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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

POS tags

Open class words Closed class words Other

ADJ: adjective


Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns and specify their properties or attributes. They may also function as predicates as in Suvi on soe ‘The summer is warm’.
Also pro-adjectives, e.g. selline ‘such’, niisugune ‘such’ , missugune ‘which’ etc and attributive ordinal numerals like esimene ‘first’, teine ‘second’ etc are labelled ADJ according to Estonian UD annotation.
Attributive or predicative participles, e.g. valvav mees ‘guarding man’, valvatav mees ‘man who is guarded’ möödunud nädal ‘last week’, lõhutud vaas ‘broken vase’ also get the ADJ label.

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ADP: adposition


Adposition is a cover term for prepositions, e.g. üle ‘over’ and postpositions e.g. alla ‘under’, peale ‘on’, both present in Estonian.
Several adpositions can also function as adverbs or verbal particles in particle verbs, e.g. alla andma ‘surrender, lit. ‘give under’, they are tagged as adverbs ADV.

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ADV: adverb


Adverbs are words that typically modify verbs for such categories as time, place, direction or manner. They may also modify adjectives and other adverbs, as in väga hea ‘very good’ or väga hästi ‘very well’. Pronominal adverbs, e.g. siin ‘here’, seal ‘there’, siis ‘then’, millal ‘when’ , nii ‘so’ are tagged as adverbs in the current version of Estonian UD.
Some adverbs may also function as verbal particles in Estonian, they are still tagged ADV and not PART, e.g. välja mõtlema ‘contrive’, lit. ‘think out’.

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AUX: auxiliary verb


An auxiliary verb is a verb that accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb, such as person, number, tense, mood and voice.
In Estonian UD, auxiliaries are:
olema ‘be’ and in rare occasions saama ‘get’ are auxiliaries that form periphrastic tense forms;
modal verbs are võima, tohtima ‘may’, saama ‘can’, pidama ‘must’, näima ‘seem’, paistma ‘seem’, tunduma ‘seem’;
ei and ära ‘not’ in negative verb forms.

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CONJ: coordinating conjunction


A coordinating conjunction is a word that links words or larger constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other and expresses a semantic relationship between them.
The following words are annotated as coordinated conjunctions CONJ in Estonian UD: aga “but”, ega “nor”, ehk “or”, elik “or”, ent “but”, ja “and”, kui “if, when”, kuid “but”, kuni “until”, ning “and”, vaid “but” või “or”. For subordinating conjunctions, see u-dep/sconj.

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DET: determiner

POS-tag DET is not used in Estonian UD.

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INTJ: interjection


An interjection is a word that is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation.
In Estonian UD also onomatopoetic words like kõmm ‘bang’ are tagged as INTJ.

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NOUN: noun


Nouns are a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea.
The postag NOUN is used only for tagging for common nouns.
Proper nouns are annotated as PROPN and pronouns as PRON.

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NUM: numeral


A numeral is a word that expresses a number and a relation to the number, such as quantity, sequence, frequency or fraction.
Both cardinal and ordinal numerals get the postag NUM. Also words like paar “pair”, paarsada “about twenty”, paarkümmend “about two hundred” etc, tosin “dozen” are labelled as NUM.

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PART: particle

postag PART is not used in the current version of Estonian UD

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PRON: pronoun


Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns u-dep/u/pos/noun or noun phrases, whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context.
Words that substitute for adjectives u-dep/u/pos/adj (proadjectives) are also tagged as PRON in Estonian UD v 1.3.

Demonstrative pronouns: see “this”, too “that”, üks “one, indefinite article-like usages”, esimene “first, this”, teine “second, that”, igaüks “everyone” etc.
Personal pronouns: mina (short form ma) “I”, sina (short form sa) “you”, tema (short form ta) “s/he”. For plural personal pronouns meie (me) “we”, teie (te) “you”, nemad (nad) “they”, the singular form serves as lemma.
Personal reflexive pronouns: oma, ise, omaenese, iseenese “self, oneself”.
Interrogative-relative pronouns: kes “who”, mis “what”.
Indefinite pronouns: keegi “somebody, anybody”, miski “something, anything” etc.
Totality pronouns: kõik “all, everybody”.
Reciprocal pronouns: teineteise “one another, each other”.
Possessive pronouns: oma, enese “self, oneself”.

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PROPN: proper noun


A proper noun is a noun (or nominal content word) that is the name (or part of the name) of a specific individual, place, or object.
Acronyms of proper nouns, such as NATO, are tagged as abbreviated nouns NOUN Abbr=Yes in Estonian UD v 1.3.

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PUNCT: punctuation


Punctuation marks are non-alphabetical characters and character groups used to delimit linguistic units in printed text.

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SCONJ: subordinating conjunction


A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of the other.

et “that” (complementizer),
sest, kuna “because”,
kui “if, when”,
nagu, justkui, otsekui “like, as if”,
kuigi, ehkki, olgugi “although”,
kuni “until”.

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SYM: symbol


A symbol is a word-like entity that differs from ordinary words by form, function, or both.
Mail and web addresses are also tagged also SYM.

§, %, +, =, 11°, 25°53’

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VERB: verb


A verb typically signals events and actions; it can constitute a minimal predicate in a clause. Verbs in Estonian associate with grammatical categories like person, number, tense, mood and voice.
The verb tag in Estonian UD v 1.3 does not cover auxiliaries AUX.
Auxiliaries are:
olema “be” and in rare occasions saama “get” are auxiliaries that form periphrastic tense forms;
modal verbs are võima, tohtima “may”, saama “can”, pidama “must”, näima, paistma, tunduma “seem”;
ei and ära “not” in negative verb forms.

Participles are word forms that share properties and usage of adjectives and verbs. Depending on their syntactic function they are tagged as VERB or ADJ in Estonian UD.

Gerunds and infinitives are tagged as VERB, except for grammatized word-forms.

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X: other


The tag X is used for words that for some reason cannot be assigned a real part-of-speech category.
In Estonian UD v 1.3 foreign words are tagged as X. However, „fresh” loanwords that are part of an Estonian sentence, are not X but are tagged according to their word class.

In the following sentence, the wordforms you, know, what, I, mean are tagged as X:
Viimane pole küll mingi eriline näitaja, kuid … you know what I mean.

edit X