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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

POS tags

Open class words Closed class words Other
ADJ ADP PUNCT
ADV AUX SYM
INTJ CONJ X
NOUN DET
PROPN NUM
VERB PART
PRON
SCONJ

ADJ: adjective

Definition

Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns and specify their properties or attributes. Adjectives in French agree in gender and number with the noun they modify (both in attributive and predicative position).

Examples

edit ADJ

ADP: adposition

Definition

Adposition is a cover term for prepositions and postpositions. French has only prepositions.

Examples

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ADV: adverb

Definition

Adverbs are words that typically modify adjectives, verbs or other adverbs for such categories as time, place, direction or manner.

Examples

edit ADV

AUX: auxiliary verb

Definition

An auxiliary verb is a verb that accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb, such as person, number, tense, mood, aspect, and voice.

French auxiliary verbs can be divided into tense auxiliaries, modal auxiliaries and passive auxiliaries.

Delimitation

The exact delimitation of auxiliaries in French is not completely clear-cut, especially for the category of modal auxiliaries. In the French UD treebank, we have adopted a consensus solution based on the original Google annotation and the universal UD guidelines. Below we list the verbs that may appear in each group:

edit AUX

CONJ: coordinating conjunction

Definition

A coordinating conjunction is a word that links words or larger constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other and expresses a semantic relationship between them.

Examples

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DET: determiner

Definition

We follow the definition for DET proposed in the universal scheme.

However note that at the moment numerals are not consistently annotated as NUM, and are sometimes marked as DET.

For demonstratives such as ce …-là, ce …-ci (as in cet homme-ci, cette femme-là “this man, that women”), the first part of the determiner is annotated as DET and the clitic ci, là (which are split from the noun) are marked as PART.

Examples

edit DET

INTJ: interjection

Definition

An interjection is a word that is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation.

Examples

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NOUN: noun

Definition

Nouns are a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea. Common nouns are tagged as NOUN.

Examples

edit NOUN

NUM: numeral

Definition

A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as a determiner, a pronoun or an adjective, that expresses a number and a relation to the number, such as quantity, sequence, frequency or fraction.

Cardinal numerals are covered by NUM regardless of syntactic function and regardless of whether they are expressed as words (quatre “four”), digits (4) or Roman numerals (IV). By contrast, ordinal numerals are always tagged ADJ.

Note: Numerals are not yet consistently annotated in the French UD treebank, and sometimes appear as ADJ or DET.

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PART: particle

Definition

Particles are function words that must be associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning and that do not satisfy definitions of other universal parts of speech (e.g., adpositions, coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions or auxiliary verbs).

Examples

edit PART

PRON: pronoun

Definition

Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns or noun phrases. Their meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context.

Examples

edit PRON

PROPN: proper noun

Definition

A proper noun is a noun (or nominal content word) that is the name (or part of the name) of a specific individual, place, or object. The names of people living in a place (such as Les Américains “The Americans”) should be tagged as NOUN (but this is not yet done consistently in the French data).

Examples

edit PROPN

PUNCT: punctuation

Definition

Punctuation marks are non-alphabetical characters and character groups used to delimit linguistic units in printed text. They are tagged PUNCT regardless of their function.

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SCONJ: subordinating conjunction

Definition

A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of the other.

Examples

edit SCONJ

SYM: symbol

Definition

A symbol is a word-like entity that differs from ordinary words by form, function, or both.

Examples

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VERB: verb

Definition

A verb is a member of the syntactic class of words that typically signal events and actions, can constitute a minimal predicate in a clause, and govern the number and types of other constituents which may occur in the clause.

The tag VERB is reserved for full lexical verbs, while auxiliary verbs are tagged AUX.

Examples

edit VERB

X: other

Definition

The tag X is used for words that for some reason cannot be assigned a real part-of-speech category.

Note: Some acronyms and foreign words which could be assigned a real part-of-speech category have not yet been fixed and are still marked as X.

Examples

edit X