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Universal Dependencies

The idea of universal dependencies is to propose a set of universal grammatical relations which can be used with relative fidelity to capture any dependency relation between words in any language. Each dependency relation should be typed with one of the relations in the table below.

The table is adapted from Universal Stanford Dependencies: A cross-linguistic typology (de Marneffe et al. 2014). There have been modifications in the relations: we now have 40 universal relations (instead of the 42 ones proposed in the paper).

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
name foreign
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

Alphabetical listing