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This page pertains to UD version 2.

conj: conjunct

A conjunct is a relation between two elements that are coordinated. The first conjunct is the head of all following conjuncts. However, any conjunction words (tagged CCONJ) and punctuation in between conjuncts depend on their immediately following conjunct.

The elements can be connected by a coordinating conjunction (1), or simply juxtaposed next to each other with or without punctuation (2).

# visual-style 1 3 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	黃金週	_	PROPN	_	_	0	root	_	Golden-Week
2	和	_	CCONJ	_	_	3	cc	_	and
3	暑假	_	NOUN	_	_	1	conj	_	summer-vacation

1	"Golden	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	Week	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	summer	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	vacation"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 5 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 3 7 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	2SG
2	慢慢	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	slowly
3	吸收	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	absorb
4	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	消化	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	digest
6	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
7	考慮	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	consider

1	"Slowly	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	absorb,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	digest,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	think	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	over."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Clauses can also be coordinated (3).

# visual-style 3 8 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1SG
2	已經	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	already
3	吃	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	eat
4	飽	_	ADJ	_	_	3	compound:vv	_	full
5	了	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP
6	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
7	而且	_	CCONJ	_	_	8	cc	_	and
8	覺得	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	feel
9	很	_	ADV	_	_	10	advmod	_	very
10	睏	_	ADJ	_	_	8	xcomp	_	sleepy

1	"I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	already	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	full	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	from	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	eating,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	feel	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	very	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	sleepy,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	too."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

We also use this function for the VERB + NEG + VERB (or AUX + NEG + AUX) interrogative construction (4-5).

# visual-style 5 7 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	外面	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obl	_	outside
2	好	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	very
3	冷	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	cold
4	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	是	_	VERB	_	_	3	parataxis	_	be
6	不	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	NEG
7	是	_	VERB	_	_	5	conj	_	be
8	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_

1	"It's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	cold	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	outside,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	isn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	it?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 3 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	喝	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	drink
2	不	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	NEG
3	喝	_	VERB	_	_	1	conj	_	drink
4	咖啡	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	coffee
5	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_

1	"Do	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	drink	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	coffee	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	(or	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	not)?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In more formal registers, the negative adverb 否 fǒu may replace the NEG + VERB part of the VERB + NEG + VERB construction for certain (auxiliary) verbs (e.g., 是否 shìfǒu and 能否 néngfǒu instead of 是不是 shìbùshì and 能不能 néngbùnéng). In this case, the negative adverb may also be treated as a conj dependent (but note that 是否 shìfǒu may also be an adverb when modifying a main verb).

# visual-style 2 3 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	1SG
2	能	_	AUX	_	_	4	aux	_	can
3	否	_	ADV	_	_	2	conj	_	NEG
4	申請	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	apply
5	信用卡	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	credit-card
6	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	4	punct	_	_

1	"Can	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	apply	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	credit	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	card?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Note that the “et cetera” particle 等(等) / děng(děng) is treated as the final conjunct in a series of conjuncts.

# visual-style 5 8 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 5 7 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
1	這裡	_	PRON	_	_	3	obl	_	here
2	能	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	can
3	買	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	buy
4	到	_	VERB	_	_	3	compound:vv	_	arrive
5	臭豆腐	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	stinky-tofu
6	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
7	滷水蛋	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	conj	_	brined-eggs
8	等等	_	PART	_	_	5	conj	_	etc.

1	"One	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	can	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	buy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	stinky	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	tofu,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	brined	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	eggs,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	etc.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	here."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Another special case where conj is used is in the paired adjacent prepositional phrases indicating a span of distance, time, etc., introduced by prepositions such as 從… 到… / cóng… dào… “from… to…”, 由… 到… / yóu… dào… “from… to…” – the second prepositional phrase is treated as a conjunct of the first:

# visual-style 2 4 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	從	_	ADP	_	_	2	case	_	from
2	星期一	_	NOUN	_	_	5	obl:tmod	_	Monday
3	到	_	ADP	_	_	4	case	_	to
4	星期三	_	NOUN	_	_	2	conj	_	Wednesday
5	關門	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	close

1	"Closed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	from	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	Monday	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	Wednesday"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_


conj in other languages: [bm] [cop] [cs] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fi] [fo] [fr] [fro] [ga] [hy] [it] [ja] [kk] [myv] [no-overview] [pcm] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sv] [swl] [tr] [u] [vi] [yue] [zh]