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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    advmod:emph
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl auxpass:reflex
  cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod acl amod
appos   det
    det:numgov
    det:nummod
    nummod
    nummod:gov
    neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl stands for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a nominal. The acl relation contrasts with the advcl relation, which is used for adverbial clauses that modify a predicate. The head of the acl relation is the noun that is modified, and the dependent is the head of the clause that modifies the noun.

muž , o kterém jsem mluvil \n man , about whom I-have talked
acl(muž, mluvil)
acl(man, talked)

This relation is also used for optional depictives. The adjective is taken to modify the nominal of which it provides a secondary predication. See u-dep/xcomp for further discussion of resultatives and depictives.

Alena vstoupila do místnosti smutná . \n Alena entered to room sad .
acl(Alena-1, smutná)
acl(Alena-8, sad)
Namaloval svou ženu nahou . \n He-painted his wife naked .
acl(ženu, nahou)
acl(wife, naked)

Czech also allows finite clausal complements for nouns with a subset of nouns like fact or report. These look roughly like relative clauses, but do not have any omitted role in the dependent clause. These are also analyzed as acl.

Příčinou není fakt , že by kina navštívilo víc diváků . \n Cause is-not the-fact , that would cinemas visit more filmgoers .
acl(fakt, navštívilo)
acl(the-fact, visit)

edit acl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes things such as a temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.

K nehodě došlo , když přicházela noc . \n To accident it-came , when was-falling night .
advcl(došlo, přicházela)
advcl(it-came, was-falling)
Jestliže víš , kdo to udělal , měl bys to říct učiteli . \n If you-know , who it did , should you it tell teacher .
advcl(měl, víš)
advcl(should, you-know)
Spěchal , aby přišel včas . \n He-rushed , in-order-to come in-time .
advcl(Spěchal, přišel)
advcl(He-rushed, come)

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

Note that in the Czech grammatical tradition, the term adverbial modifier covers constituents that function like adverbs regardless whether they are realized by adverbs, adpositional phrases, or nouns in particular morphological cases. We differentiate adverbials realized as adverbs (advmod) and adverbials realized by noun phrases or adpositional phrases (nmod).

geneticky upravené potraviny \n genetically modified food
advmod(upravené, geneticky)
advmod(modified, genetically)
méně často \n less often
advmod(často, méně)
advmod(often, less)
Kam/ADV chcete/VERB jít/VERB zítra/ADV ?/PUNCT \n Where do-you-want to-go tomorrow ?
advmod(jít, Kam)
advmod(jít, zítra)
advmod(to-go, Where)
advmod(to-go, tomorrow)

edit advmod

advmod:emph: emphasizing word, intensifier

This is a special class of adverbial modifiers. It corresponds to the words that are attached in the analytical layer of PDT with the label AuxZ. In the tectogrammatical layer they often get the label (functor) RHEM (rhematizers).

While other adverbial modifiers usually modify verbs, adjectives or adverbs, these emphasizers often modify noun phrases, including prepositional phrases.

zvlášť v pondělí \n especially on Monday
advmod:emph(pondělí, zvlášť)
advmod:emph(Monday, especially)
jen 15 procent \n only 15 percent
advmod:emph(procent, jen)
advmod:emph(percent, only)

Other examples:

edit advmod:emph

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier of a noun is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun.

Exception: if the modifying adjectival word is pronominal (i.e. tagged cs-pos/DET), the relation is det instead of amod.

Václav jí vepřové maso . \n Václav eats pork meat .
amod(maso, vepřové)
amod(meat, pork)
Václav si vzal třímiliónovou půjčku . \n Václav himself took-out three-million loan .
amod(půjčku, třímiliónovou)
amod(loan, three-million)
První závodník byl rychlý . \n First racer was fast .
amod(závodník, První)
amod(racer, First)
nsubj(rychlý, závodník)
nsubj(fast, racer)
Rychlý závodník byl první . \n Fast racer was first .
amod(závodník, Rychlý)
amod(racer, Fast)
nsubj(první, závodník)
nsubj(first, racer)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier of a noun is a nominal immediately following the first noun that serves to define or modify that noun. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

Karel IV . , římský císař a český král , vládl ve 14 . století . \n Charles IV . , Roman Emperor and Czech king , ruled in 14 th century .
appos(Karel, císař)
appos(Charles, Emperor)
conj(císař, král)
conj(Emperor, king)
Občanská demokratická strana ( ODS ) \n Civic Democratic Party ( ODS )
appos(strana, ODS-5)
appos(Party, ODS-12)

There is a slight deviation from the universal standard in case of more than one appositive nominal. Instead of attaching them all to the first noun, all the appositive modifiers are put together in coordination, then attached as appos to the modified noun. This is done regardless whether the appositives are joined by a coordinating conjunction or just a comma.

Přijel Michal , můj bratr a Davidův bratranec . \n Came Michal , my brother and David's cousin .
appos(Michal-2, bratr)
appos(Michal-12, brother)
conj(bratr, bratranec)
conj(brother, cousin)
Michal , můj bratr , Davidův bratranec , přijede zítra . \n Michal , my brother , David's cousin , will-come tomorrow .
appos(Michal-1, bratr)
appos(Michal-13, brother)
conj(bratr, bratranec)
conj(brother, cousin)

appos is also used to link key-value pairs in addresses, signatures, etc. (see also the list label):

Jan Novák , tel . : 777-000-111 , e-mail : novak@ab.cz
name(Novák, Jan)
list(Novák, tel)
list(Novák, e-mail)
appos(tel, 777-000-111)
appos(e-mail, novak@ab.cz)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

An auxiliary of a clause is a form of the auxiliary verb být “to be” used to construct the periphrastic future tense, past tense or conditional.

Exception: Auxiliary verb used to construct the passive voice is not labeled aux but auxpass.

Note that besides aux and auxpass, the verb být may also act as a copula and as the main verb.

Přijel jsem včera . \n Arrived I-have yesterday .
aux(Přijel, jsem)
aux(Arrived, I-have)
Zítra budu přednášet na univerzitě . \n Tomorrow I-will give-a-talk at university .
aux(přednášet, budu)
aux(give-a-talk, I-will)
Přišel bych dříve , ale ujel mi vlak . \n Come I-would earlier , but missed my train .
aux(Přišel, bych)
aux(Come, I-would)

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a form of the auxiliary verb být “to be” used to construct the periphrastic passive voice (in any tense or in the infinitive).

Kennedy byl zabit . \n Kennedy was killed .
auxpass(zabit, byl)
auxpass(killed, was)
Kennedy bude zabit . \n Kennedy will-be killed .
auxpass(zabit, bude)
auxpass(killed, will-be)
Kennedy netušil , že jeho osudem je být zabit . \n Kennedy did-not-anticipate that his fate is to-be killed .
auxpass(zabit, být)
auxpass(killed, to-be)

Note that the passive participle may be also used as nominal predicate with copula. Hence it may be difficult to distinguish a passive construction from a copula construction. The former focuses on the process while the latter emphasizes the result.

Smlouva byla podepsána v Bílém domě . \n Contract was signed in White House .
auxpass(podepsána, byla)
auxpass(signed, was)
Smlouva byla podepsána červeným inkoustem . \n Contract was signed in-red ink .
cop(podepsána, byla)
cop(signed, was)

edit auxpass

auxpass:reflex: reflexive pronoun used in reflexive passive

Reflexive pronouns (see the feature cs-feat/Reflex) are used in various constructions in Czech, including so-called reflexive passive. In PDT, their relation to the verb is labeled AuxR. The corresponding label in Czech UD is called auxpass:reflex.

To se řekne snadno . \n It is said easily .
auxpass:reflex(řekne, se)
auxpass:reflex(said, is)

edit auxpass:reflex

case: case marking

Czech uses a combination of oblique morphological cases and prepositions to express semantic case. Unlike in the original annotation of the Prague Dependency Treebank, prepositions in UD are treated as dependents of the noun they attach to. The relation between the noun and the preposition is labeled case.

V pátek.Acc jsme si cestou.Ins do Francie.Gen povídali o té události.Loc . \n On Friday we-have ourselves during-the-journey to France talked about the event .
case(pátek.Acc, V)
case(Friday, On)
case(Francie.Gen, do)
case(France, to)
case(události.Loc, o)
case(event, about)

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

For more on coordination, see the conj relation. A cc is the relation between the first conjunct and the coordinating conjunction delimiting another conjunct. (Note: different dependency grammars have different treatments of coordination. We take the first conjunct as the head of the coordination.)

Je to starý a moudrý muž . \n Is he old and wise man .
cc(starý, a)
cc(old, and)

A coordinating conjunction may also appear at the beginning of a sentence. This is also called a cc, and it depends on the root predicate of the sentence. (In fact there is a coordination that spans multiple sentences. We cannot attach a word to the first conjunct because it is in another sentence. Thus we attach it to the first conjunct available in the current sentence: its main predicate.)

A pak jsme odešli . \n And then we-have left .
cc(odešli, A)
cc(left, And)
Máme jablka , hrušky , pomeranče a banány . \n We-have apples , pears , oranges and bananas .
dobj(Máme, jablka)
dobj(We-have, apples)
conj(jablka, hrušky)
conj(jablka, pomeranče)
conj(jablka, banány)
conj(apples, pears)
conj(apples, oranges)
conj(apples, bananas)
cc(jablka, a)
cc(apples, and)
punct(jablka, ,-3)
punct(jablka, ,-5)
punct(apples, ,-13)
punct(apples, ,-15)

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause which is a core argument. That is, it functions like an object of the verb, or adjective.

Říká , že ráda plaveš . \n He-says , that like-to you-swim .
ccomp(Říká, plaveš)
ccomp(He-says, you-swim)

Such clausal complements may be finite or nonfinite. However, if the subject of the clausal complement is controlled (that is, must be the same as the higher subject or object, with no other possible interpretation) the appropriate relation is xcomp.

Šéf nám nařídil vykopat příkop . \n Boss us ordered to-dig ditch .
ccomp(nařídil, vykopat)
ccomp(ordered, to-dig)
Začali jsme kopat příkop . \n Started we-have to-dig ditch .
xcomp(Začali, kopat)
xcomp(Started, to-dig)

The key difference here is that, while it is possible to interpret the first sentence to mean that the boss will not be doing any digging, in the second sentence it is clear that the subject of digging can only be we. This is what distinguishes ccomp and xcomp.

edit ccomp

compound: compound

compound is one of the relations in UD for compounding. In Czech it is used only for compound numbers. The rightmost numeral is the head, the other numerals are attached as its modifiers.

Bude to stát nanejvýš 50 tisíc korun . \n Will it cost at-most 50 thousand crowns .
nummod:gov(korun, tisíc)
nummod:gov(crowns, thousand)
compound(tisíc, 50-5)
compound(thousand, 50-14)
Bude to stát padesát pět tisíc korun . \n Will it cost fifty five thousand crowns .
nummod:gov(korun, tisíc)
nummod:gov(crowns, thousand)
compound(tisíc, padesát)
compound(thousand, fifty)
compound(tisíc, pět)
compound(thousand, five)

edit compound

conj: conjunct

A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as and, or, or a comma or other punctuation. We treat coordination asymmetrically in what is known as the Stanford style: The head of the relation is the first conjunct and all the other conjuncts depend on it via the conj relation.

Je to starý a moudrý muž . \n Is he old and wise man .
conj(starý, moudrý)
conj(old, wise)
Máme jablka , hrušky , pomeranče a banány . \n We-have apples , pears , oranges and bananas .
dobj(Máme, jablka)
dobj(We-have, apples)
conj(jablka, hrušky)
conj(jablka, pomeranče)
conj(jablka, banány)
conj(apples, pears)
conj(apples, oranges)
conj(apples, bananas)
cc(jablka, a)
cc(apples, and)
punct(jablka, ,-3)
punct(jablka, ,-5)
punct(apples, ,-13)
punct(apples, ,-15)

Coordinate clauses are treated the same way as coordination of other constituent types:

Přišel domů , osprchoval se a hned šel do postele . \n He-came home , showered himself and immediately went to bed .
conj(Přišel, osprchoval)
conj(Přišel, šel)
conj(He-came, showered)
conj(He-came, went)
punct(Přišel, ,-3)
punct(He-came, ,-15)
cc(Přišel, a)
cc(He-came, and)

See universal/conj for more details on various coordination-related issues. Note that the present conversion procedure loses some annotations of shared modifiers and nested coordination.

edit conj

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the nominal predicate (přísudek jmenný) and the copular verb být “to be” (or its variants bývat, bývávat). The verb stát se “to become”, despite being counted among copular verbs by some authors, is not analyzed as cop.

We normally take a copula as a dependent of its complement (the nominal predicate). The nominal predicate is usually a noun, an adjective or a participle.

Ondřej je čestný muž . \n Ondřej is honest man .
cop(muž, je)
cop(man, is)
Ondřej je čestný . \n Ondřej is honest .
cop(čestný, je)
cop(honest, is)

Note that the passive participle may be also used as nominal predicate with copula. Hence it may be difficult to distinguish a passive construction from a copula construction. The former focuses on the process while the latter emphasizes the result.

Smlouva byla podepsána v Bílém domě . \n Contract was signed in White House .
auxpass(podepsána, byla)
auxpass(signed, was)
Smlouva byla podepsána červeným inkoustem . \n Contract was signed in-red ink .
cop(podepsána, byla)
cop(signed, was)

The nominal predicate may also be expressed using a prepositional phrase. However, not every occurrence of být “to be” with a prepositional phrase is a copula with a nominal predicate. Phrases expressing the state of the subject are predicates, e.g. Lenka je v kondici “Lenka is in shape”. In contrast, prepositional phrases specifying location are not predicates. The verb být is understood as the existential “to be” in such cases, and thus it itself is the predicate, not just a copula.

Thus the following two sentences receive parallel analyses:

The following two will be parallel, too:

Lenka je v kondici . \n Lenka is in shape .
cop(kondici, je)
cop(shape, is)
case(kondici, v)
case(shape, in)
nsubj(kondici, Lenka-1)
nsubj(shape, Lenka-7)
Lenka je v kuchyni . \n Lenka is in kitchen .
nsubj(je, Lenka-1)
nsubj(is, Lenka-7)
nmod(je, kuchyni)
nmod(is, kitchen)
case(kuchyni, v)
case(kitchen, in)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb. The dependent is the main lexical verb or other predicate of the subject clause.

Obžalovanému přitížilo , že neměl alibi . \n To-indictee did-a-disservice , that he-did-not-have alibi .
csubj(přitížilo, neměl)
csubj(did-a-disservice, he-did-not-have)
Podstatou těchto vazeb je , že se děj rozloží na dvě složky . \n The-essence of-these constructions is , that one the-action splits to two parts .
csubj(Podstatou, rozloží)
cop(Podstatou, je)
csubj(The-essence, splits)
cop(The-essence, is)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause.

Bylo mi doporučeno , abych to velmi dobře zvážil . \n It-has-been to-me recommended , that-I it very well weigh .
csubjpass(doporučeno, zvážil)
csubjpass(recommended, weigh)

Reflexive passive (the meaning is “You are not expected to come before nine o’clock.”)

Nepředpokládá se , že přijdete před devátou . \n It-does-not-expect itself , that you-will-come before nine .
csubjpass(Nepředpokládá, přijdete)
csubjpass(It-does-not-expect, you-will-come)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

A dependency is labeled as dep when a system is unable to determine a more precise dependency relation between two words. This may be because of a weird grammatical construction, a limitation in software, a parser error, or because of an unresolved long distance dependency.

Most dep instances in the current conversion of the PDT 3.0 data correspond to the PDT label ExD, which marks ellipsis. The current conversion software cannot produce the annotation conforming to the UD standard and using the remnant relation.

K čemu ovšem , to nebylo jasné . \n For what however , that was-not clear .
dep(jasné, čemu)
dep(clear, what)

edit dep

det: determiner

The relation determiner (det) holds between a nominal head and its determiner. This relation is used for pronominal adjectival modifiers of noun phrases; the det modifier has the POS tag cs-pos/DET and vice versa. Non-pronominal adjectives are tagged cs-pos/ADJ and the relation is labeled amod.

Pronominal quantifiers are tagged DET but their relation to their head is a subtype of the det relation: either cs-dep/det:numgov or cs-dep/det:nummod.

Ten člověk už je tady . \n The man already is here .
det(člověk, Ten)
det(man, The)
Která kniha se vám líbí nejvíc ? \n Which book is to-you nice the-most ?
det(kniha, Která)
det(book, Which)

edit det

det:numgov: pronominal quantifier governing the case of the noun

Pronominal quantifiers are labeled det:numgov instead of det because they normally do not agree with the quantified noun in case (unlike non-quantifying determiners).

The quantifier requires the counted noun to be in its genitive form. The whole phrase (quantifier + noun) is treated as a singular neuter noun phrase and it can fill roles where nominative, accusative or vocative noun phrases are expected.

Such situations are analyzed in PDT so that the quantifier (numeral) is the head and the noun depends on it. In UD the dependency direction is reversed and the det:numgov label is used to preserve the information about case conditions.

# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1   Kolik   kolik   NUM     _   Case=Nom                           3   Sb     _   How-many
2   mužů    muž     NOUN    _   Case=Gen|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur   1   Atr    _   men
3   hrálo   hrát    VERB    _   Gender=Neut|Number=Sing            0   Pred   _   played
4   karty   karta   NOUN    _   Case=Acc|Gender=Fem|Number=Plur    3   Obj    _   cards
5   ?       ?       PUNCT   _   _                                  0   AuxK   _   ?
Kolik mužů hrálo karty ? \n How-many men played cards ?
det:numgov(mužů, Kolik)
nsubj(hrálo, mužů)
dobj(hrálo, karty)
punct(hrálo, ?-5)
det:numgov(men, How-many)
nsubj(played, men)
dobj(played, cards)
punct(played, ?-11)

See nummod for a broader discussion of the various situations with quantifiers.

edit det:numgov

det:nummod: pronominal quantifier agreeing in case with the noun

Pronominal quantifiers are labeled det:nummod or det:numgov instead of det because they normally do not agree with the quantified noun in case (unlike non-quantifying determiners). They do agree only if the whole phrase (quantifier + noun) fills a role where genitive, dative, locative or instrumental noun phrases are expected. In these situations they are labeled det:nummod.

Nepamatuji si , s kolika muži jsem hrál karty . \n I-do-not-remember myself , with how-many men I-have played cards .
ccomp(Nepamatuji, hrál)
compound:reflex(Nepamatuji, si)
punct(hrál, ,-3)
aux(hrál, jsem)
dobj(hrál, karty)
iobj(hrál, muži)
case(muži, s)
det:nummod(muži, kolika)
punct(Nepamatuji, .-10)
ccomp(I-do-not-remember, played)
compound:reflex(I-do-not-remember, myself)
punct(played, ,-14)
aux(played, I-have)
dobj(played, cards)
iobj(played, men)
case(men, with)
det:nummod(men, how-many)
punct(I-do-not-remember, .-21)

See nummod for a broader discussion of the various situations with quantifiers.

edit det:nummod

discourse: discourse element

At present we use the discourse relation for what is labeled AuxO in the Prague Dependency Treebank: redundant or emotional items, redundant coreferential pronoun.

čemu že se to zpronevěřily \n what that themselves it they-betrayed
discourse(zpronevěřily, to)
discourse(they-betrayed, it)

(meaning “… what they betrayed”)

edit discourse

dobj: direct object

The direct object of a verb is the noun phrase that denotes the entity acted upon. Most often the direct object is in the accusative case but there are verbs that require their objects be in other cases (except for nominative and vocative).

Accusative example:

Koupil jsem auto . \n Bought I-have car .
dobj(Koupil, auto)
dobj(Bought, car)

Genitive example:

Cením si vaší pomoci . \n I-appreciate REFLEX your help .
dobj(Cením, pomoci)
dobj(I-appreciate, help)

Dative example:

Čelíme velkým problémům . \n We-face big problems .
dobj(Čelíme, problémům)
dobj(We-face, problems)

Instrumental example:

Univerzita nedisponuje takovým rozpočtem . \n University does-not-have-at-disposal such budget .
dobj(nedisponuje, rozpočtem)
dobj(does-not-have-at-disposal, budget)

In general, if there is just one object, it should be labeled dobj, regardless of the morphological case or semantic role that it bears. If there are two or more objects, one of them should be dobj and the others should be iobj. In such cases it is necessary to decide what is the most directly affected object (patient). The one exception is when there is a clausal complement. Then the clausal complement is regarded as a “clausal direct object” and an object nominal will be an iobj.

Diffs

Prague Dependency Treebank

The manual annotation of the PDT does not distinguish direct and indirect objects. Therefore all non-clausal dependents labeled Obj in PDT are currently labeled dobj in the converted data, even if it results in two or more direct objects attached to one verb. In future, the valency lexicon Vallex could be used to identify the main object.

edit dobj

expl: expletive: reflexive pronoun with an inherently reflexive verb

Reflexive pronouns (see the feature cs-feat/Reflex) usually replace objects of verbs. However, some verbs are inherently reflexive, i.e. the verb always occurs with a reflexive prounoun, and the pronoun cannot be replaced by a non-reflexive pronoun.

With these verbs, the reflexive pronoun is attached as expl instead of dobj. (Note that the expl relation is first used for this purpose in the UD release 1.2, to increase parallelism with other languages. In the previous releases this usage of reflexive se/si was labeled compound:reflex.)

Martin se bojí zvířat . \n Martin REFLEX fears animals .
expl(bojí, se)
expl(fears, REFLEX)

edit expl

foreign: foreign words

We use foreign to label sequences of foreign words. These are given a linear analysis: the head is the first token in the foreign phrase.

foreign does not apply to loanwords or to foreign names. It applies to quoted foreign text incorporated in a sentence/discourse of the host language (unless we want to and know how to annotate the internal structure according to the syntax of the foreign language).

Jarmusch se objevil ve Wangově snímku Modrá ve tváři ( Blue in the Face ) .
foreign(Blue, in)
foreign(Blue, the)
foreign(Blue, Face)

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This relation links two parts of a word that are separated in text that is not well edited. The head is in some sense the “main” part, often the second part.

Zastavil a z těžka oddychoval .
goeswith(těžka, z)

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

The indirect object of a verb is any nominal phrase that is a core argument of the verb but is not its subject or direct object. The prototypical example is the recipient of ditransitive verbs of exchange:

Pavel dal Petrovi dvě hrušky . \n Pavel gave Petr two pears .
iobj(dal, Petrovi)
iobj(gave, Petr)

However, Czech allows other semantic roles as additional objects. The morphological cs-feat/Case of the objects is dictated by verb valency.

In the following Czech example, the verb takes two arguments, both are nouns in the accusative case. One of them is direct object (patient), the other is indirect (addressee). It is parallel to how the English translation would be annotated (where there is no morphological case marking) and also to verbs of giving (consider a similar sentence, he gave my daughter a class of maths).

On učí mou dceru matematiku . \n He teaches my daughter.Acc maths.Acc .
dobj(učí, matematiku)
iobj(učí, dceru)
dobj(teaches, maths.Acc)
iobj(teaches, daughter.Acc)

In general, if there is just one object, it should be labeled dobj, regardless of the morphological case or semantic role. For example, učit “to teach” can take either the subject matter or the recipient as the only object, and in both cases it would be analyzed as the dobj:

Učí úvod do logiky . \n He-teaches introduction to logic .
dobj(Učí, úvod)
dobj(He-teaches, introduction)
Učí studenty prvního ročníku . \n He-teaches students of-first year .
dobj(Učí, studenty)
dobj(He-teaches, students)

The one exception is when there is a clausal complement. Then the clausal complement is regarded as a “clausal direct object” and an object nominal will be an iobj, parallel to the simple ditransitive case:

Řekla studentům , že dnes večer musí studovat . \n She-told students , that today evening they-needed to-study .
iobj(Řekla, studentům)
ccomp(Řekla, musí)
iobj(She-told, students)
ccomp(She-told, they-needed)
Řekla studentům svůj plán . \n She-told students her plan .
iobj(Řekla, studentům)
dobj(Řekla, plán)
iobj(She-told, students)
dobj(She-told, plan)

If there are two or more objects, one of them should be dobj and the others should be iobj. In such cases it is necessary to decide what is the most directly affected object (patient).

Diffs

Prague Dependency Treebank

The manual annotation of the PDT does not distinguish direct and indirect objects. Therefore all non-clausal dependents labeled Obj in PDT are currently labeled dobj in the converted data, even if it results in two or more direct objects attached to one verb. In future, the valency lexicon Vallex could be used to identify the main object.

edit iobj

list: list

The list relation is used for chains of comparable items. In lists with more than two items, all items of the list should modify the first one. Informal and web text often contains passages which are meant to be interpreted as lists but are parsed as single sentences. Email signatures often contain these structures, in the form of contact information: the different contact information items are labeled as list; the key-value pair relations are labeled as appos.

However, list should not be over-used. If a construction can be easily analyzed using the grammatical relations of standard sentences, such as when there is overt coordination, then it should be analyzed with these more standard relations, even if it is laid out as a list typographically.

Steve Jones tel.: 555-9814 e-mail: jones@abc.edf
name(Steve-1, Jones-2)
list(Steve-1, tel.:-3)
list(Steve-1, e-mail:-5)
appos(tel.:-3, 555-9814-4)
appos(e-mail:-5, jones@abc.edf-6)

Diffs

Prague Dependency Treebank

The list relation is not used in the current conversion of the PDT data to UD.

edit list

mark: marker

A marker is the subordinating conjunction introducing a finite clause subordinate to another clause. The mark is a dependent of the subordinate clause head.

Nevěděl jsem , že umíš německy . \n Not-know I-did , that you-can-speak German .
mark(umíš, že)
mark(you-can-speak, that)
Zboží odešleme , jakmile peníze dorazí na náš účet . \n Goods we-will-dispatch , as-soon-as money arrive at our account .
mark(dorazí, jakmile)
mark(arrive, as-soon-as)

Note that the subordinating conjunction should not be confused with relative pronouns and adverbs. These fill a valency slot in the frame of the subordinate predicate, and are labeled according to their role in the frame, they are not mark:

Rád bych věděl , kdy peníze dorazí na náš účet . \n Like-to I-would know , when money arrive at our account .
advmod(dorazí, kdy)
advmod(arrive, when)

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

The multi-word expression (modifier) relation is one of the relations for compounding and it is intended for function words. In Czech it is used for multi-word prepositions. The leftmost word is the head and all the other words are attached as its mwe modifiers.

Na rozdíl od tebe já se nemám zač stydět . \n In contrast to you I myself have-not of-what to-be-ashamed .
mwe(Na, rozdíl)
mwe(Na, od)
case(tebe, Na)
mwe(In, contrast)
mwe(In, to)
case(you, In)

Multi-word prepositions usually form a contiguous span of the sentence. In exceptional cases however, they can be interrupted by emphasizers and other words:

ve srovnání například s úvěry \n in comparison for-example to loans
mwe(ve, srovnání)
mwe(ve, s)
case(úvěry, ve)
advmod:emph(úvěry, například)
mwe(in, comparison)
mwe(in, to)
case(loans, in)
advmod:emph(loans, for-example)

Another type of interruption is caused by a possessive determiner. For instance, na základě něčeho “based on something” contains the multi-word preposition na základě “based on”, lit. on the-basis-of. This expression is etymologically a combination of a proper preposition na “on” and the noun základ “basis”; the argument něčeho “something” is in genitive. If the phrase na základě were not analyzed as a multi-word expression, we would have a normal genitive modification between two nominals: základ něčeho “basis of-something”. A genitive modifier can be substituted by a possessive determiner, and this is possible even within the partially frozen multi-word preposition, as with the relative possessive determiner in the following example:

zákon , na jehož základě byl zřízen fond \n law , on whose basis was created fund
nmod(zřízen, jehož)
nmod(created, whose)
case(jehož, na)
case(whose, on)
mwe(na, základě)
mwe(on, basis)

edit mwe

name: personal name

name is one of the relations for compounding in UD. In Czech it is used to join the first (or middle) and the last name of a person.

The leftmost name is always the head and the other name(s) are attached to it. In most cases this is the opposite to PDT where family names are heads and given names are dependents, and the family name is usually the last name.

The relation is not used to attach adjectives to nouns within multi-word names of places, organizations etc. (e.g. Český Krumlov).

Prezident Václav Havel včera navštívil Český Krumlov . \n President Václav Havel yesterday visited Český Krumlov .
name(Václav-2, Havel-3)
name(Václav-11, Havel-12)
nmod(Václav-2, Prezident)
nmod(Václav-11, President)
amod(Krumlov-7, Český-6)
amod(Krumlov-16, Český-15)

edit name

neg: negation modifier

The negation modifier is the relation between the negation word ne and the word it modifies.

Negation in Czech is most of the time expressed using a bound morpheme (the prefix ne-). Occurrences of the morpheme as a separate word are rare in comparison to other languages, yet they exist.

Potřeboval čtyřnohého a ne dvounohého přítele . \n He-needed quadrupedal and not bipedal friend .
neg(dvounohého, ne)
neg(bipedal, not)

Note that the negative determiners (pronouns) are attached as det, not neg:

Premiér není žádný hlupák . \n The-Prime-Minister is-not no fool .
det(hlupák, žádný)
det(fool, no)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers. They depend either on another noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).

nmod is a noun (or noun phrase) functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct. This means that it functionally corresponds to an adverbial when it attaches to a verb, adjective or other adverb. But when attaching to a noun, it usually corresponds to a non-agreeing attribute (přívlastek neshodný) in genitive. (See below for an example of an agreeing attribute, přívlastek shodný.)

In Czech the nmod relation covers only those possessives that are expressed using the genitive cs-feat/Case. If a possessive adjective is used, the relation is labeled amod.

kancelář ředitele \n office of-the-director
nmod(kancelář, ředitele)
nmod(office, of-the-director)
ředitelova kancelář \n director's office
amod(kancelář, ředitelova)
amod(office, director's)
jeho kancelář \n his office
det(kancelář, jeho)
det(office, his)

nmod is also used for temporal nominal modifiers:

Potkal jsem ho minulý čtvrtek . \n Met I-have him last Thursday .
nmod(Potkal, čtvrtek)
nmod(Met, Thursday)

Agreeing attribute of a noun

nmod noun phrases attached to nouns are usually in the genitive cs-feat/Case and follow the modified noun. However, there is also a different kind of nmod that precedes the modified noun and agrees with it in case and number. A typical example is a title attached to a name of a person. The relation is similar to the name relation that links the first and the last name, but it is not labeled name because the title is not part of the name:

český prezident Václav Havel
amod(prezident, český)
nmod(Havel, prezident)
name(Havel, Václav)

Note that the same thing can be also expressed using an apposition. In the case of apposition, the title follows the modified name and is separated by a punctuation symbol:

Václav Havel , český prezident
name(Havel, Václav)
punct(prezident, ,-3)
amod(prezident, český)
appos(Havel, prezident)

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

A nominal subject is a nominal phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause; in Czech, the phrase is in the nominative cs-feat/Case. (See csubj for when the subject is clausal. See nsubjpass and csubjpass for when the subject is not the proto-agent argument due to valence changing operations.) The governor of the nsubj relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb, which can be an adjective or noun.

Novosvětskou symfonii napsal Antonín Dvořák . \n From-the-New-World Symphony wrote Antonín Dvořák .
nsubj(napsal, Dvořák-5)
nsubj(wrote, Dvořák-12)
Auto je červené . \n Car is red .
nsubj(červené, Auto)
nsubj(red, Car)

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause.

Schwarzenberg byl poražen Zemanem . \n Schwarzenberg was defeated by-Zeman .
nsubjpass(poražen, Schwarzenberg-1)
nsubjpass(defeated, Schwarzenberg-7)

Reflexive passive (the meaning is “This will be solved tomorrow.”)

Tohle se bude řešit zítra . \n This itself will solve tomorrow .
nsubjpass(řešit, Tohle)
nsubjpass(solve, This)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.

Jan snědl tři řízky . \n Jan ate three steaks .
nummod(řízky, tři)
nummod(steaks, three)

Agreement and government with Czech quantifiers

The morphological and syntactic behavior of Czech numerals is a complex matter. Small cardinal numerals jeden “one”, dva “two”, tři “three” and čtyři “four” agree with the counted noun in cs-feat/Case (jeden also agrees in cs-feat/Gender and cs-feat/Number; dva also agrees in cs-feat/Gender). They behave as if they modify the counted noun; they are similar to adjectives in this respect. Examples:

In PDT, these numerals are attached to their counted nouns as Atr (attribute). It is straightforward to convert such dependencies to nummod:

Jedno kotě spalo . \n One kitten slept .
nummod(kotě, Jedno)
nsubj(spalo, kotě)
punct(spalo, .-4)
nummod(kitten, One)
nsubj(slept, kitten)
punct(slept, .-9)

Larger cardinals behave differently. They require that the counted noun be in the genitive case; this indicates that they actually govern the noun. Such constructions are parallel to nouns modified by other noun phrases in genitive. The whole phrase (numeral + counted noun) behaves as a noun phrase in neuter gender and singular number (which is important for subject-verb agreement).

In PDT, these numerals are analyzed as heads of the counted nouns, which are attached to the numeral as Atr:

# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1   Pět     pět     NUM     _   Case=Nom                           3   Sb     _   Five
2   mužů    muž     NOUN    _   Case=Gen|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur   1   Atr    _   men
3   hrálo   hrát    VERB    _   Gender=Neut|Number=Sing            0   Pred   _   played
4   karty   karta   NOUN    _   Case=Acc|Gender=Fem|Number=Plur    3   Obj    _   cards
5   .       .       PUNCT   _   _                                  0   AuxK   _   .

There are both advantages and drawbacks to this solution. On the one hand, it reflects well the agreement in case, gender and number. On the other hand, it is confusing that there are two different analyses of counted noun constructions, depending on the numeric value.

Moreover, the numeral does not govern the noun in all morphological cases. The following table shows the case of the whole phrase (numeral + noun; first column) and the consequences for the case of the parts (note that these numerals have only two distinct morphological forms, resulting in homonymy).

Phrase CaseExampleNumeral CaseNoun Case
Nompět mužů NomGen
Genpěti mužů GenGen
Datpěti mužům DatDat
Accpět mužů AccGen
Vocpět mužů VocGen
Locpěti mužíchLocLoc
Inspěti muži InsIns

We can say that the noun has the case of the whole phrase if it is dative, locative or instrumental. The numeral then agrees with the noun in case. The numeral forces the noun to the genitive case if the whole phrase is nominative, accusative or vocative (but the vocative usage is rather hypothetical). In genitive, the noun and the numeral agree with each other; but note that the numeral uses its inflected form, as in the other cases where it agrees with the noun.

In PDT, the genitive, dative, locative and instrumental cases are analyzed in parallel to the low-value numerals, i.e. the noun governs the numeral:

# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1   Hrál      hrát    VERB    _   Gender=Masc|Number=Sing            0   Pred   _   He-played
2   karty     karta   NOUN    _   Case=Acc|Gender=Fem|Number=Plur    1   Obj    _   cards
3   s         s       ADP     _   _                                  1   AuxP   _   with
4   pěti      pět     NUM     _   Case=Ins                           6   Atr    _   five
5   dalšími   další   ADJ     _   Case=Ins|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur   6   Atr    _   other
6   muži      muž     NOUN    _   Case=Ins|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur   3   Obj    _   men
7   .         .       PUNCT   _   _                                  0   AuxK   _   .

High-value numerals where the lowest-order digit is more than zero and less than five (e.g. 21, 22, 23, 24) may behave both ways:

Pronominal quantifiers behave as high-value numerals and govern the quantifed nouns:

# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1   Kolik   kolik   NUM     _   Case=Nom                           3   Sb     _   How-many
2   mužů    muž     NOUN    _   Case=Gen|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur   1   Atr    _   men
3   hrálo   hrát    VERB    _   Gender=Neut|Number=Sing            0   Pred   _   played
4   karty   karta   NOUN    _   Case=Acc|Gender=Fem|Number=Plur    3   Obj    _   cards
5   ?       ?       PUNCT   _   _                                  0   AuxK   _   ?

The UD conversion of the PDT data unifies analyses of counted noun phrases and uses a structure that is parallel among all the above cases, and also with universal dependencies in other languages. The counted noun is always the head and the numeral is always attached as its modifier. Nevertheless, we use different relation labels to mark situations where the numeral (or quantifier) actually governs the morphological case of the noun. There are four labels used:

NumericPronominal
Noun governsnummoddet:nummod
Numeral governsnummod:govdet:numgov
Tři muži hráli karty . \n Three men played cards .
nummod(muži, Tři)
nsubj(hráli, muži)
dobj(hráli, karty)
punct(hráli, .-5)
nummod(men, Three)
nsubj(played, men)
dobj(played, cards)
punct(played, .-11)
Pět mužů hrálo karty . \n Five men played cards .
nummod:gov(mužů, Pět)
nsubj(hrálo, mužů)
dobj(hrálo, karty)
punct(hrálo, .-5)
nummod:gov(men, Five)
nsubj(played, men)
dobj(played, cards)
punct(played, .-11)
Kolik mužů hrálo karty ? \n How-many men played cards ?
det:numgov(mužů, Kolik)
nsubj(hrálo, mužů)
dobj(hrálo, karty)
punct(hrálo, ?-5)
det:numgov(men, How-many)
nsubj(played, men)
dobj(played, cards)
punct(played, ?-11)
Hrál jsem karty s pěti muži . \n Played I-have cards with five men .
aux(Hrál, jsem)
dobj(Hrál, karty)
iobj(Hrál, muži)
case(muži, s)
nummod(muži, pěti)
punct(Hrál, .-7)
aux(Played, I-have)
dobj(Played, cards)
iobj(Played, men)
case(men, with)
nummod(men, five)
punct(Played, .-15)
Nepamatuji si , s kolika muži jsem hrál karty . \n I-do-not-remember myself , with how-many men I-have played cards .
ccomp(Nepamatuji, hrál)
compound:reflex(Nepamatuji, si)
punct(hrál, ,-3)
aux(hrál, jsem)
dobj(hrál, karty)
iobj(hrál, muži)
case(muži, s)
det:nummod(muži, kolika)
punct(Nepamatuji, .-10)
ccomp(I-do-not-remember, played)
compound:reflex(I-do-not-remember, myself)
punct(played, ,-14)
aux(played, I-have)
dobj(played, cards)
iobj(played, men)
case(men, with)
det:nummod(men, how-many)
punct(I-do-not-remember, .-21)

Additional remarks

In PDT the words milión “million”, miliarda “billion” and higher are usually tagged as nouns, not as numerals. In the typical case, the million is in genitive, it is preceded by a smaller number, and it is not followed by smaller numerals (as it is in million five hundred thousand). It is followed by the counted noun. Thus the following examples receive parallel analyses:

50 miliónů korun \n 50 millions of-crowns
nummod:gov(miliónů, 50-1)
nummod:gov(millions, 50-5)
nmod(miliónů, korun)
nmod(millions, of-crowns)
50 pytlů bankovek \n 50 sacks of-bills
nummod:gov(pytlů, 50-1)
nummod:gov(sacks, 50-5)
nmod(pytlů, bankovek)
nmod(sacks, of-bills)

On the other hand the word tisíc “thousand” may be a noun (na náměstí byly tisíce lidí “there were thousands of people in the square”) or a numeral:

nanejvýš 50 tisíc korun \n at-most 50 thousand crowns
advmod:emph(korun, nanejvýš)
nummod:gov(korun, tisíc)
compound(tisíc, 50-2)
advmod:emph(crowns, at-most)
nummod:gov(crowns, thousand)
compound(thousand, 50-7)

Note that the two numeral words in the above example are joined using the compound relation. Also note that the intensifier nanejvýš is attached to the head of the phrase (korun) and not to the number. This is in accord both with the UD guidelines and with the original PDT annotation of agreeing numerals (e.g. jen čtyři firmy, jen několik procent).

Similarly there may be other nodes (such as punctuation) that are attached to the head of the phrase and they are related to the whole phrase rather than directly to the head noun:

( 9 dní ) \n ( 9 days )
punct(dní, (-1)
nummod:gov(dní, 9-2)
punct(dní, )-4)
punct(days, (-6)
nummod:gov(days, 9-7)
punct(days, )-9)
5 minut včetně seřízení \n 5 minutes including adjustment
nummod:gov(minut, 5-1)
nmod(minut, seřízení)
case(seřízení, včetně)
nummod:gov(minutes, 5-6)
nmod(minutes, adjustment)
case(adjustment, including)

Dates

# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1    Ředitel         ředitel         NOUN    _   _   2   Sb     _   The-director
2    navrhl          navrhnout       VERB    _   _   0   Pred   _   proposed
3    zrušit          zrušit          VERB    _   _   2   Obj    _   to-disband
4    profesionální   profesionální   ADJ     _   _   5   Atr    _   the-professional
5    scénu           scéna           NOUN    _   _   3   Obj    _   scene
6    k               k               ADP     _   _   3   AuxP   _   towards
7    31              31              NUM     _   _   9   Atr    _   the-31
8    .               .               PUNCT   _   _   7   AuxG   _   th
9    12              12              NUM     _   _   6   Adv    _   December
10   .               .               PUNCT   _   _   9   AuxG   _   .
Ředitel navrhl zrušit profesionální scénu k 31 . 12 . \n Director proposed to-disband professional scene towards 31 st December .
advmod(zrušit, 12)
case(12, k)
punct(12, .-10)
nummod(12, 31-7)
punct(31-7, .-8)
advmod(to-disband, December)
case(December, towards)
punct(December, .-21)
nummod(December, 31-18)
punct(31-18, st)

Numerals expressed using digits are labeled nummod even if they represent ordinal numerals, which would be labeled amod:

# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1    Letošní     letošní      ADJ     _   _   2   Atr    _   This-year's
2    veletrh     veletrh      NOUN    _   _   4   Sb     _   fair
3    se          se           PRON    _   _   4   AuxR   _   itself
4    uskuteční   uskutečnit   VERB    _   _   0   Pred   _   will-take-place
5    od          od           ADP     _   _   4   AuxP   _   from
6    9           9            NUM     _   _   5   ExD    _   9
7    .           .            PUNCT   _   _   6   AuxG   _   th
8    do          do           ADP     _   _   4   AuxP   _   to
9    12          12           NUM     _   _   11  Atr    _   12
10   .           .            PUNCT   _   _   9   AuxG   _   th
11   března      březen       NOUN    _   _   8   Adv    _   March
12   .           .            PUNCT   _   _   0   AuxK   _   .
Letošní veletrh se uskuteční od 9 . do 12 . března . \n This-year's fair itself will-take-place from 9 th to 12 th March .
advmod(uskuteční, března)
case(března, do)
nummod(března, 12-9)
remnant(12-9, 9-6)
remnant(do, od)
advmod(will-take-place, March)
case(March, to)
nummod(March, 12-22)
remnant(12-22, 9-19)
remnant(to, from)

Numbered objects

House number in address is attached as nummod to the name of the street:

v budově Na poříčí 12 \n in the-building Na poříčí 12
nmod(budově, poříčí-4)
case(poříčí-4, Na-3)
nummod(poříčí-4, 12-5)
nmod(the-building, poříčí-10)
case(poříčí-10, Na-9)
nummod(poříčí-10, 12-11)

edit nummod

nummod:gov: numeric modifier governing the case of the noun

nummod:gov differs from nummod in that the numeral requires the counted noun to be in its genitive form. The whole phrase (numeral + noun) is treated as a singular neuter noun phrase and it can fill roles where nominative, accusative or vocative noun phrases are expected.

Such situations are analyzed in PDT so that the numeral is the head and the noun depends on it. In UD the dependency direction is reversed and the nummod:gov label is used to preserve the information about case conditions.

# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1   Pět     pět     NUM     _   Case=Nom                           3   Sb     _   Five
2   mužů    muž     NOUN    _   Case=Gen|Gender=Masc|Number=Plur   1   Atr    _   men
3   hrálo   hrát    VERB    _   Gender=Neut|Number=Sing            0   Pred   _   played
4   karty   karta   NOUN    _   Case=Acc|Gender=Fem|Number=Plur    3   Obj    _   cards
5   .       .       PUNCT   _   _                                  0   AuxK   _   .
Pět mužů hrálo karty . \n Five men played cards .
nummod:gov(mužů, Pět)
nsubj(hrálo, mužů)
dobj(hrálo, karty)
punct(hrálo, .-5)
nummod:gov(men, Five)
nsubj(played, men)
dobj(played, cards)
punct(played, .-11)

See nummod for a broader discussion of the various situations with quantifiers.

edit nummod:gov

parataxis: parataxis

The parataxis relation (from Greek for “place side by side”) is a relation between a word (often the main predicate of a sentence) and other elements, such as a sentential parenthetical or a clause after a “:” or a “;”, placed side by side without any explicit coordination, subordination, or argument relation with the head word. Parataxis is a discourse-like equivalent of coordination, and so usually obeys an iconic ordering. Hence it is normal for the first part of a sentence to be the head and the second part to be the parataxis dependent, regardless of the headedness properties of the language. But things do get more complicated, such as cases of parentheticals, which appear medially.

An inventory of constructions to which parataxis has been applied

Treatment of reported speech

For this reported speech example:

Ten člověk , řekl Honza , odjel brzy ráno . \n The guy , said Honza , left early in-the-morning .
parataxis(odjel, řekl)
parataxis(left, said)

there are paraphrases that convey essentially the same meaning but with a different syntactic structure. When the reported speech is embedded in a subordinate clause (with or without an overt complementizer že “that”), the subordinate clause is a ccomp of the speech verb. When the reported speech follows the speech verb and is separated by a colon, the reported speech forms a main clause that attaches to the preceding main clause with a parataxis relation, hence with the speech verb as its head. However, when the speech verb occurs as a medial or final parenthetical, the relation is reversed and the speech verb is treated as a parataxis of the reported speech. This analysis is not uncontroversial but follows many authorities, such as Huddleston and Pullum (2002), The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language (see chapter 11, section 9).

Honza řekl , že ten člověk odjel brzy ráno . \n Honza said , that the guy left early in-the-morning .
ccomp(řekl, odjel)
ccomp(said, left)
Honza řekl : „ Ten člověk odjel brzy ráno . “ \n Honza said : “ The guy left early in-the-morning . ”
parataxis(řekl, odjel)
parataxis(said, left)
„ Ten člověk odjel brzy ráno , “ řekl Honza . \n “ The guy left early in-the-morning , ” said Honza .
parataxis(odjel, řekl)
parataxis(left, said)
„ Ten člověk , “ řekl Honza , „ odjel brzy ráno . “ \n “ The guy , ” said Honza , “ left early in-the-morning . ”
parataxis(odjel, řekl)
parataxis(left, said)

An argument for this analysis is that in the cases analyzed as embedding, the entire clause can be further embedded (I was taken aback when John said the guy left early in the morning.), while this is not possible with medial or final placement of the speech verb (*I was taken aback when the guy left early this morning, John said.).

News article bylines

The parataxis relation should be used to connect the parts of a news article byline. There does not seem to be a better relation to use.

Washington ( CNN ) :
parataxis(Washington, CNN)

Interjected clauses and phrases

V posledních letech se srovnávání rozšiřuje , přinejmenším pokud jde o platy , na sousední státy . \n In recent years is comparison extended , at-least as concerns about salaries , to neighboring countries .
parataxis(rozšiřuje, jde)
parataxis(extended, concerns)

Diffs

Prague Dependency Treebank

At present the PDT data converted to UD use parataxis only for interjected parentheticals. The other examples above are analyzed differently (legacy PDT structure).

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause. See

Jdi domů ! \n Go home !
punct(Jdi, !-3)
punct(Go, !-7)

Tokens with the relation punct always attach to content words (except in cases of ellipsis) and can never have dependents. Since punct is not a normal dependency relation, the usual criteria for determining the head word do not apply. Instead, we use the following principles:

  1. A punctuation mark separating coordinated units is attached to the first conjunct.
  2. A punctuation mark preceding or following a subordinated unit is attached to this unit.
  3. Within the relevant unit, a punctuation mark is attached at the highest possible node that preserves projectivity.
  4. Paired punctuation marks (quotes and brackets) should be attached to the same word unless that would create non-projectivity. This word is usually the head of the phrase enclosed in the paired punctuation.
Máme jablka , hrušky , pomeranče a banány . \n We-have apples , pears , oranges and bananas .
dobj(Máme, jablka)
dobj(We-have, apples)
conj(jablka, hrušky)
conj(jablka, pomeranče)
conj(jablka, banány)
conj(apples, pears)
conj(apples, oranges)
conj(apples, bananas)
cc(jablka, a)
cc(apples, and)
punct(jablka, ,-3)
punct(jablka, ,-5)
punct(apples, ,-13)
punct(apples, ,-15)
Muž , kterého jste včera viděl , přišel zas . \n Man , whom you-have yesterday seen , came again .
punct(viděl, ,-2)
punct(seen, ,-13)
punct(viděl, ,-7)
punct(seen, ,-18)
punct(přišel, .-10)
punct(came, .-21)
Zkratka např . znamená „ například “ . \n The-abbreviation eg . means “ for-example ” .
punct(např, .-3)
punct(eg, .-12)
punct(například, „-5)
punct(for-example, “-14)
punct(například, “-7)
punct(for-example, ”-16)
punct(znamená, .-8)
punct(means, .-17)

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

The remnant relation is used to provide a satisfactory treatment of certain instances of ellipsis (in the case of gapping and stripping, where a predicational or verbal head gets elided).

Pavel si objednal hovězí a Markéta vepřové . \n Pavel himself ordered beef and Markéta pork .
nsubj(objednal, Pavel-1)
nsubj(ordered, Pavel-10)
dobj(objednal, hovězí)
dobj(ordered, beef)
remnant(Pavel-1, Markéta-6)
remnant(Pavel-10, Markéta-15)
remnant(hovězí, vepřové)
remnant(beef, pork)

Diffs

Prague Dependency Treebank

At present the conversion of the PDT data to UD does not handle ellipsis properly and the remnant relation is not used.

In the analytical layer of PDT, ellipsis (together with some other issues, such as the vocative) is signalled by the dependency relation ExD (ex-dependent). All the ExD relations that are not vocatives or comparatives are currently just re-labeled dep or root.

edit remnant

reparandum: overridden disfluency

We use reparandum to indicate disfluencies overridden in a speech repair. The disfluency is the dependent of the repair.

Jděte dopra- doleva . \n Go to-the-righ- to-the-left .
reparandum(doleva, dopra-)
reparandum(to-the-left, to-the-righ-)

edit reparandum

root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A fake node ROOT is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with 0, since the indexing of real words in the sentence starts at 1.

ROOT Miluju indická jídla . \n ROOT I-love Indian food .
root(ROOT-1, Miluju)
root(ROOT-7, I-love)

Since release 1.2 of the Czech UD treebank, there is just one node with the root dependency relation in every tree. If the main predicate is not present (due to ellipsis) and there are multiple orphaned dependents, the leftmost dependent is promoted to the head (root) position and the other orphans are attached to it.

An example sentence-like segment that lacks the main verb: A co na to [říká] MF? “And what [does] MF [say] to it?”

ROOT A co na to MF ? \n ROOT And what to it MF ?
root(ROOT-1, A)
root(ROOT-9, And)
dobj(A, co)
dobj(And, what)
nmod(A, to-5)
nmod(And, it)
case(to-5, na)
case(it, to-12)
nsubj(A, MF-6)
nsubj(And, MF-14)
punct(A, ?-7)
punct(And, ?-15)

edit root

vocative: vocative

The vocative relation is used to mark dialogue participant addressed in text. The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence. In Czech, the addressee’s name must also appear in the vocative cs-feat/Case form.

Pane , jste blázen ! \n Sir , you-are a-fool !
vocative(jste, Pane)
vocative(you-are, Sir)

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp (normally by the subject of the next higher clause). This is often referred to as obligatory control. These complements are always non-finite, and they are complements (arguments of the higher verb or adjective) rather than adjuncts/modifiers, such as a purpose clause. The name xcomp is borrowed from Lexical-Functional Grammar.

Nechceš si zaplavat ? \n Don't-you-want yourself to-swim ?
xcomp(Nechceš, zaplavat)
xcomp(Don't-you-want, to-swim)
Začal jsem tam pracovat včera . \n Started I-have there to-work yesterday .
xcomp(Začal, pracovat)
xcomp(Started, to-work)

Note that the above condition “without its own subject” does not mean that a clause is an xcomp just because its subject is not overt. The subject must be necessarily inherited from a fixed position in the higher clause. That is, there should be no available interpretation where the subject of the lower clause may be distinct from the specified role of the upper clause. In cases where the missing subject may or must be distinct from a fixed role in the higher clause, ccomp should be used instead, as below. This includes cases of arbitrary subjects and anaphoric control.

Šéf nařídil vykopat příkop . \n Boss ordered to-dig ditch .
ccomp(nařídil, vykopat)
ccomp(ordered, to-dig)

Pro-drop languages have clauses where the subject is not present as a separate word, yet it is inherently present (and often deducible from the form of the verb) and it does not depend on arguments from a higher clause. Thus in neither of the following two Czech examples is there any overt subject, yet only the second example contains an xcomp.

Píšu , protože jsem to slíbil . \n I-write , because I-have it promised .
advcl(Píšu, slíbil)
advcl(I-write, promised)
Slíbil jsem psát . \n Promised I-have to-write .
xcomp(Slíbil, psát)
xcomp(Promised, to-write)

edit xcomp