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This page pertains to UD version 2.

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier is a pronoun or noun (phrase) that follows and defines or modifies another noun (phrase). The dependent comes immediately after the head.

There are three situations in Mandarin for which we apply the appos relation. The classical example involves the appositional modifier defining the specific individual(s) which the first noun (phrase) refers to.

# visual-style 3 5 appos	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	1SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	老闆娘	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	female-boss
4	楊	_	PROPN	_	_	5	compound	_	Yáng
5	女士	_	NOUN	_	_	3	appos	_	Ms

1	"my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	boss	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	Ms	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Yáng"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Apposition always goes from left to right. In the case that the secondary noun is in front, either dislocated or vocative may apply instead.

In the second situation, the second noun phrase describes (rather than specifies) the first noun phrase, usually indicating or emphasizing the number of participants/objects, and/or describing the relationship between the participants (e.g., 他們 兩 夫婦 / tāmén liǎng fūfù they two husband-wife “the two of them spouses”).

# visual-style 1 3 appos	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	他們	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3PL
2	四	_	NUM	_	_	3	nummod	_	four
3	個	_	NOUN	_	_	1	appos	_	CL:generic
4	寫	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	write
5	的	_	PART	_	_	4	mark:rel	_	NMZR

1	"what	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	they	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	four	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	them	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	wrote"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In another situation, a noun indicating a reference location may be followed by a pronoun, such as 那邊 / nàbiān ‘there’ and 這裡 / zhèlǐ ‘here’, indicating proximity to the speaker. These pronouns are treated as appos dependents of the noun preceding them.

# visual-style 3 4 appos	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	他們	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3PL
2	在	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	be-at
3	門口	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	doorway
4	那邊	_	PRON	_	_	3	appos	_	there

1	"They're	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	by	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	doorway	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	over	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	there."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_


appos in other languages: [am] [ar] [bg] [bxr] [ca] [ckb] [cop] [cs] [cu] [da] [de] [el] [en] [es] [et] [eu] [fa] [fi] [fo] [fr] [ga] [gl] [got] [grc] [he] [hi] [hr] [hu] [id] [it] [ja] [kk] [kmr] [ko] [la] [lv] [mr] [nl] [no] [pl] [pt] [ro] [ru] [sa] [sk] [sla] [sl] [so] [sr] [sv] [swl] [ta] [tr] [u] [ug] [uk] [ur] [urj] [vi] [yue] [zh]