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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
  acl:relcl
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
compound:prt
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl marks finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun except for relative clauses which get the relation acl:relcl.

Haben Sie den Eindruck , daß das Licht heller geworden ist ? \n Do you have the impression that the light got brighter ?
acl(Eindruck, geworden)
Tatsächlich gibt es Bestrebungen , den Straßenverkehr sicherer zu machen . \n There are indeed efforts to make the traffic safer .
acl(Bestrebungen, machen)

edit acl

acl:relcl: relative clause modifier

A relative clause is a clause that modifies a noun. Relative clauses are finite and are introduced with a relative pronoun that refers back to the noun. acl:relcl is a subtype of the acl relation.

Er legt das Buch auf den Tisch , der dort drüben steht . \n Put the book on the table that stands over there .
acl:relcl(Tisch, steht)
nsubj(steht, der)
Er stellt den Teller auf den Tisch , auf dem schon das Buch liegt . \n Put the plate on the table on which the book lies already .
acl:relcl(Tisch, liegt)
nmod(liegt, dem)

Extraposed relative clauses often introduce non-projective structures.

Petra hat diese Frau angerufen , die er gestern getroffen hat . \n Petra called this woman who she met yesterday .
acl:relcl(Frau, getroffen)
dobj(angerufen, Frau)
aux(angerufen, hat)
nsubj(getroffen, die)

edit acl:relcl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advcl.

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advmod.

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

amod marks adjectival modifiers that modify the meaning of a noun.

Er ißt rohes Fleisch . \n He eats raw meat .
amod(Fleisch, rohes)
die Rheintaler Bauern \n the farmers from the Rhine valley
amod(Bauern, Rheintaler)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

appos marks nominal appositions to noun phrases. This includes parenthesized noun phrases and abbreviations that specify the modified noun.

Die neue Senatorin für Stadtentwicklung , Traute Müller , tritt heute ihren Dienst an . \n The new senator for city development , Traute Müller , assumes her office today . 
appos(Senatorin, Traute)
name(Traute, Müller)
das Niedersächsische Landeskriminalamt ( LKA ) \n the Lower-Saxonian state police office ( LKA ) 
appos(Landeskriminalamt, LKA)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for aux.

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for auxpass.

edit auxpass

case: case marking

case marks mostly prepositions in prepositional phrases. Prepositions are considered dependents of the noun whose case value they govern. The case relation aims at providing a uniform analysis of prepositions and case in morphologically rich languages.

Sie stehen an der Straße . \n They stand on the street .
case(Straße, an)
Sie warten auf den Bus . \n They wait for the bus .
case(Bus, auf)

case is also used to mark the comparative marker in comparative constructions that involve noun phrases, prepositional phrases, or adjectives.

Der Bus ist schneller als die Straßenbahn . \n The bus is faster than the tram .
case(Straßenbahn, als)
Das sieht alles andere als einfach aus . \n This looks anything but simple .
case(einfach, als)

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cc: coordinating conjunction

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for cc.

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ccomp: clausal complement

ccomp marks clausal dependents of verbs that function like a complement of that verb. The complement clause has its own internal subject.

Jeder hier glaubt , daß er eine Chance hat . \n Everyone here thinks that he has a chance .
ccomp(glaubt, hat)
nsubj(hat, er)
Es heißt , die Arbeiter würden streiken . \n People say the workers are on strike .
ccomp(heißt, streiken)
Wann kann ich mir anschauen , was du gemacht hast ? \n When will I see what you have done .
ccomp(anschauen, gemacht)

edit ccomp

compound: compound

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for compound.

edit compound

compound:prt: separable verb particle

Depending on the clause type in German, particles and verb stems of particle verbs either stand together or separate in the sentence. compound:prt is used to mark the separated particles of particle verbs. It is a subtype of the compound relation.

In main clauses, particles appear in sentence-final position separate from their verb stem, which stands in second position.

Der Koch schlägt die Eier auf . \n The chef breaks the eggs .
compound:prt(schlägt, auf)

In subordinate clauses, particle verbs appear with their particles in sentence-final position. In this case, they form a single token.

... , weil der Koch die Eier aufschlägt . \n ... , because the chef breaks the eggs .

edit compound:prt

conj: conjunct

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for conj.

edit conj

cop: copula

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for cop.

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

csubj marks a clausal subject of a sentence.

Aber warum nur so wenige Frauen ein Polizeipräsidium leiten , hat verschiedene Gründe . \n But why only so few women lead a police department has different reasons .
csubj(hat, leiten)

For copula constructions, the head of the clausal subject is the predicative complement of the copula.

Ob dies die Unzufriedenheit zu zügeln vermag , ist zweifelhaft \n Whether this can control the unrest is dubious .
csubj(zweifelhaft, vermag)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

csubjpass marks clausal subjects of passive clauses.

Hier kann nicht mehr eingeschätzt werden, wann es anfängt zu brennen . \n It cannot be estimated anymore when it starts burning .
csubjpass(eingeschätzt, anfängt)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dep.

edit dep

det: determiner

det marks the relation between a noun and its determiner. Attributively used indefinite, demonstrative, or interrogative pronouns are also marked with det.

Der Mann betrat eine Küche . \n The man entered a kitchen .
det(Mann, Der)
det(Küche, eine)
Dieses Mädchen erfuhr wenige Sekunden später, welche Note sie bekommen hatte . \n This girl found out only few seconds later which grade she had gotten.
det(Mädchen, Dieses)
det(Sekunden, wenige)
det(Note, welche)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for discourse.

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dislocated.

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

dobj marks a noun phrase that is the direct object of a verb. The direct object is in accusative case.

Die Frau gibt dem Kind einen Apfel . \n The woman gives the child an apple .
dobj(gibt, Apfel)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl.

edit expl

foreign: foreign words

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for foreign.

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for goeswith.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

iobj marks a noun phrase that is the indirect object of a verb. The indirect object is in dative case.

Die Frau gibt dem Kind einen Apfel . \n The woman gives the child an apple .
iobj(gibt, Kind)

edit iobj

list: list

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for list.

edit list

mark: marker

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mark.

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mwe.

edit mwe

name: name

The name relation is one of the three relations for compounding in UD (together with compound and mwe). It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements. For example, name would be used between the words of Hillary Rodham Clinton, New York, or Carl XVI Gustaf but not to replace the usual relations in a phrasal or clausal name like The king of Sweden or the novels The Lord of the Rings and Captured By Aliens.

Words joined by name should all be part of a minimal noun phrase; otherwise regular syntactic relations should be used. This is basically similar to the treatment of noun compounds with compound, except that in many cases parts of the name may be another nominal element such as an adjective (United Airlines).

In general, names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the first one using the name label.

Carl XVI Gustav
name(Carl, XVI)
name(Carl, Gustav)
Frankfurt am Main
nmod(Frankfurt, Main)
case(Main, am)

edit name

neg: negation modifier

neg marks the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies.

Er hat den Mann nicht gesehen . \n He didn't see the man .
neg(gesehen, nicht)
Er will nicht mehr Fußball spielen . \n He doesn't want to play soccer anymore .
neg(mehr, nicht)
Er hat keinen Regenschirm mitgebracht . \n He didn't bring an umbrella .
neg(Regenschirm, keinen)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nmod.

edit nmod

nmod:poss: nmod:poss

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nmod:poss.

edit nmod:poss

nsubj: nominal subject

nsubj marks noun phrases that are the subject of a finite clause. The head of nsubj is typically a verb, but can be another noun phrase or adjective, for example in copula constructions.

Die Frau schläft . \n The woman sleeps .
nsubj(schläft, Frau)
Die Frau ist Ärztin . \n The woman is a doctor .
nsubj(Ärztin, Frau)
Die Frau ist müde . \n The woman is tired .
nsubj(müde, Frau)

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

nsubjpass marks the subject of a passive clause.

Das Bild wurde von Picasso gemalt . \n The painting was painted by Picasso .
nsubjpass(gemalt, Bild)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

nummod marks numeric modifiers that modify the meaning of a noun with a quantity.

eine Milliarde Menschen \n one billion people
nummod(Menschen, Milliarde)
Er bezahlte 50 Euro . \n He paid 50 Euros .
nummod(Euro, 50)

edit nummod

parataxis: parataxis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for parataxis.

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for punct.

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for remnant.

edit remnant

reparandum: overridden disfluency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for reparandum.

edit reparandum

root: root

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for root.

edit root

vocative: vocative

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for vocative.

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for xcomp.

edit xcomp