives and verbal nouns.

Examples

Nominal fronting

Is leabhar a thug sí dom ‘It is a book that she gave me’

Is leabhar a thug sí dom \n is book [] gave she to_me
csubj:cleft(leabhar, thug)
cop(leabhar, Is)

Adverbial fronting

Is laistigh de bhliain a déanfar é ‘It is within a year that it will be done

Is laistigh de bhliain a déanfar é \n is within a year [] will_be_done it
csubj:cleft(laistigh, déanfar)
cop(laistigh, Is)

Prepositional phrase fronting

Is sa pháirc a chonaic mé é ‘It is in the park that I saw him’

Is sa pháirc a chonaic mé é \n is in_the park [] saw I him
csubj:cleft(pháirc, chonaic)
cop(pháirc, Is)

edit csubj:cleft

csubj:cop: relative clause modifier

A clausal copular subject (csubj:cop) is a UD Irish subtype, used to label a clause that acts as the subject of another (copular) clause. As in all copular clauses, the predicate acts as the head of the clause and hence it is also the governor of the copular subject.

Example

Is dócha go raibh an ceart aici ‘It is likely that she was correct’

Is dócha go raibh an ceart aici \n Is probable that was the right at_her
csubj:cop(dócha, raibh)

edit csubj:cop

dep: unspecified dependency

The UD Irish treebank does not contain any instances of dep.

edit dep

det: determiner

The detlabel marks the relationship between a noun and its determiner.

In Irish there is no indefinite article, only a definite article. The definite article can be singular (an) or plural (na).

Examples

an clárthe programme’

an clár \n the programme
det(clár, an)

an clárannathe programmes’

na cláranna \n the programmes
det(cláranna, na)

Two pre-determiners can occur before a noun:

Examples

gach uile ábharevery single subject’

gach uile ábhar \n every single subject 
det(ábhar, gach)
det(ábhar, uile)

Two determiners can be used each side of a noun: pre-determiners and post-determiners:

an tuairim sinthat opinion’ (an+sin = ‘that’)

an tuairim sin \n the opinion DEM
det(tuairim, an)
det(tuairim, sin)

an leabhar údthat book

an leabhar úd \n the book DEM
det(leabhar, an)
det(leabhar, úd)

an alt seothis paragraph’

an alt seo \n the paragraph DEM
det(alt, an)
det(alt, seo)

an chéad cheannaire eile ‘</b>the next</b> leader’

an chéad cheannaire eile \n the first leader other
det(cheannaire, an)
det(cheannaire, eile)
quant(cheannaire, chéad)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

The discourse label is used to connect interjections and other discourse particles to a clause.

Examples

Á, níl sé chomh holc sin!Aw, it is not as bad as that!’

Á , níl sé chomh holc sin ! \n Aw , is_not it as bad that !
discourse(níl, Á)

Leoga, tá aitheantas tugtha dóibh Indeed, they are given recognition

Leoga , tá aitheantas tugtha dóibh \n Indeed , is recognition given to\_them
discourse(tá, Leoga)

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

The dislocated label has not been applied to Irish in this release of the treebank. No examples have been observed yet, but should any be identified, they will be marked in subsequent versions of the treebank.

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

The dobj label is used to mark the relationship between a verb and its direct object.

Examples

Bhailigh siad eolas ‘They collected information

Bhailigh siad eolas \n Collected they information
dobj(Bhailigh, eolas)

Note that the object of an infinitival phrase occurs before the infinitive form (Verbal Noun), despite Irish being a VSO language.

eolas a chur ar fáil ‘to make information available’

eolas a chur ar fáil \n information to put at available
dobj(chur, eolas)

Impersonal/autonomous verbs are used to create phrases similar to the English passive. However, unlike English, the object does not become the subject of this verb form, and remains labelled as dobj.

An lá a cuireadh é ‘The day he was buried’

An lá a cuireadh é \n The day [] was_buried he
dobj(cuireadh, é)

edit dobj

foreign: foreign words

There are a handful of instances of intra-sentential Irish/English code-mixing in the treebank. Where possible we analyse the sentential structure using the appropriate labels for the English words. We only use the foreign relation when we want to explicitly mark the English words as foreign, e.g. the title of an English film in quotation marks, an example of an Irish-English dictionary entry within a sentence, or an Irish-English sign (see example below). When the foreign label is used, the sequence of words is given a linear analysis with the first word as the head.

Example

ar oscailt / open : Bealtaine - Meán Fómhair / May - September `open / open : May - September / May - September ‘

ar oscailt / open : Bealtaine - Meán Fómhair / May - September \n open / open : May - September / May - September
foreign(oscailt,open)
foreign(Bealtaine,May)
foreign(May,September)

edit foreign

list: list

The list relation is used for chains of comparable items.

Example

Is iad seo na príomhchineálacha breiseán bia : 1) dathuithe 2) leasaithigh 3) antocsaídigh `These are the main types of food additives : 1) colouring 2) preservatives 3) antioxidants’

Is iad seo na príomhchineálacha breiseán bia : 1) dathuithe 2) leasaithigh 3) antocsaídigh \n Is they DEM the main_types additives food : 1) colouring 2) preservatives 3) antioxidants 
list(príomhchineálacha,1))
list(príomhchineálacha,2))
list(príomhchineálacha,3))

edit list

mark: marker

In Irish the mark label is used for infinitive markers and for subordinate conjunctions. Note that subordinate conjunctions are attached to the head of the complement clause (not the matrix clause as is the case in the Irish Dependency Treebank).

Examples

subordinate conjunctions

go ndeachaigh sé thar fóir leis an tuairim sin , is cinnte go raibh mórán scríobhneoirí Béarla den bharúil chéanna `Although he went overboard with that opinion , it was certain that many English writers had the same opinion’

Cé go ndeachaigh sé thar fóir leis an tuairim sin , is cinnte go raibh mórán scríobhneoirí Béarla den bharúil chéanna \n Although that went he over board with the opinion DEM , is certain that was many writers English of_the opinion same
mark(ndeachaigh, Cé)
advcl(is, ndeachaigh)

Ba ar Mháirín a smaoiníodh sé nuair a d’ fheicfeadh sé iad `He would think of Máirín when he would see them’

Ba ar Mháirín a smaoiníodh sé nuair a d' fheicfeadh sé iad \n Was on Máirín that would_think he when [] [] would_see he them
mark(fheicfeadh, nuair)

infinitive marker

Caithfidh mé sin a fhoghlaim `I will have to learn that’

Caithfidh mé sin a fhoghlaim \n will_have I that to learn
mark(fhoghlaim, a)

edit mark

mark:prt: particle

The UD Irish subtype `mark:prt’ is used for the various particles in Irish, including:

Examples

adverbial particle

Níor tháinig sé go fóill `He has not arrived yet’ ~~~ sdparse Níor tháinig sé go fóill \n NEG arrived he PART yet mark:prt(fóill, go) ~~~

quantifier particle

Ar a seacht a chlog `At seven o’ clock’

Ar a seacht a chlog \n At PART seven o' clock
mark:prt(seacht, a)

Roinn a 2 `Division 2’

Roinn a 2 \n Division PART 2
mark:prt(2, a)

cleft particle

Is leabhar a thug sí dom `It is a book that she gave me’

Is leabhar a thug sí dom \n Is book PART gave she to_me
mark:prt(thug, a)

verb particles

Nuair a tógadh na scadáin ar bord `When the herring were brought onboard’

Nuair a tógadh na scadáin ar bord \n When PART was_brought the herring on board
mark:prt(tógadh, a)

D’ inis tú dom `You told me’

D' inis tú dom \n PART told you to_me
mark:prt(inis, D')

complementiser

Is dóigh liom go raibh siad ann `I believe they were there’

Is dóigh liom go raibh siad ann \n Is belief to_me PART were they there
mark:prt(raibh, go)

superlative particle

Ba í an difríocht is suntasaí `It was the most remarkable difference’

Ba í an difríocht is suntasaí \n Was it the difference most remarkable
mark:prt(suntasaí, is)

edit mark:prt

name: name

The name relation is used with compounding proper nouns, typically for names of people, places, organisations and so on.

In UD Irish, this not only includes surnames, but also surname particles such as Mac, Mc, Ó, de, and .

Example

Is mian linn ár mbuíochas a chur in iúl go háirithe do Sheán Ó Gallchóir `We want to express our thanks in particular to John Gallagher

Is mian linn ár mbuíochas a chur in iúl go háirithe do Sheán Ó Gallchóir \n Is desire with_us our thanks to put in knowledge [] particular to John PART Gallagher
name(Sheán,Ó)
name(Sheán,Gallchóir)

edit name

neg: negation modifier

The neg label is used for Irish negative verb particles. These particles take the form of:

Examples

raibh aon Teresa ina measc `There was not any Teresa’s among them’

Ní raibh aon Teresa ina measc \n Not was any Teresa in_their midst
neg(raibh,Ní)

déan seo `Don’t do this’

Ná déan seo \n Not do this 
neg(déan,Ná)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers of nouns or clausal predicates. nmod is typically a noun functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct, and often marked by a preposition using case.

Examples

Tá sé ráite ag tráchtairí áirithe `It is said by some commentators

Tá sé ráite ag tráchtairí áirithe \n Is it said by commentators some
nmod(ráite, tráchtairí)
case(tráchtairí, ag)

Tá an Roinn ag obair le réimse tionscadal `The Department is working with a range of projects’

Tá an Roinn ag obair le réimse tionscadal \n Is the Department at working with range projects
nmod(obair,réimse)
case(réimse, le)

It is also used for attaching noun phrases, such as headings, to clauses:

TOGRA IONAID - Eolas a chur ar fáil ar fholúntais fostaíochta le FÁS `CENTRE PROJECT - To provide information on employment opportunities with FÁS.’

TOGRA IONAID - Eolas a chur ar fáil ar fholúntais fostaíochta le FÁS \n PROJECT CENTRE - Information to put on getting on opportunities employment with FÁS.
nmod(Eolas, TOGRA)

It is also used to label the attachment of augment pronouns to their nominal head:

Comharsain aoibhne ab ea iad `They were lovely neighbours’

Comharsain aoibhne ab ea iad \n Neighbours lovely were they them
nmod(iad, ea)

edit nmod

nmod:poss: possessive pronoun

Irish denotes possession through the use of possessive pronouns:

Example

Chuir mé ceist ar mo mhúinteoir `I asked my teacher a question’

Chuir mé ceist ar mo mhúinteoir \n Put I question on my teacher
nmod:poss(mhúinteoir, mo)

edit nmod:poss

nmod:prep: prepositional pronouns

nmod:prep, used for prepositional pronouns, is a UD Irish subtype of the nmod relation:

16 of the most common Irish simple prepositions can be inflected to mark pronominal objects. These are referred to as pronominal prepositions or prepositional pronouns. We regard these as playing nominal modifier roles instead of prepositional modifier roles. We introduce the language-specific label nmod:prep so as not to lose information regarding the presence of the preposition.

Examples

agam “at me”; leis “with him”, uainn “from us”

D’inis mé di `I told her’

D' inis mé di \n  [] told I to_her
nmod:prep(inis, di)

Is dóigh leis go bhfuil páirtíocht acu lena chéile `He believes that they have a partnership together’

Is dóigh leis go bhfuil páirtíocht acu lena chéile \n Is belief with_him that is partnership at_them with each_other
nmod:prep(dóigh, leis)
nmod:prep(bhfuil, acu)

Níl fhios agam `I don’t know’

Níl fhios agam \n Is_not knowledge at_me
nmod:prep(Níl,agam)

edit nmod:prep

nmod:tmod: temporal modifier

A temporal modifier is a subtype of the nmod relation: if the modifier is specifying a time, it is labeled as tmod.

Example

daoine a mhair na milliúin bliain ó shin `people who lived millions of years ago’

daoine a mhair na milliúin bliain ó shin \n people who lived the millions years from then
nmod:tmod(mhair, bliain)

edit nmod:tmod

nsubj: nominal subject

A nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause.

Examples

Rachaidh abhaile `She will go home’

Rachaidh sí abhaile \n Will_go she home
nsubj(Rachaidh, sí)

In a copula construction, the nsubj is dependent on the predicate (in this case the noun réitigh ‘solution’).

Is réitigh sealadach iad `They are temporary solutions’

Is réitigh sealadach iad \n Is temporary solutions they
nsubj(réitigh, iad)
cop(réitigh, Is)

The head of an infinitival phrase can also be nsubj in a copula construction – in Irish, the infinitive verb form is a verbal noun.

Ar mhaith leat teach a cheannach ? ‘Would you like to buy a house?’

Ar mhaith leat teach a cheannach ? \n Is good with_you house to buy?
nsubj(mhaith, cheannach)

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nummod: numeric modifier

Numeric modifiers of a noun or NP, including both cardinal and ordinal numbers, are marked with the nummod dependency type. Quantifiers are also included.

Examples

sa bhliain 1975 `in the year 1975

sa bhliain 1975 \n in year 1975
nummod(bhliain, 1975)

an chéad chéim `the first year’

an chéad chéim \n in first year
nummod(chéim, chéad)

fo-alt (1) `sub-paragraph (1)

fo-alt (1) \n sub-paragraph (1)
nummod(fo-alt, (1))

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parataxis: parataxis

The parataxis relation is a relation between the main verb of a clause and other sentential elements, such as a sentential parenthetical, a clause after a “:” or a “;”, or two sentences placed side by side without any explicit coordination or subordination. More information can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/parataxis)

Example

Fuaireamar é seo ; féach an é cóta do mhic é nó nach é? `We found this ; look is it your son’s coat or not?’

Fuaireamar é seo ; féach an é cóta do mhic é nó nach é? \n Found_we it this ; look is it coat your son it or not it?
parataxis(Fuaireamar,féach)

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punct: punctuation

This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause, regardless of its function. The punctuation mark is attached to the head of the phrase or clause to which it belongs unless this introduces a non-projective dependency. More discussion on punctuation can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/punct).

Example

_</b> Tá an méid sin suimiúil a d' inis tú dom <b>,</b> <b>'</b> a dúirt sé <b>.</b>_ ` What you have told me is interesting , he said to me.

` Tá an méid sin suimiúil a d' inis tú dom , ' a dúirt sé . \n ' Is the amount DEM interesting [] [] told you to_me , ' [] said he .
punct(dúirt, `)
punct(dúirt, ,)
punct(dúirt, ')
punct(dúirt, .)

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remnant: remnant in ellipsis

The remnant label has not been applied to the Irish in this release. No examples have been observed yet, but should any be identified, they will be marked in subsequent versions of the treebank.

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root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A dummy node “ROOT” is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with “0”, since the indices of real words in the sentence start at 1.

Example

thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad `Payments are not made if they are not requested’

ROOT Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad \n ROOT Not given payments if_not requested them 
root(ROOT, thugtar)

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vocative: vocative

The vocative relation is used to mark a dialogue participant addressed in text (common in conversations, emails and newsgroup postings). The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.

Examples:

Slán leat , a chara `Goodbye , friend

Slán leat , a chara \n Goodbye with_you, [] friend
vocative(Slán, chara)

Is dóigh liom a Mháiréad, go bhfuil mé i ngrá leat `I think Mairead, that I’m in love with you’

Is dóigh liom a Mháiréad , go bhfuil mé i ngrá leat \n Is belief with_me [] Mairead , that am I in love with_you
vocative(dóigh, Mháiréad)

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xcomp: open clausal complement

The name xcomp is borrowed from Lexical-Functional Grammar. An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp. These complements are always non-finite, and they are complements (arguments of the higher verb or adjective) rather than adjuncts/modifiers.

Examples

Is leor breathnú ar na staitisticí chun a fheiceáil gur thit na caighdeáin `You must look at the statistics to see that the standards dropped’

Is leor breathnú ar na staitisticí chun a fheiceáil gur thit na caighdeáin \n Is enough look at the statistics for to see that dropped the standards
xcomp(leor, fheiceáil)

Caithfidh mé a dhul abhaile `I have to go home’

Caithfidh mé a dhul abhaile \n Have I to go home
xcomp(Caithfidh, dhul)

The UD Irish scheme uses xcomp to denote progressive aspectual phrases, the structure of which follows: Be + SUBJ + at (ag) + Verbal Noun In these cases, and in keeping with the analysis of prepositional phrases, we attach the verbal noun to the higher verb (“be”) (using the xcomp label instead of the nmod used in standard PPs). The preposition is then a dependent of the verbal noun, with that relationship labelled as case.

Tá sé ag rith `He is running

Tá sé ag rith \n Is he at running
xcomp(Tá, rith)
case(rith, ag)

There are also some similar periphrastic constructions similar to these progressives that use le or ar:

Chuirfeadh iad ar fáil `They would be made available’

Chuirfeadh iad ar fáil \n Would_be_put they on getting
xcomp(Chuirfeadh,fáil)
case(fáil, ar)

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xcomp:pred: predicate

We extend the label xcomp as a UD Irish subtype xcomp:pred to mark predicates of the substantive verb (be), which can have predicate arguments in the form of adverbial, adjectival and prepositional phrases. Note that this differs from Irish (cop) constructions.

Examples

Bhí sé dochreidte go raibh sé fós beo `It was unbelieveable that he was still alive’

Adjectival Predicate

Bhí sé dochreidte go raibh sé fós beo \n Was it unbelieveable that was he still alive
xcomp:pred(Bhí, dochreidte)

PP Predicate

Note that the head of the prepositional phrase is the noun.

Tá duine eile i_mbun peannaireachta `Someone else is in charge of writing’

Tá duine eile i_mbun peannaireachta \n Is someone else in_charge_of writing 
xcomp:pred(Tá, peannaireachta)
case(peannaireachta, i_mbun)

Adverbial Predicate

Tá Meryl Streep go hiontach sa scannán sin `Meryl Streep is wonderful in that movie’

Tá Meryl Streep go hiontach sa scannán sin \n Is Meryl Streep [] wonderful in movie that
xcomp:pred(Tá, hiontach)

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