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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Dependencies

The following table lists the 52 syntactic relations used in UD v2 for Mandarin Chinese, 36 of which are standard UD relations and 16 of which are specific to Mandarin Chinese.

Nominals
Clauses
Modifier words
Function Words
Core arguments
nsubj
nsubj:pass
obj
iobj
csubj
csubj:pass
ccomp
xcomp
Non-core dependents
obl
obl:agent
obl:patient
obl:tmod
vocative
expl
dislocated
dislocated:vo
advcl
advmod*
advmod:df
discourse
discourse:sp
aux
aux:pass
cop
mark
mark:adv
mark:rel
Nominal dependents
nmod
appos
nummod
acl
amod
det
clf
case
case:loc
Coordination
MWE
Loose
Special
Other
conj
cc
fixed
flat
compound
compound:dir
compound:ext
compound:vo
compound:vv
list
parataxis
orphan
goeswith
reparandum
punct
root
dep

* The advmod relation is used for modifiers not only of predicates but also of other modifier words.


acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl is used for clauses that modify a noun (in contrast to advcl which is used for clauses that modify a predicate). Clausal modifiers may precede the noun, and may be formed with (1) or without (2) the relativizer 的 de. They may also be postnominal, in which case they are simply juxtaposed after the noun without any linking function words (3-5).

# visual-style 4 2 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	人	_	NOUN	_	_	2	nsubj	_	people
2	説	_	VERB	_	_	4	acl	_	say
3	的	_	PART	_	_	2	mark:rel	_	REL
4	話	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	words

1	"words	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	(that)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	people	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	say"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 1 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	治	_	VERB	_	_	3	acl	_	cure
2	病	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	illnesses
3	方面	_	NOUN	_	_	5	nmod	_	aspect
4	的	_	PART	_	_	3	case	_	GEN
5	問題	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	matter

1	"the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	matter	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	regarding	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	aspect	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	curing	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	illnesses"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Postnominal clausal modifiers (known as “descriptive clauses” in Li & Thompson, 1981) are headed by V2 in a [(NP1) V1 NP2 V2-clause] structure, where NP2 (i.e., the second noun phrase) is the direct object of V1 and the V2-clause describes information regarding NP2. This analysis is contingent on the [(NP1) V1 NP2 V2-clause] sequence being a single sentence with one intonational phrase and no pause in between.

# visual-style 2 3 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	exist
2	機會	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	chance
3	學壞	_	VERB	_	_	2	acl	_	learn-bad

1	"There's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	chance	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	learning	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	from	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	bad	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	people."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 6 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	我們	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1PL
2	突然	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	suddenly
3	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	have
4	事	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	things
5	要	_	AUX	_	_	6	aux	_	need
6	忙	_	VERB	_	_	4	acl	_	be-busy-at

1	"We	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	suddenly	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	have	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	things	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	need	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	busy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	attending	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	to."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 5 6 acl	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1SG
2	昨天	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obl:tmod	_	yesterday
3	收	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	receive
4	到	_	VERB	_	_	3	compound:vv	_	arrive
5	信	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	letter
6	説	_	VERB	_	_	5	acl	_	say
7	我	_	PRON	_	_	8	nmod	_	1SG
8	帳户	_	NOUN	_	_	9	nsubj	_	account
9	没	_	VERB	_	_	6	ccomp	_	not-have
10	錢	_	NOUN	_	_	9	obj	_	money
11	了	_	PART	_	_	9	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	received	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	letter	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	yesterday	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	saying	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	bank	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	account	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	empty."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

References

edit acl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

The adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a predicate; in other words, it is a clausal adjunct. This includes subordinate clauses such as conditional clauses (2), temporal clauses (3), as well as purpose clauses (4), among others. The head is the main predicate of the main clause, while the dependent is the main predicate of the modifying clause.

If the adverbial is non-clausal, use advmod instead.

# visual-style 4 2 advcl	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	1SG
2	拍	_	VERB	_	_	4	advcl	_	pat
3	胸口	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	chest
4	保證	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	guarantee

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	guarantee	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	(by)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	patting	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	chest."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 6 4 advcl	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	如果	_	SCONJ	_	_	4	mark	_	if
2	排骨	_	NOUN	_	_	4	nsubj	_	ribs
3	不	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	NEG
4	入味	_	ADJ	_	_	6	advcl	_	flavorful
5	別	_	AUX	_	_	6	aux	_	don't
6	賴	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	blame
7	我	_	PRON	_	_	6	obj	_	1SG

1	"If	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	ribs	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	aren't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	flavorful,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	don't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	blame	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	me."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 7 2 advcl	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	她	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.F
2	去	_	VERB	_	_	7	advcl	_	go
3	東京	_	PROPN	_	_	2	obj	_	Tokyo
4	後	_	ADP	_	_	2	mark	_	after
5	我	_	PRON	_	_	7	nsubj	_	1SG
6	再	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	again
7	加入	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	join

1	"I'll	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	join	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	again	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	after	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	she	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	goes	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	Tokyo."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Purpose clauses typically come after the main clause and may be introduced by function words such as 來 lái (4), 去 qù, 以 yǐ.

# visual-style 1 7 advcl	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	伸	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	extend
2	出	_	VERB	_	_	1	compound:vv	_	out
3	你	_	PRON	_	_	5	nmod	_	2SG
4	的	_	PART	_	_	3	case	_	GEN
5	手	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	hand
6	來	_	SCONJ	_	_	7	mark	_	to
7	讓	_	VERB	_	_	1	advcl	_	let
8	他	_	PRON	_	_	7	obj	_	3SG.M
9	量	_	VERB	_	_	7	xcomp	_	measure
10	尺寸	_	NOUN	_	_	9	obj	_	length

1	"Take	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	out	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	hand	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	in	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	order	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	let	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	him	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	measure	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	it."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify a predicate (1, 2, 3), a modifier word (4, 5), and in some restricted cases function words (6-8).

Predicates may be a verb (1) or a predicate adjective (2) or nominal (3) in copular constructions.

# visual-style 3 2 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	2SG
2	已經	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	already
3	答應	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	promise
4	他們	_	PRON	_	_	3	obj	_	3PL

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	already	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	promised	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	them."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 1 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	更	_	ADV	_	_	2	advmod	_	more
2	好	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	good

1	"better"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 6 2 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	6	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	曾經	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	once
3	是	_	VERB	_	_	6	cop	_	COP
4	一	_	NUM	_	_	6	nummod	_	one
5	個	_	NOUN	_	_	4	clf	_	CL:generic
6	廚師	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	chef

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	was	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	chef	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	once."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Modifier words that may be modified by an adverb include numerals (4) and quantifying determiners (5).

# visual-style 2 1 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	大概	_	ADV	_	_	2	advmod	_	around
2	五百	_	NUM	_	_	3	nummod	_	five-hundred
3	元	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	dollars

1	"about	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	five	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	hundred	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	dollars"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 1 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	很	_	ADV	_	_	2	advmod	_	very
2	多	_	DET	_	_	3	det	_	many
3	人	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	people

1	"many	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	people"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

When the negative 不 precedes a modal auxiliary, it modifies the auxiliary and not the verb (6). This is because when the verb is negated, 不 precedes the verb immediately, after the auxiliary (7). Both the auxiliary and the verb can be negated simultaneously in Mandarin (8).

# visual-style 3 2 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	她	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG.F
2	不	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	NEG
3	可以	_	AUX	_	_	4	aux	_	can
4	去	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go

1	"She	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	able/allowed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	go."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 3 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	她	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG.F
2	可以	_	AUX	_	_	4	aux	_	can
3	不	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	NEG
4	去	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go

1	"She	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	able/allowed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	go."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 2 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 5 4 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	她	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	3SG.F
2	不	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	NEG
3	可以	_	AUX	_	_	5	aux	_	can
4	不	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	NEG
5	去	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go

1	"She	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	able/allowed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	go."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Temporal expressions that are adverbs or short adverbial phrases also use the advmod relation. (However, temporal expressions that are nouns or noun phrases use the obl:tmod relation.)

# visual-style 4 3 advmod	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	希望	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	hope
2	他	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG.M
3	早日	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	early
4	康復	_	VERB	_	_	1	ccomp	_	recover

1	"Hope	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	he'll	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	recover	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	soon."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit advmod

advmod:df: duration or frequency adverbial modifier

The relation advmod:df is used for a noun phrase headed by a classifier expressing the duration or the frequency of the event expressed by the main predicate. The duration (1) and frequency (2) phrases can be post-verbal as well as pre-verbal (3-4).

For nominal time expressions and adverbial time expressions that provide a time frame rather than a duration, use obl:tmod and advmod, respectively.

# visual-style 3 6 advmod:df	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	3SG
2	已經	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	already
3	來	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	come
4	了	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	PERF
5	兩	_	NUM	_	_	6	nummod	_	two
6	天	_	NOUN	_	_	3	advmod:df	_	CL:days
7	了	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	has	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	already	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	been	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	here	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	two	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	days."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 6 advmod:df	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	等	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	wait
3	過	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	EXP
4	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	obj	_	3SG.M
5	三	_	NUM	_	_	6	nummod	_	three
6	次	_	NOUN	_	_	2	advmod:df	_	CL:times

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	waited	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	him	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	times."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 5 3 advmod:df	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	兩	_	NUM	_	_	3	nummod	_	two
3	年	_	NOUN	_	_	5	advmod:df	_	years
4	沒	_	AUX	_	_	5	aux	_	NEG.PERF
5	來	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	come
6	美國	_	PROPN	_	_	5	obj	_	USA
7	了	_	PART	_	_	5	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"It	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	has	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	been	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	two	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	years	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	he	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	has	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	come	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
13	U.S."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 5 3 advmod:df	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	三	_	NUM	_	_	3	nummod	_	three
3	次	_	NOUN	_	_	5	advmod:df	_	CL:times
4	都	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	all
5	去	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go
6	了	_	PART	_	_	5	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	went	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	all	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	times."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit advmod:df

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier is an adjectival word or phrase that modifies a nominal. (However, when an adjectival word functions as a predicate, it is considered the head of its clause; see root.)

# visual-style 2 1 amod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	新	_	ADJ	_	_	2	amod	_	new
2	產品	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	product

1	"new	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	product"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

When paired with 的 de, the adjective acts as head of the particle in a mark:rel relation.

# visual-style 3 1 amod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	嚴重	_	ADJ	_	_	3	amod	_	serious
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	mark:rel	_	_
3	問題	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	problem

1	"serious	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	problem"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier is a pronoun or noun (phrase) that follows and defines or modifies another noun (phrase). The dependent comes immediately after the head.

There are two situations in Mandarin for which we apply the appos relation. The classical example involves the appositional modifier defining the specific individual(s) which the first noun (phrase) refers to.

# visual-style 3 5 appos	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	1SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	老闆娘	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	female-boss
4	楊	_	PROPN	_	_	5	compound	_	Yang
5	女士	_	NOUN	_	_	3	appos	_	Ms.

1	"my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	boss	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	Ms.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Yang"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Apposition always goes from left to right. In the case that the secondary noun is in front, either dislocated or vocative may apply instead.

In the second situation, the second noun phrase describes (rather than specifies) the first noun phrase, usually indicating or emphasizing the number of participants/objects, and/or describing the relationship between the participants (e.g., 他們 兩 夫妻 / tāmén liǎng fūfù they two husband-wife “the two of them spouses”).

# visual-style 1 3 appos	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	他們	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3PL
2	四	_	NUM	_	_	3	nummod	_	four
3	個	_	NOUN	_	_	1	appos	_	CL:generic
4	寫	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	write
5	的	_	PART	_	_	4	mark:rel	_	NMZR

1	"what	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	they	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	four	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	them	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	wrote"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

An auxiliary is a functional modifier of a verb that is tagged AUX. In Mandarin this relation is used for preverbal auxiliaries as well as post-verbal aspect markers. The passive auxiliary 被 bèi, however, should use aux:pass.

Preverbal auxiliaries may precede the main verb immediately (1) or before other intervening material (2).

# visual-style 4 3 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	2SG
2	也	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	also
3	應該	_	AUX	_	_	4	aux	_	should
4	幫幫	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	help
5	我們	_	PRON	_	_	4	obj	_	3PL

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	should	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	help	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	us,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	too."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 2 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	一定	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	certainly
2	要	_	AUX	_	_	4	aux	_	need
3	先	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	first
4	管	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	control
5	而	_	CCONJ	_	_	7	cc	_	and
6	後	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	after
7	教	_	VERB	_	_	4	conj	_	teach

1	"One	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	must	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	first	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	control	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	then	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	teach."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Some preverbal auxiliaries may also stack next to each other, in which case the head of all the auxiliaries is still the main verb.

# visual-style 3 1 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 3 2 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	應該	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	should
2	可以	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	can
3	做	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	do

1	"should	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	be	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	able	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	do"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

yǒu and 沒(有) méi(yǒu) may also function as auxiliaries.

# visual-style 3 2 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 3 4 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	2SG
2	有	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	PERF
3	進	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	enter
4	過	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	EXP
5	教員室	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	faculty-office

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	have	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	entered	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	faculty's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	office	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	before."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 2 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1SG
2	沒	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	NEG.PERF
3	改變	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	change

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	haven't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	changed."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Post-verbal aspect markers include 過 guo (experiential), 着/著 zhe (durative), and 了 le (perfective), which immediately follow the verb or predicate adjective it modifies, as seen in (4) and (6).

# visual-style 2 3 aux	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	盯	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	stare
3	著	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	PROG
4	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	obj	_	3SG.M

1	"I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	staring	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	at	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	him."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit aux

aux:pass: passive auxiliary

The passive auxiliary is limited to the particle 被 bèi in the “short passive” construction, where the agent is not mentioned.

# visual-style 3 2 aux:pass	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj:pass	_	3SG.M
2	被	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux:pass	_	PASS
3	抓	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	catch

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	was	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	caught."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

“Long passive” constructions where 被 bèi is followed by a noun expressing the agent are considered adpositional phrases, in which case the relation obl:agent is used and 被 bèi is annotated as a case dependent with an ADP tag. Etymologically, the two passive constructions appear to have likely followed different grammaticalization paths, hence the different treatments in the tagging and annotation of the two.

edit aux:pass

case: case marking

The case relation for Mandarin Chinese is applied to various particles that mark non-clausal dependents, including the genitive 的 de (1); prepositions (2, 3), including “coverbs” (4); and the valence markers 把 and 將 jiāng (5) in “BA constructions” (see obl:patient); the comparative 比 (6); and 被 bèi in “long passive” constructions where the agent is mentioned (7).

Note that 的 de has other grammaticalized functions that require the mark:rel relation instead.

Postpositions, also known as “localizers”, are labeled with case:loc instead.

# visual-style 1 2 case	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	2SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	電話	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	phone

1	"your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	phone"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 2 case	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	1SG
2	在	_	ADP	_	_	3	case	_	at
3	公司	_	NOUN	_	_	5	obl	_	company
4	已經	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	already
5	完成	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	complete
6	了	_	PART	_	_	5	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	already	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	completed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	at	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	office."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 2 case	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	戴	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	wear
2	在	_	ADP	_	_	3	case	_	on
3	手	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obl	_	hand
4	上	_	ADP	_	_	3	case:loc	_	above

1	"wear	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	on	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	hand"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 1 case	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	跟	_	ADP	_	_	2	case	_	with
2	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	obl	_	1SG
3	來	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	come

1	"Come	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	with	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	me."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 5 4 case	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	把	_	ADP	_	_	2	case	_	BA
2	他們	_	PRON	_	_	3	obl:patient	_	3PL
3	藏	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	hide
4	在	_	ADP	_	_	5	case	_	in
5	房	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obl	_	room
6	裡	_	ADP	_	_	5	case:loc	_	inside

1	"Hide	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	them	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	inside	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	room."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 3 case	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	我們	_	PRON	_	_	7	nsubj	_	3PL
2	應該	_	AUX	_	_	7	aux	_	should
3	比	_	ADP	_	_	4	case	_	COMP
4	他們	_	PRON	_	_	7	obl	_	3PL
5	更	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	more
6	早	_	ADJ	_	_	7	advmod	_	early
7	到達	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	arrive
8	公司	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obj	_	company

1	"We	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	may	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	arrive	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	at	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	company	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	before	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	(earlier	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	than)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	them."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 1 case	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	被	_	ADP	_	_	2	case	_	by
2	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	obl:agent	_	2SG
3	偷	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	steal
4	了	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"It	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	was	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	stolen	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	by	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	you."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit case

case:loc: postpositional localizer

We treat localizers (方位詞 fāngwèicí) as postpositions which typically denote spatial locations analogous to adpositions or case markers in some languages, although a few localizers have further grammaticalized functions denoting temporal and other non-spatial concepts. (See ADP for a list of localizers.)

The head of the localizer is the noun or the main verb of the clause preceding it. Localizers are always tagged ADP (adposition). When it follows a noun, it receives the case:loc relation label. But if it follows a clause and acts as a subordinator, it receives the mark relation (but retains the tag ADP).

# visual-style 4 5 case:loc	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	放	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	put
2	在	_	ADP	_	_	4	case	_	on
3	你	_	PRON	_	_	4	nmod	_	2SG
4	桌	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obl	_	table
5	上	_	ADP	_	_	4	case:loc	_	above

1	"put	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	on	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	desk"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit case:loc

cc: coordinating conjunction

The coordinating conjunction links a conjunction word to its immediately following conjunct as its head. (See CCONJ for a list of Mandarin Chinese conjunction words.)

# visual-style 4 2 cc	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	中文	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	Chinese-language
2	和	_	CCONJ	_	_	4	cc	_	and
3	中國	_	PROPN	_	_	4	compound	_	China
4	歷史	_	NOUN	_	_	1	conj	_	history

1	"Chinese	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	language	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Chinese	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	history"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 5 3 cc	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	先	_	ADV	_	_	2	advmod	_	first
2	管	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	control
3	而	_	CCONJ	_	_	5	cc	_	and
4	後	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	after
5	教	_	VERB	_	_	2	conj	_	teach

1	"First	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	control	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	then	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	teach."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement is a full clause that functions like an object of verb. It has its own subject and it is not obligatorily coreferent with any of the arguments of the matrix verb (for more on “obligatory control”, see xcomp).

# visual-style 2 5 ccomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	知道	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	know
3	你	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	2SG
4	很	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	very
5	孝順	_	ADJ	_	_	2	ccomp	_	have-filial-piety

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	know	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	are	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	full	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	filial	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	piety."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

The subject of the embedded clause may sometimes be absent, but pragmatically understood, such as in the below example where the thing being mentioned as being stinky may be a room or a pair of socks that was previously discussed or known to be the topic of discussion.

# visual-style 2 4 ccomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	2SG
2	覺得	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	think
3	很	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	very
4	臭	_	ADJ	_	_	2	ccomp	_	stinky
5	嗎	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	Q

1	"Do	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	think	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	it's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	very	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	stinky?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	(talking	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	about	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	room,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	example)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In some rare cases, a verb may have different meanings, one taking a ccomp dependent, and another an xcomp dependent. For example, the verb 覺得 juédé may mean “feel, think, consider” or “feel a sensation”. The first meaning takes a clausal complement, as in example (2) above; the second meaning requires xcomp, as in (3) below, which exhibits a case of “subject control”, where the subject of the second predicate 很 開心 / hěn kāixīn “very happy” is necessarily understood as the subject of the matrix verb 覺得 / juédé “feel (a sensation)”.

1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	覺得	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	feel
3	很	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	very
4	開心	_	ADJ	_	_	2	xcomp	_	happy

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	feel	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	very	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	happy."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Additionally, ccomp is used for “extent compounds” (see compound:ext) where a clause with its own subject follows V + 得 (for a subjectless predicate following V + 得, xcomp is used).

# visual-style 1 6 ccomp	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	熱	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	hot
2	得	_	PART	_	_	1	compound:ext	_	DE
3	連	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	even
4	塑膠袋	_	NOUN	_	_	6	nsubj	_	plastic-bags
5	也	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	also
6	出汗	_	VERB	_	_	1	ccomp	_	sweat
7	了	_	PART	_	_	6	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"It's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	so	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	hot	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	even	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	plastic	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	bags	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	are	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	sweating."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

The ccomp relation is also used for the copula 是 shì when its argument is a clause (although in copular constructions, 是 shì is a cop dependent of the predicate when the predicate is non-clausal).

# visual-style 2 5 ccomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	原因	_	NOUN	_	_	2	nsubj	_	reason
2	是	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	be
3	他	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	3SG
4	沒	_	AUX	_	_	5	aux	_	NEG.PERF
5	來	_	VERB	_	_	2	ccomp	_	come

1	"The	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	reason	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	he	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	didn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	come."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

是…(的) constructions

The cleft-like focus constructions involving 是 shì and 是…的 shì…de are treated similarly to copular constructions with a clausal complement illustrated in (5). In these constructions 是 shì is considered the head, and the verb phrase or clause following it its clausal complement. Any noun phrase or adverbial to the left of 是 shì is treated as a dislocated dependent of 是 shì (rather than subject, adjunct, or oblique nominal of the complement clause), unless the adverbial is meant to modify 是 shì itself. Note that clausal subjects to the left of 是 shì are also treated as dislocated. The sentence-final particle 的 de is attached to the complement clause (although note that 的 de may also be a nominalizer or a genitive marker on a nominal predicate depending on the context).

# visual-style 2 3 ccomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	張三	_	PROPN	_	_	2	dislocated	_	Zhang-San
2	是	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	be
3	戴	_	VERB	_	_	2	ccomp	_	wear
4	隱形眼鏡	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	contact-lenses
5	的	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP
6	嗎	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP:Q
7	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_

1	"Is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	case	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	Zhangsan	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	wears	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	contact	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	lenses?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Subject-less ccomp vs. subject-control xcomp

It may be difficult sometimes to differentiate between (i) ccomp with the subject of the complement clause (non-obligatorily) dropped and (ii) a case of subject-control xcomp where the subject is obligatorily absent.

One can reinsert a subject into the complement clause as a test to separate the above two situations. If the result is perfectly grammatical AND the meaning of the matrix verb does not change, it is likely situation (i) where the clausal complement should be linked to the matrix verb with ccomp (as shown in 2’ below). Otherwise, if the sentence becomes ungrammatical OR the meaning of the matrix verb changes, then it would likely be situation (ii) with xcomp (as shown in 3’ below). In the following sentences, the reinserted subjects are emphasized, the matrix verbs italicized, and the complement clauses in brackets:

See xcomp for another test for differentiating between ccomp and object-control xcomp.

edit ccomp

clf: classifier

The clf relation is used in noun phrases where a cardinal numeral (1,3), an ordinal numeral (2), or a determiner (3,4) modifying the head noun is accompanied by a classifier. The classifier is attached to the numeral if a numeral is present, or else to the determiner. Note that ordinal numerals are tagged ADJ and labeled amod in relation to the noun; they are the only words tagged ADJ that can be accompanied by a classifier.

# visual-style 1 2 clf	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	一	_	NUM	_	_	3	nummod	_	one
2	團	_	NOUN	_	_	1	clf	_	CL:sphere
3	火	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	fire

1	"a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	ball	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	fire"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 2 clf	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	第一	_	ADJ	_	_	3	amod	_	one
2	位	_	NOUN	_	_	1	clf	_	CL:person
3	老師	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	teacher

1	"the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	first	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	teacher	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 3 clf	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	這	_	DET	_	_	4	det	_	this
2	一	_	NUM	_	_	4	nummod	_	one
3	場	_	NOUN	_	_	2	clf	_	CL:spectator-event
4	友誼賽	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	goodwill-competition

1	"this	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	goodwill	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	competition"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 2 clf	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	這	_	DET	_	_	3	det	_	this
2	本	_	NOUN	_	_	1	clf	_	CL:book
3	書	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	book

1	"this	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	book"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Non-clf functions of Mandarin classifiers

In other constructions involving classifiers, they are annotated with other syntax relations. First, in Mandarin a classifier may also be considered to function as an indefinite determiner when a noun phrase consisting of a bare classifier accompanying a noun is in post-verbal position, as in (4).

1	切	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	cut
2	個	_	NOUN	_	_	3	det	_	CL:generic
3	梨子	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	pear

1	"cut	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	pear"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Second, if a noun phrase does not have a regular noun, then the classifier is promoted to head of the noun phrase and any numeral or determiner would depend on the classifier, such as in (5) and (6).

1	給	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	give
2	我	_	PRON	_	_	1	iobj	_	1SG
3	三	_	NUM	_	_	4	nummod	_	three
4	分鐘	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	minutes

1	"Give	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	me	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	minutes."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

1	哪	_	DET	_	_	2	det	_	which
2	位	_	NOUN	_	_	3	nsubj	_	CL:person
3	找	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	look-for
4	馬	_	PROPN	_	_	5	compound	_	Ma
5	先生	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	Mr.

1	"Who	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	(which	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	person)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	looking	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	Mr.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	Ma?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

If there is a genitive 的 de between the classifier and the noun, then the classifier is also treated as a head noun for the numeral, and it is labeled as an nmod dependent of the noun.

1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	買	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	buy
3	了	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	PERF
4	一	_	NUM	_	_	5	nummod	_	one
5	磅	_	NOUN	_	_	7	nmod	_	CL:pound
6	的	_	PART	_	_	5	case	_	GEN
7	肉	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	meat

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	bought	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	pound	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	meat."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Note that classifiers are tagged as NOUN. The feature NounType=Clf is recommended for distinguishing classifiers from regular nouns.

edit clf

compound: compound

The compound relation is used primarily for noun-noun compounds (for verb and verb-object compounds, see compound:dir, compound:ext, compound:vo, and compound:vv). This applies to any nominal preceding and modifying another nominal unless the relationship between the two is a possessive one (see nmod). The latter nominal is typically the head of the compound.

# visual-style 2 1 compound	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	中文	_	NOUN	_	_	2	compound	_	Chinese-language
2	試卷	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	exam-paper

1	"Chinese	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	language	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	exam	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	paper"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Names preceding titles or relationship roles are also treated as noun compounds, as well as names of companies or institutions with internal combinations of proper nouns with regular nouns.

# visual-style 2 1 compound	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	馬	_	PROPN	_	_	2	compound	_	Ma
2	先生	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	Mr.

1	"Mr.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	Ma"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 1 compound	color:blue
# visual-style 3 2 compound	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	威威	_	PROPN	_	_	3	compound	_	Weiwei
2	職業	_	NOUN	_	_	3	compound	_	employment
3	介紹所	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	agency

1	"Weiwei	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	Employment	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	Agency"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Internal compounding should always be parsed first. For example, in (3) the last two nouns 職業 介紹所 employment agency form a compound first before compounding with the proper noun 威威 Weiwei, but in (4) 警察 招募 police recruitment form a compound first before compounding further with 廣告 advertisement.

# visual-style 2 1 compound	color:blue
# visual-style 3 2 compound	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	警察	_	NOUN	_	_	2	compound	_	police
2	招募	_	NOUN	_	_	3	compound	_	recruitment
3	廣告	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	advertisement

1	"police	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	recruitment	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	ad"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit compound

compound:dir: directional verb compound

A “directional verb compound” (known as “directional complement” in Chinese linguistics) consists of a series of at least two verbs where the second verb is one of the directional or deitic motion verbs (or a combination of the two) in the below exhaustive list. Some linguists argue that these verbs have grammaticalized into adposition-like particles in this [verb + directional verb] construction, with their particle semantics listed in parentheses below.

# visual-style 2 3 compound:dir	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	爬	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	climb
3	上來	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:dir	_	come-up
4	了	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"He's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	climbed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	up	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	(toward	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	speaker)."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 5 compound:dir	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	1SG
2	把	_	ADP	_	_	3	case	_	BA
3	你	_	PRON	_	_	4	obl	_	2SG
4	留	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	keep
5	下來	_	VERB	_	_	4	compound:dir	_	come-down

1	"I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	keeping	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	here."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In some situations, the AB combination may be split, in which case they are both compound:dir dependents of the first verb.

# visual-style 2 3 compound:dir	color:blue
# visual-style 2 5 compound:dir	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	爬	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	climb
3	上	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:dir	_	come-up
4	山	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	mountain
5	去	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:dir	_	go
6	了	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"He's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	climbed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	up	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	mountain	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	(away	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	from	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	speaker)."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Directional verb compounds can have idiomatic meanings that make them similar to phrasal verbs in some European languages, where the directional verb (or particle) no longer necessarily refers to spatial direction or deixis. Regardless of their grammaticalized non-spatial uses, we treat them all as part of a directional verb compound when they work together with a main verb.

# visual-style 2 3 compound:dir	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	想	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	think
3	起	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:dir	_	rise
4	了	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	remember	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	(lit.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	think	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	up)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	now"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Other words such as the direct object (5) or the affirmative potential 得 de and negative potential 不 can intervene. Uses involving the potential morphemes in directional verb compounds can often have idiomatic meanings as well (6).

# visual-style 1 3 compound:dir	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	帶	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	take
2	他們	_	PRON	_	_	1	obj	_	3PL
3	出去	_	VERB	_	_	1	compound:dir	_	go-out

1	"Take	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	them	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	out."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 6 compound:dir	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	跟	_	ADP	_	_	3	case	_	with
3	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	obl	_	1SG
4	過	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	cross
5	不	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	NEG
6	去	_	VERB	_	_	4	compound:dir	_	go

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	doesn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	get	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	along	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	with	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	me."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit compound:dir

compound:ext: extent and descriptive verb compound

This relation is used for two closely related constructions known in Chinese linguistics as “descriptive complements” and “complements of extent”. We treat them both in the same way with regards to the particle 得 de, where the particle is a compound:ext dependent of the verb it follows (with the idea that the addition of 得 changes the valence structure of the verb such that it takes a clause or secondary predicate, instead of a noun or noun phrase, as its complement.

Descriptive complements (1) are treated as xcomp dependents of the compounded verb (since they include a predicative adjective without a subject).

# visual-style 2 3 compound:ext	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	2SG
2	説	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	say
3	得	_	PART	_	_	2	compound:ext	_	DE
4	對	_	ADJ	_	_	2	xcomp	_	correct

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	said	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	correctly."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

For complements of extent where the head of the complement is a main verb, they are treated as xcomp (2) or ccomp (3) dependents, depending on whether (i) the subject of the complement is absent and coreferential with the subject of the first verb or (ii) the subject of the complement is present, respectively.

# visual-style 2 3 compound:ext	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	熱	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	hot
3	得	_	PART	_	_	2	compound:ext	_	DE
4	想	_	AUX	_	_	5	aux	_	want
5	吐	_	VERB	_	_	2	xcomp	_	vomit
6	了	_	PART	_	_	5	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	so	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	hot	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	want	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	vomit."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 2 compound:ext	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	熱	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	hot
2	得	_	PART	_	_	1	compound:ext	_	DE
3	連	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	even
4	塑膠袋	_	NOUN	_	_	6	nsubj	_	plastic-bag
5	也	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	also
6	出汗	_	VERB	_	_	1	ccomp	_	sweat
7	了	_	PART	_	_	6	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"It's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	so	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	hot	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	even	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	plastic	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	bags	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	are	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	sweating."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Objects of the matrix verb usually cannot occur in their regular postverbal position after the V + 得 compound and instead must be expressed through a “verb-copying” strategy where [verb + object] is first mentioned in an adverbial clause, as illustrated in (4).

# visual-style 4 5 compound:ext	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	2SG
2	喝	_	VERB	_	_	4	advcl	_	drink
3	湯	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	soup
4	喝	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	drink
5	得	_	PART	_	_	4	compound:ext	_	DE
6	這麼	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	so
7	慢	_	ADJ	_	_	4	xcomp	_	slow

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	drink	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	soup	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	so	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	slowly."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

However, there are some notable exceptions to the above rule, as seen in (5).

# visual-style 3 4 compound:ext	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	什麼	_	DET	_	_	2	det	_	what
2	事	_	NOUN	_	_	3	dislocated	_	matter
3	找	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	look-for
4	得	_	PART	_	_	3	compound:ext	_	DE
5	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	obj	_	1SG
6	這麼	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	so
7	急	_	ADJ	_	_	3	xcomp	_	urgent
8	?	_	_	_	_	3	punct	_	_

1	"What's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	got	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	looking	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	me	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	so	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	urgently?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit compound:ext

compound:vo: verb-object compound

The compound:vo relation is used for verb-object compounds where the combination is semantically one unit but syntactically separate. These are known as 離合詞 lǐhécí “separable words” in Chinese linguistics.

These compounds run the range of:

All of the above cases have the same syntactic distribution, where the object behaves like a direct object of the verb. Verb-object compounds never take another object as direct object, and the object can be separated from the verb as in regular non-compound situations.

For example, aspect markers as well as adverbials of duration and frequency, when present, come in between:

# visual-style 1 5 compound:vo	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	打	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	hit
2	了	_	AUX	_	_	1	aux	_	PERF
3	幾	_	DET	_	_	4	det	_	several
4	次	_	NOUN	_	_	1	advmod:df	_	CL:times
5	針	_	NOUN	_	_	1	compound:vo	_	needle

1	"have	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	gotten/given	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	an	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	injection	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	several	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	times"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

When undergoing verb-verb compounding (see compound:vv), it is the verb in the verb-object compound that undergoes the compounding, rather than the entire verb-object unit, resulting in a VVO order instead of a VOV order:

# visual-style 2 4 compound:vo	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	讀	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	read
3	完	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:vv	_	finish
4	書	_	NOUN	_	_	2	compound:vo	_	book
5	了	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"I've	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	finished	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	studying."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Additionally, the object in a verb-object compound may be modified (by an adjective or possessive), and also fronted to topic position (in which case the object is linked to the verb as a dislocated:vo dependent):

# visual-style 5 3 dislocated:vo	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	2SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	電話	_	NOUN	_	_	5	dislocated:vo	_	phone
4	怎麼	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	how
5	打	_	VERB	_	_	7	advcl	_	hit
6	都	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	still
7	沒	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	not-exist
8	人	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obj	_	people
9	接	_	VERB	_	_	8	acl	_	receive

1	"You're	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	phone,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	no	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	matter	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	how	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	one	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	calls	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	it,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	nobody	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	picks	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	up."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Note that when both the verb and the object are monosyllabic and they are adjacent without intervening material, they are treated as a single word in the tokenization/word segmentation stage.

edit compound:vo

compound:vv: verb-verb compound

This relation is used for verb-verb and verb-adjective compounds where the second verb/adjective covers what are known as “resultative complements” and “phase complements” in Chinese linguistics. Here we will call them resultative and phase compounds to avoid confusion between the different definitions of “complement” between Chinese-specific terminology and general linguistics terminology.

A special feature of these compounds (as well as directional compounds; see compound:dir) is that the affirmative potential 得 de and negative potential 不 can intervene between the compound (see examples (2) and (5)). However, unlike directional compounds, this is the only situation in which the resultative and phase compounds can be separated.

Resultative compounds

This compound structure consists of two verbs in which the second verb describes the resulting activity or state of either the subject or the object from the action carried out in the first verb.

# visual-style 2 3 compound:vv	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	摔	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	fall
3	破	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:vv	_	break
4	了	_	PART	_	_	2	aux	_	PERF
5	腿	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	leg

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	fell	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	breaking	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	leg."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Sometimes the compound may be idiomatic as well (2).

# visual-style 1 3 compound:vv	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	行	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	do
2	不	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	NEG
3	通	_	VERB	_	_	1	compound:vv	_	go-through
4	的	_	PART	_	_	1	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"It	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	won't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	work."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	(lit.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	can't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	go	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	through	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	by	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	doing)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Note that in Chinese resultative compounds the second verb can be an adjective, in which case compound:vv is still the appropriate relation to link the two:

# visual-style 2 3 compound:vv	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	哭	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	cry
3	累	_	ADJ	_	_	2	compound:vv	_	tired
4	了	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	PERF

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	cried	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	himself	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	tired."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Phase compounds

Phase compounds involve a second verb that adds aspect or telicity to the first verb. However, these second verbs have not fully grammaticalized and syntactically behave like the second verb in resultative compounds, and therefore are not considered the same as the postverbal aspect markers tagged as AUX.

These verbs include (non-neutral-tone versions of): 着 / zháo “touched, got at, successful after an attempt”, 到 dào “arrive, reach”, 見 jiàn “see”, 完 wán “be complete, be finished”, 過 guò “pass, cross” (see Chao 1968:446-450 for details).

# visual-style 2 3 compound:vv	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	2SG
2	找	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	look-for
3	到	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:vv	_	arrive
4	工作	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	job
5	了	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP
6	嗎	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP:Q
7	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_

1	"Have	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	found	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	job?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 3 compound:vv	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	寫	_	VERB	_	_	6	advcl	_	write
2	不	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	NEG
3	完	_	VERB	_	_	1	compound:vv	_	finish
4	不	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	NEG
5	准	_	AUX	_	_	6	aux	_	allow
6	走	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go

1	"If	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	can't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	finish	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	writing,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	you're	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	allowed	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	leave."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

References

edit compound:vv

conj: conjunct

A conjunct is a relation between two elements that are coordinated. The first conjunct is the head of all following conjuncts. However, any conjunction words and punctuation in between conjuncts depend on their immediately following conjunct.

The elements can be connected by a coordinating conjunction (1), or simply juxtaposed next to each other without or with punctuation (2).

# visual-style 1 3 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	黃金週	_	PROPN	_	_	0	root	_	Golden-Week
2	和	_	CCONJ	_	_	3	cc	_	and
3	暑假	_	NOUN	_	_	1	conj	_	summer-vacation

1	"Golden	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	Week	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	summer	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	vacation"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 5 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 3 7 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	2SG
2	慢慢	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	slowly
3	吸收	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	absorb
4	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	消化	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	digest
6	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
7	考慮	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	consider

1	"Slowly	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	absorb,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	digest,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	think	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	over."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Clauses can also be coordinated (3).

# visual-style 3 8 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1SG
2	已經	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	already
3	吃	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	eat
4	飽	_	ADJ	_	_	3	compound:vv	_	full
5	了	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP
6	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
7	而且	_	CCONJ	_	_	8	cc	_	and
8	覺得	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	feel
9	很	_	ADV	_	_	10	advmod	_	very
10	睏	_	ADJ	_	_	8	xcomp	_	sleepy

1	"I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	already	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	full	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	from	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	eating,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	feel	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	very	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	sleep,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	too."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

We also use this function for the VERB + NEG + VERB (or AUX + NEG + AUX) interrogative construction (4-5).

# visual-style 5 7 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	外面	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obl	_	outside
2	好	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	very
3	冷	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	cold
4	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	是	_	VERB	_	_	3	parataxis	_	be
6	不	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	NEG
7	是	_	VERB	_	_	5	conj	_	be
8	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_

1	"It's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	cold	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	outside,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	isn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	it?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 3 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	喝	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	drink
2	不	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	NEG
3	喝	_	VERB	_	_	1	conj	_	drink
4	咖啡	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	coffee
5	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_

1	"Do	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	drink	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	coffee	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	(or	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	not)?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In more formal registers, the negative adverb 否 fǒu may replace the NEG + VERB part of the VERB + NEG + VERB construction for certain (auxiliary) verbs (e.g., 是否 and 能否 instead of 是不是 and 能不能). In this case, the negative adverb may also be treated as a conj dependent (but note that 是否 may also be an adverb when modifying a main verb).

# visual-style 2 3 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	1SG
2	能	_	AUX	_	_	4	aux	_	can
3	否	_	ADV	_	_	2	conj	_	NEG
4	申請	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	apply
5	信用卡	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	credit-card
6	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	4	punct	_	_

1	"Can	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	apply	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	credit	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	card?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Note that the “et cetera” particle 等(等) / děng(děng) is treated as the final conjunct in a series of conjuncts.

# visual-style 5 8 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 5 7 conj	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
1	這裡	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	here
2	能	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	can
3	買	_	ADV	_	_	0	root	_	buy
4	到	_	VERB	_	_	3	compound:vv	_	arrive
5	臭豆腐	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	stinky-tofu
6	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
7	滷水蛋	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	conj	_	brined-eggs
8	等等	_	PART	_	_	5	conj	_	etc.

1	"One	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	can	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	buy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	stinky	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	tofu,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	brined	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	eggs,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	etc.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	here."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit conj

cop: copula

The cop relation is used exclusively for the word 是 / shì “be” primarily as a copula linked to the main predicate, which may often be a noun or adjective. The words 為 / wéi “be, be as” and 非 / fēi “not be” are also included if they are the only verb in a sentence and the latter is semantically equivalent to the opposite of 是 shì.

# visual-style 4 2 cop	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG
2	是	_	VERB	_	_	4	cop	_	be
3	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	nmod	_	1SG
4	男朋友	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	boyfriend

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	boyfriend."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

If the complement of the copular verb is a clause, however, then the copular verb should be the head of the sentence with the clausal complement as a ccomp dependent.

1	原因	_	NOUN	_	_	2	nsubj	_	reason
2	是	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	be
3	他	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	3SG
4	沒	_	AUX	_	_	5	aux	_	NEG.PERF
5	來	_	VERB	_	_	2	ccomp	_	come

1	"The	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	reason	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	he	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	didn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	come."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

For the cleft-like focus constructions with 是 and 是…的, see ccomp.

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

The csubj relation is the clausal counterpart to nsubj; when the subject of the sentence is a clause itself, this relation is used. The governor of the subject clause is its main verb.

# visual-style 7 2 csubj	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	其實	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	actually
2	教	_	VERB	_	_	7	csubj	_	teach
3	小孩	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	children
4	能	_	AUX	_	_	7	aux	_	can
5	有	_	AUX	_	_	7	aux	_	have
6	多	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	very
7	難	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	difficult
8	呢	_	PART	_	_	7	discourse:sp	_	SP
9	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_

1	"Actually,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	how	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	difficult	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	can	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	teaching	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	children	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	be?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit csubj

csubj:pass: clausal passive subject

When a clause is the passive subject of a verb, the csubj:pass relation is used.

# visual-style 6 2 csubj:pass	color:blue
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	換	_	VERB	_	_	6	csubj:pass	_	change
3	衣服	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	clothes
4	被	_	ADP	_	_	5	case	_	by
5	人	_	NOUN	_	_	6	obl:agent	_	people
6	看	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	see
7	見	_	VERB	_	_	6	compound:vv	_	see

1	"Him	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	changing	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	clothes	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	was	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	seen	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	by	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	other	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	people."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit csubj:pass

dep: unspecified dependency

A dependency can be labeled as dep when it is impossible to determine a more precise relation. This may be because of a weird grammatical construction, or a limitation in conversion or parsing software. The use of dep should be avoided as much as possible.

edit dep

det: determiner

The det relation applies to the head of a nominal and its determiner. All determiners are tagged DET, and thus all words with the tag will be a det dependent. Classifiers may also function as determiners (see further below).

# visual-style 4 1 det	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	這	_	DET	_	_	4	det	_	this
2	頓	_	NOUN	_	_	1	clf	_	CL
3	英雄	_	NOUN	_	_	4	compound	_	hero
4	宴	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	banquet

1	"this	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	heroes'	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	banquet"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 1 det	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	哪	_	DET	_	_	3	det	_	which
2	一	_	NUM	_	_	3	nummod	_	one
3	位	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	CL:person

1	"Which	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	person?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 1 det	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	每	_	DET	_	_	2	det	_	every
2	次	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	CL:time

1	"every	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	time"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Classifiers are treated as determiners when a noun phrase begins with a bare classifier. In Mandarin Chinese, this only occurs when the bare-classifier noun phrase is in postverbal position (and has an indefinite interpretation).

# visual-style 4 3 det	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	買	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	buy
2	了	_	AUX	_	_	1	aux	_	PERF
3	本	_	NOUN	_	_	4	det	_	CL:book
4	書	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	book

1	"bought	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	book"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit det

discourse: discourse element

The discourse relation is used for interjections (words tagged INTJ) and other discourse particles or words which are not clearly linked to the syntactic structure of the sentence except in a discursive sense. However, if an interjected element is clausal (including tag questions and words with a sentence-final particle or single words that are verbs or predicate adjectives), it should be given the relation parataxis.

# visual-style 4 1 discourse	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	嗯	_	INTJ	_	_	4	discourse	_	uh-huh
2	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_
3	不過	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	but
4	可能	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	possible
5	是	_	VERB	_	_	7	cop	_	be
6	三	_	NUM	_	_	7	nummod	_	three
7	年	_	NOUN	_	_	4	xcomp	_	CL:years

1	"Yeah,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	but	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	it's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	possible	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	it'll	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	be	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	years."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit discourse

discourse:sp: sentence particle

Sentence particles, also commonly known as “sentence-final particles” in Chinese linguistics, occur at the end of clauses and sentences in Mandarin and have a wide range of functions including modifying the modality of a sentence or its proposition, and expressing discourse and pragmatic information. They are linked to the main predicate as discourse:sp dependents (we place them under an extension of discourse under a loose interpretation of “discourse”).

Common sentence-final particles in Mandarin include: 吧 ba, 的 de, 啦 la, 了 le, 嗎 ma, 嘛 ma, 呢 ne, 呀 ya, 罷了 bàle. We also include 而已 éryǐ, which has the same syntactic distribution at the end of clauses and sentences.

# visual-style 5 7 discourse:sp	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	不	_	ADV	_	_	2	advmod	_	NEG
2	會	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux	_	know-how
3	拼	_	VERB	_	_	5	advcl	_	spell
4	就	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	then
5	寫	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	write
6	中文	_	NOUN	_	_	5	obj	_	Chinese
7	了	_	PART	_	_	5	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"If	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	don't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	know	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	how	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	spell	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	then	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	write	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	in	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	Chinese."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

More than one sentence-final particles may appear at the end of the same clause or sentence.

# visual-style 2 4 discourse:sp	color:blue
# visual-style 2 5 discourse:sp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	要	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	need
2	收	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	take
3	費	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	fee
4	的	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP
5	嗎	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP:Q
6	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_

1	Is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	there	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	fee?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

To differentiate between the perfective aspect marker 了 and the sentence-final particle 了, one should define as sentence-final a 了 which is placed at the end of a clause or a sentence (though it may be followed by additional sentence-final particles), unless a clear context makes it possible to determine that it is the aspect marker. Before an object, adverbial of duration or frequency, and other non-sentence-final elements, 了 will always be annotated as an aspect marker with aux.

edit discourse:sp

dislocated: dislocated elements

The dislocated relation is used for elements that have been displaced from its regular syntactic position, often to the very front or back of the clause it resides within or of the whole sentence. This applies often to an argument of a clause that has been moved to the periphery for topic, focus, or similar types of effects. However, this relation is also used generally for topic elements that otherwise do not fulfill any core grammatical relation of a sentence, except for temporal nouns (see obl:tmod) or locational nouns (see obl) functioning as adjuncts.

# visual-style 6 4 dislocated	color:blue
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	nmod	_	1SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	辭職	_	NOUN	_	_	4	compound	_	resignation
4	信	_	NOUN	_	_	6	dislocated	_	letter
5	會	_	AUX	_	_	6	aux	_	will
6	放	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	put
7	在	_	ADP	_	_	9	case	_	on
8	你	_	PRON	_	_	9	nmod	_	2SG
9	桌子	_	NOUN	_	_	6	obl	_	table
10	上	_	ADP	_	_	9	case:loc	_	above

1	"My	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	resignation	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	letter,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	will	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	put	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	on	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	desk."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

This relation is also used for topicalized and dislocated subjects (followed by a pronoun functioning as the syntactic subject of the sentence and referring back to topicalized subject).

# visual-style 9 2 dislocated	color:blue
# visual-style 9	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 9	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	龍	_	PROPN	_	_	2	compound	_	Long
2	先生	_	NOUN	_	_	9	dislocated	_	Mr.
3	我	_	PRON	_	_	5	nmod	_	1SG
4	的	_	PART	_	_	3	case	_	GEN
5	老闆	_	NOUN	_	_	2	appos	_	boss
6	他	_	PRON	_	_	9	nsubj	_	3SG.M
7	是	_	VERB	_	_	9	cop	_	be
8	個	_	NOUN	_	_	9	det	_	CL:generic
9	搗蛋鬼	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	troublemaker

1	"Peter,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	boss	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	--	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	he	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	troublemaker."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Below is an example of a topic phrase that is not an argument of the main verb, but still labeled dislocated.

# visual-style 5 3 dislocated	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	今天	_	NOUN	_	_	3	nmod	_	today
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	午餐	_	NOUN	_	_	5	dislocated	_	lunch
4	我	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	1SG
5	請客	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	invite

1	"As	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	lunch	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	today,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	paying"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

However, this relation does not apply to arguments that appear in non-canonical positions due to valence-changing function words such as 把 or 给 gěi, which are treated as prepositions instead (see obl:patient).

Right dislocation is also possible but occurs more frequently in spoken data:

# visual-style 1 6 dislocated	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	來	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	come
2	了	_	PART	_	_	1	discourse:sp	_	SP
3	嗎	_	PART	_	_	1	discourse:sp	_	SP:Q
4	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	6	punct	_	_
5	你	_	PRON	_	_	6	nmod	_	2SG
6	哥哥	_	NOUN	_	_	1	dislocated	_	elder-brother
7	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_

1	"Has	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	he	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	arrived,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	brother?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 5 dislocated	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我們	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1PL
2	去	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go
3	吧	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP
4	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	現在	_	NOUN	_	_	2	dislocated	_	now

1	"Let's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	go	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	--	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	now."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit dislocated

dislocated:vo: dislocated object of verb-object compound

The dislocated:vo relation is used when the object of a verb-object compound (see compound:vo) is fronted to topic position.

# visual-style 5 3 dislocated:vo	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	2SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	電話	_	NOUN	_	_	5	dislocated	_	phone
4	怎麼	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	how
5	打	_	VERB	_	_	7	advcl	_	hit
6	都	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	still
7	沒	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	not-exist
8	人	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obj	_	people
9	接	_	VERB	_	_	8	acl	_	receive

1	"Your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	phone,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	no	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	matter	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	how	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	one	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	calls	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	it,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	nobody	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	picks	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	up."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit dislocated:vo

fixed: fixed multiword expression

The relation fixed is used for function words and short adverbials that are composed of separate parts for which internal structure is either difficult to determine or does not make sense to annotate. The first element of the expression is the head which governs all the following elements.

Because written Chinese does not indicate word boundaries, function words and short adverbials that may have historically consisted of separate words are likely to be treated as a single token at the word segmentation stage. For this reason, this relation is unlikely to be used in Chinese text. However, we leave it as an optional label that may be used in exceptional cases where goeswith may be an unsatisfactory treatment.

edit fixed

flat: flat multiword expression

The flat relation is used to link names without internal structure (unlikely in Chinese names but may be found in fully transliterated foreign names; see 1), foreign phrases whose syntactic structure is not known or not meant to be analyzed (2), and dates (3). The first word is the head of all other words.

# visual-style 1 3 flat	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	弗羅倫斯	_	PROPN	_	_	0	root	_	Florence
2	·	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_
3	南丁格爾	_	PROPN	_	_	1	flat	_	Nightingale

1	"Florence	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	Nightingale"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 7 8 flat	color:blue
# visual-style 7 9 flat	color:blue
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 9	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 9	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	用	_	ADP	_	_	3	case	_	in
3	克林貢語	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obl	_	Klingon
4	説	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	say
5	:	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
6	「	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
7	lupDujHomwIj	_	X	_	_	4	parataxis	_	_
8	luteb	_	X	_	_	7	flat	_	_
9	gharghmey	_	X	_	_	7	flat	_	_
10	。	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
11	」	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	said	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	in	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Klingon,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	'lupDujHomwIj	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	luteb	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	gharghmey.'	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 2 flat	color:blue
# visual-style 1 3 flat	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	2012年	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	year-2012
2	5月	_	NOUN	_	_	1	flat	_	month-5
3	6日	_	NOUN	_	_	1	flat	_	day-6

1	"6	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	May	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	2012"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit flat

goeswith: goes with

This relation is used to link characters that have been mistakenly split during tokenization.

This relation will be removed in the final delivery of the language data. The words connected by goeswith will simply be fused together. For parser training purposes, however, we keep the relation so that the parser can learn to correct mistakenly separated tokens. All separated units should be given the same POS tag as one would give the combined unit, despite what the individual units may be tagged as had they been treated as individual words.

# visual-style 1 2 goeswith	color:blue
# visual-style 1 3 goeswith	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	不	_	INTJ	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	好	_	INTJ	_	_	1	goeswith	_	_
3	意思	_	INTJ	_	_	1	goeswith	_	_

1	"sorry"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Note that the particular class of idiomatic expressions called 成語 chéngyǔ as well as quotations from Classical Chinese texts, may not always be recognized by automatic segmentation. We use the goeswith relation for such cases as well. Because these expressions are fossilized from early stages of the Chinese language, their syntax and composition often do not have a modern analysis, and therefore should not be tokenized apart.

# visual-style 1 2 goeswith	color:blue
# visual-style 1 3 goeswith	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	百	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	無	_	NOUN	_	_	1	goeswith	_	_
3	禁忌	_	NOUN	_	_	1	goeswith	_	_

1	"Nothing	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	taboo."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

The indirect object is the third core argument of a verb, after the subject and the direct object. If no direct object is present or the direct object is dislocated, then what we ordinarily call “indirect object” will be labeled with the obj relation instead (see (2)).

# visual-style 1 2 iobj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	給	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	give
2	他	_	PRON	_	_	1	iobj	_	3SG.M
3	兩	_	NUM	_	_	5	nummod	_	two
4	本	_	NOUN	_	_	3	clf	_	CL:book
5	書	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	books

1	"Give	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	him	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	two	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	books."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

1	今年	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obl:tmod	_	this-year
2	給	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	give
3	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	obj	_	3SG.M
4	吧	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"This	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	year	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	let's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	give	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	(it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	to)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	him."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit iobj

list: list

The list relation is used for chains of comparable items. In lists with more than two items, all items of the list should modify the first one. Informal and web texts often contain passages which are meant to be interpreted as lists but are parsed as single sentences. Email signatures often contain these structures, in the form of contact information: the different contact information items are labeled as list; the key-value pair relations are labeled as appos.

# visual-style 1 2 list	color:blue
# visual-style 1 5 list	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	李四	_	PROPN	_	_	0	root	_	Li-Si
2	電話	_	NOUN	_	_	1	list	_	phone
3	:	_	PUNCT	_	_	4	punct	_	_
4	2540-5654	_	NOUN	_	_	2	appos	_	_
5	電郵	_	NOUN	_	_	1	list	_	e-mail
6	:	_	PUNCT	_	_	7	punct	_	_
7	lisi@lisimail.com	_	NOUN	_	_	5	appos	_	_

1	"Li	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	Si	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	Phone:	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	2540-5654	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	E-mail:	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	lisi@lisimail.com"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Another place where list has been used is for a sequence of attributes or descriptive terms used as the title line of a review (such as product or restaurant reviews, etc.:

# visual-style 1 5 list	color:blue
# visual-style 1 8 list	color:blue
# visual-style 1 11 list	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 11	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 11	fgColor:white
1	難吃	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	unsavory
2	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
3	服務	_	NOUN	_	_	4	compound	_	service
4	態度	_	NOUN	_	_	5	nsubj	_	attitude
5	差	_	ADJ	_	_	1	list	_	poor
6	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
7	環境	_	NOUN	_	_	8	nsubj	_	atmosphere
8	差劣	_	ADJ	_	_	1	list	_	poor
9	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	11	punct	_	_
10	價錢	_	NOUN	_	_	11	nsubj	_	price
11	昂貴	_	ADJ	_	_	1	list	_	expensive

1	"unsavory,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	poor	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	service,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	poor	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	atmosphere,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	expensive"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

However, list should not be over-used. If a construction can be easily analyzed using the grammatical relations of standard sentences, such as when there is overt coordination, then it should be analyzed with these more standard relations, even if it is laid out as a list typographically.

edit list

mark: marker

The mark relation applies to a function word that marks a subordinate clause. It can be distributed at its beginning (1,3) or at its end (2,4). We take a broad definition of “subordinate” to include adverbial clauses of any kind (see advcl), as well as relative clauses formed with 所 suǒ (5).

For relative clauses, nominalized clauses, and adjectives formed with 的 de, see mark:rel. For the manner adverbializer 地 de, see mark:adv.

# visual-style 3 1 mark	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	如果	_	SCONJ	_	_	3	mark	_	if
2	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1SG
3	買	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	buy
4	藥	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	medicine
5	回來	_	VERB	_	_	3	compound:dir	_	come-back

1	"If	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	buy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	medicine	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	back"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 3 mark	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	要	_	AUX	_	_	7	advcl	_	want
2	玩	_	VERB	_	_	1	xcomp	_	play
3	的話	_	SCONJ	_	_	1	mark	_	COND
4	就	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	then
5	將	_	ADP	_	_	6	case	_	BA
6	事情	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obl	_	affair
7	鬧	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	make-noise
8	大	_	ADJ	_	_	7	compound:vv	_	big

1	"If	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	somebody	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	wants	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	play,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	then	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	let's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	make	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	everyone	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	know	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	about	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	it."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 8 7 mark	color:blue
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	2SG
2	搶	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	steal
3	走	_	VERB	_	_	2	compound:vv	_	go-away
4	他	_	PRON	_	_	6	nmod	_	3SG.M
5	的	_	PART	_	_	4	case	_	GEN
6	襪子	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	socks
7	來	_	SCONJ	_	_	8	mark	_	to
8	穿	_	VERB	_	_	2	advcl	_	wear

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	stole	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	his	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	socks	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	wear	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	them."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 4 mark	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	她	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.F
2	走	_	VERB	_	_	6	advcl	_	go
3	了	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	PERF
4	之後	_	ADP	_	_	2	mark	_	after
5	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_
6	希望	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	hope
7	你	_	PRON	_	_	8	nsubj	_	2SG
8	開開心心	_	ADJ	_	_	6	ccomp	_	happy

1	"After	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	she	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	leaves,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	she	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	hopes	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	will	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	be	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	happy."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 6 5 mark	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	木村	_	PROPN	_	_	6	nsubj	_	Kimura
2	在	_	ADP	_	_	3	case	_	in
3	劇	_	NOUN	_	_	6	obl	_	show
4	中	_	ADP	_	_	3	case:loc	_	middle
5	所	_	SCONJ	_	_	6	mark	_	REL
6	戴	_	VERB	_	_	8	acl	_	wear
7	的	_	PART	_	_	6	mark:rel	_	REL
8	手鍊	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	bracelet

1	"the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	bracelet	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Kimura	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	wears	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	in	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	show"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit mark

mark:adv: manner adverbializer

We use this relation to label the manner adverbializer 地 de when it follows an adverb or an adjective and turns it into an adverb.

# visual-style 1 2 mark:adv	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	迫切	_	ADJ	_	_	3	advmod	_	urgent
2	地	_	PART	_	_	1	mark:adv	_	ADVZR
3	使用	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	use

1	"urgently	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	use"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit mark:adv

mark:rel: adjectival, relativizer, and nominalizer 的 DE

The mark:rel relation is reserved for three related uses of 的 de: adjectives, relative clauses, and nominalized clauses.

Adjectives [ADJ + 的 + NOUN]

When an adjective modifying a noun is followed by the particle 的 before the noun, the adjective is the head of the particle 的.

# visual-style 1 2 mark:rel	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	嚴重	_	ADJ	_	_	3	amod	_	grave
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	mark:rel	_	_
3	問題	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	problem

1	"grave	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	problem"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Relative clauses [clause + 的 + NOUN]

When the particle 的 is used after a clause turning it into a relative clause that modifies the following noun, the particle is a mark:rel dependent of the main verb of the relative clause.

# visual-style 6 7 mark:rel	color:blue
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	木村	_	PROPN	_	_	6	nsubj	_	Kimura
2	在	_	ADP	_	_	3	case	_	in
3	劇	_	NOUN	_	_	6	obl	_	show
4	中	_	ADP	_	_	3	case:loc	_	middle
5	所	_	SCONJ	_	_	6	mark	_	REL
6	戴	_	VERB	_	_	8	acl	_	wear
7	的	_	PART	_	_	6	mark:rel	_	REL
8	手鍊	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	bracelet

1	"the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	bracelet	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Kimura	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	wears	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	in	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	show"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Nominalized clauses [clause + 的]

When the particle 的 is used after a verb, predicate adjective, or object-less clause turning it into a nominal, the particle is annotated as a mark:rel dependent of the head of the nominalized clause.

# visual-style 2 3 mark:rel	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	他們	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3PL
2	寫	_	VERB	_	_	6	nsubj	_	write
3	的	_	PART	_	_	2	mark:rel	_	NMZR
4	不	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	NEG
5	是	_	ADJ	_	_	6	cop	_	be
6	詩	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	poetry

1	"What	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	they	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	write	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	poetry."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit mark:rel

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal dependents of another noun or noun phrase and functionally corresponds to an attribute, or genitive (possessive) complement. In Mandarin, it is expressed with the 的 de particle, as in (1), between the preceding complement and the following head noun. The particle depends on the complement as a case dependent.

# visual-style 3 1 nmod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	2SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	電話	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	phone

1	"your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	phone"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Sometimes the particle may be omitted, specifically when the possessor is a pronoun, and often (but not exclusively) when the possessed object is a kinship term, as in (2).

# visual-style 2 1 nmod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nmod	_	2SG
2	公公	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	grandfather

1	"your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	grandfather"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Attributive or associative relations between two nouns, or a pronoun and a noun, may also be expressed with the particle 的 de.

# visual-style 3 1 nmod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	目前	_	NOUN	_	_	3	nmod	_	now
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	情況	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	situation

1	"current	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	situation"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 3 1 nmod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	這樣	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	such
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	體能	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	stamina

1	"such	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	stamina"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

But if a noun modifies another noun without the particle 的 de, and the relationship is not a possessive one, it is treated as a noun-noun compound (see compound).

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

The nsubj relation links a subject to its predicate, and this subject must be nominal. (If the syntactic subject is a clause, the relation csubj is used.)

# visual-style 3 1 nsubj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	1SG
2	馬上	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	immediately
3	開車	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	drive

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	will	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	drive	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	at	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	once."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit nsubj

nsubj:pass: passive nominal subject

The nsubj:pass relation is used for the passive subject of a verb.

# visual-style 3 1 nsubj:pass	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj:pass	_	1SG
2	被	_	AUX	_	_	3	aux:pass	_	PASS
3	罰	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	punish

1	"I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	being	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	punished."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit nsubj:pass

nummod: numeric modifier

A numeric modifier is a modifier that is a numeral word or phrase preceding the noun or noun phrase it modifies. Ordinal numbers such as 第一 / dìyī “first” and 第二 / dìèr “second” should also be treated with nummod because they have the same syntactic distribution as cardinal numbers.

Numeric modifiers are always attached to the head of the noun phrase.

# visual-style 4 1 nummod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	三	_	NUM	_	_	4	nummod	_	three
2	個	_	NOUN	_	_	1	clf	_	CL:generic
3	好	_	ADJ	_	_	4	amod	_	good
4	警察	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	police

1	"three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	good	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	cops"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 1 nummod	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
1	五	_	NUM	_	_	2	nummod	_	five
2	天	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	CL:days

1	"five	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	days"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit nummod

obj: object

The object of a transitive verb is its second core argument after its subject. If a third argument, an indirect object, is present, that object is marked as iobj (2), but if the only object present is an indirect object, it is still marked as obj (3).

# visual-style 1 3 obj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	開	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	open
2	瓶	_	NOUN	_	_	3	det	_	CL:bottle
3	酒	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	wine

1	"open	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	bottle	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	wine"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 5 obj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	給	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	give
2	他	_	PRON	_	_	1	iobj	_	3SG.M
3	兩	_	NUM	_	_	5	nummod	_	two
4	本	_	NOUN	_	_	3	clf	_	CL:book
5	書	_	NOUN	_	_	1	obj	_	book

1	"Give	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	him	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	two	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	books."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 3 obj	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	今年	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obl:tmod	_	this-year
2	給	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	give
3	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	obj	_	3SG.M
4	吧	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"This	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	year	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	let's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	give	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	him."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

obj is also used to link the direct object of a movement verb. This verb can be single (4) or compounded (5).

# visual-style 5 6 obj	color:blue
# visual-style 7 8 obj	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	那	_	DET	_	_	3	det	_	that
2	傻	_	ADJ	_	_	3	amod	_	stupid
3	丫頭	_	NOUN	_	_	4	nsubj	_	girl
4	説	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	say
5	去	_	VERB	_	_	4	ccomp	_	go
6	福岡	_	PROPN	_	_	5	obj	_	Fukuoka
7	看	_	VERB	_	_	5	conj	_	see
8	別人	_	PRON	_	_	7	obj	_	others
9	耕作	_	VERB	_	_	7	xcomp	_	farm

1	"That	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	stupid	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	girl	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	says	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	she	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	wants	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	go	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	Fukuoka	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	see	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
13	people	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
14	farming."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 3 obj	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	來	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	come
2	到	_	VERB	_	_	1	compound:vv	_	arrive
3	這裡	_	PRON	_	_	1	obj	_	here

1	"arrived	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	here"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit obj

obl: oblique nominal

The obl relation is used for nominals functioning as a non-core argument or adjunct of a predicate, where the nominal may include some nominal marker. In Mandarin Chinese this may include prepositional phrases (1), preverbal coverb phrases where we treat the coverbs as prepositions (2), and comparative objects introduced by 比 (3). In each of these situations, the nominal is an obl dependent of the predicate, and governs its marker (tagged as ADP in all cases) in a case relation. For nominals introduced by 被 bèi and 把 bǎ, see obl:agent and obl:patient, respectively.

The relation can also be used for nominals that don’t include a nominal marker, specifically locational pronouns and nouns, such as 這裡 / zhèlǐ “here”, 那裡 / nàlǐ “there”, 前面 / qiánmiàn “front side” (4). For temporal nouns functioning as adjuncts, see obl:tmod.

# visual-style 3 6 obl	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	一定	_	ADV	_	_	2	advmod	_	certainly
2	是	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	be
3	還	_	VERB	_	_	2	ccomp	_	return
4	車子	_	NOUN	_	_	3	obj	_	car
5	給	_	ADP	_	_	6	case	_	to
6	我們	_	PRON	_	_	3	obl	_	3PL

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	will	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	certainly	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	return	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	car	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	us."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 7 5 obl	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	3	nmod	_	2SG
2	的	_	PART	_	_	1	case	_	GEN
3	系列	_	NOUN	_	_	7	nsubj	_	series
4	幫	_	ADP	_	_	5	case	_	for
5	我	_	PRON	_	_	7	obl	_	me
6	多	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	more
7	賺	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	earn
8	了	_	AUX	_	_	7	aux	_	PERF
9	不	_	ADV	_	_	10	advmod	_	NEG
10	少	_	DET	_	_	11	det	_	little
11	佣金	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obj	_	commission

1	"Your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	(product)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	series	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	earned	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	me	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	quite	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	bit	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	commission."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 7 4 obl	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	我們	_	PRON	_	_	7	nsubj	_	1PL
2	應該	_	AUX	_	_	7	aux	_	should
3	比	_	ADP	_	_	4	case	_	COMP
4	他們	_	PRON	_	_	7	obl	_	3PL
5	更	_	ADV	_	_	6	advmod	_	more
6	早	_	ADJ	_	_	7	advmod	_	early
7	到達	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	arrive
8	公司	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obj	_	company

1	"We	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	should	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	arrive	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	at	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	company	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	earlier	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	than	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	they	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	will."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 5 3 obl	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	説	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	say
3	這裡	_	PRON	_	_	5	obl	_	here
4	細菌	_	NOUN	_	_	5	nsubj	_	bacteria
5	多	_	ADJ	_	_	2	ccomp	_	many

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	says	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	there	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	are	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	lot	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	bacteria	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	here."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit obl

obl:agent: agent in passive construction

The obl:agent relation is used to link an agent noun phrase to the main verb, where the agent noun is preceded by the function word 被 bèi (tagged ADP), known as the “long passive” construction.

# visual-style 3 2 obl:agent	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	被	_	ADP	_	_	2	case	_	by
2	我	_	PRON	_	_	3	obl:agent	_	1SG
3	扔掉	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	throw-away
4	了	_	PART	_	_	3	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"It's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	been	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	thrown	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	away	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	by	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	me."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

For the “short passive” construction where the agent is absent, the function word 被 bèi is treated as a passive auxiliary (tagged AUX; see aux:pass).

edit obl:agent

obl:patient: object in BA construction

The relation obl:patient is used for the Mandarin “BA construction” (also known as the “disposal construction”). Objects marked (and raised to preverbal-position) by 把 or the more formal version 將 jiāng take the main verb as their head, while the objects themselves serve as the head of 把 or 將 jiāng (tagged as ADP).

# visual-style 3 2 obl:patient	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	把	_	ADP	_	_	2	case	_	BA
2	它	_	PRON	_	_	3	obl:patient	_	3SG.N
3	印	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	print
4	出來	_	VERB	_	_	3	compound:dir	_	come-out

1	"print	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	out"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit obl:patient

obl:tmod: temporal modifier

The relation obl:tmod is used for temporal nouns acting as temporal modifiers of clauses.

# visual-style 5 3 obl:tmod	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	但	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	but
2	我	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	1SG
3	昨天	_	NOUN	_	_	5	obl:tmod	_	yesterday
4	才	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	only
5	收	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	receive
6	到	_	VERB	_	_	5	compound:vv	_	arrive
7	信	_	NOUN	_	_	5	obj	_	letter

1	"But	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	didn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	receive	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	letter	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	until	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	yesterday."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 2 obl:tmod	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	到	_	ADP	_	_	2	case	_	until
2	現在	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obl:tmod	_	now
3	才	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	only
4	走	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go

1	"only	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	now	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	leave"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

The temporal noun may be part of a complex noun phrase.

# visual-style 6 5 obl:tmod	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	在	_	ADP	_	_	5	case	_	during
2	逮捕	_	VERB	_	_	5	acl	_	arrest
3	賊子	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	thief
4	的	_	PART	_	_	2	mark:rel	_	REL
5	時候	_	NOUN	_	_	6	obl:tmod	_	time
6	受	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	receive
7	了	_	AUX	_	_	6	aux	_	PERF
8	傷	_	NOUN	_	_	6	compound:vo	_	injury

1	"(they	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	were)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	injured	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	during	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	time	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	they	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	arrested	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	thief"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 6 2 obl:tmod	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
1	三	_	NUM	_	_	2	nummod	_	three
2	天	_	NOUN	_	_	6	obl:tmod	_	CL:days
3	前	_	ADP	_	_	2	case:loc	_	before
4	在	_	ADP	_	_	5	case	_	in
5	九龍灣	_	PROPN	_	_	6	obl	_	Kowloon-Bay
6	失事	_	VERB	_	_	9	acl	_	have-accident
7	的	_	PART	_	_	6	mark:rel	_	REL
8	廢鐵	_	NOUN	_	_	9	compound	_	scrap-metal
9	車輛	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	car

1	"the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	wrecked	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	car	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	was	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	in	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	an	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	accident	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	in	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	Kowloon	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	Bay	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
13	days	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
14	ago"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit obl:tmod

orphan: orphan

The orphan relation is used for verb ellipsis in Mandarin (specifically, gapping or gapping-like phenomena; see Tang, 2001). One of elements in the clause with the elided verb is promoted, and all other elements would be connected to the verb would be connected to the promoted head as orphan dependents if their original relationship to the elided verb no longer applies in their current link to the promoted head.

# visual-style 8 11 orphan	color:blue
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 11	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 11	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	喝	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	drink
3	了	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	PERF
4	兩	_	NUM	_	_	6	nummod	_	two
5	杯	_	NOUN	_	_	4	clf	_	CL:cup
6	茶	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	tea
7	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
8	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	conj	_	3SG.M
9	三	_	NUM	_	_	11	nummod	_	three
10	杯	_	NOUN	_	_	9	clf	_	CL:cup
11	咖啡	_	NOUN	_	_	8	orphan	_	coffee
12	。	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	drank	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	two	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	cups	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	tea,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	he	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	three	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	cups	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	coffee."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In the above example, the verb in the second clause is elided, and the subject 他 / tā “he” is promoted to head position of the second clause, whereas the head of the object, 咖啡 / kāfēi “coffee” in the noun phrase 三 杯 咖啡 / sān bēi kāfēi “three cups of coffee”, is connected to the promoted head as an orphan dependent, rather than obj (since 咖啡 / kāfēi “coffee” is not the object of 他 / tā “he” but of the elided verb).

The prefered order of promotion is as follows, depending on the relation of a word to its elided verb:

Some other arguments, such as the subject in (2), may also be elided along with the verb in a subsequent clause. In the following example, the second clause only has the direct and indirect objects left. According to the promotion hierarchy above, the direct object 手機 / shǒujī “mobile phone” is promoted to head and not the indirect object 奶奶 / nǎinai “grandmother”.

# visual-style 11 8 orphan	color:blue
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 11	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 11	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	給	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	give
3	爺爺	_	NOUN	_	_	2	iobj	_	grandfather
4	一	_	NUM	_	_	6	nummod	_	one
5	個	_	NOUN	_	_	4	clf	_	CL:generic
6	手錶	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	watch
7	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	11	punct	_	_
8	奶奶	_	NOUN	_	_	11	orphan	_	grandmother
9	一	_	NUM	_	_	11	nummod	_	one
10	個	_	NOUN	_	_	9	clf	_	CL:generic
11	手機	_	NOUN	_	_	2	conj	_	mobile-phone
12	。	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	gave	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	grandpa	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	watch,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	grandma	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	mobile	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	phone."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Ellipsis of the verb may also occur in a main clause when it follows a subordinate clause. In the following example, according to the head promotion hierarchy the subject of the main clause, 我 / wǒ “I”, is promoted to root. The object 五 個 / wǔ ge “five (of them)” as well as the adverb 也 / yě “also” are connected to the subject as orphan dependents. However, the head of the subordinating clause is labelled an advcl dependent of 我 / wǒ “I” since its relation to the main clause is still as an adverbial clause.

# visual-style 8 9 orphan	color:blue
# visual-style 8 11 orphan	color:blue
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 9	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 9	fgColor:white
# visual-style 11	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 11	fgColor:white
1	ROOT	_	_	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	如果	_	SCONJ	_	_	4	mark	_	if
3	你	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	2SG
4	吃	_	VERB	_	_	8	advcl	_	eat
5	五	_	NUM	_	_	6	nummod	_	five
6	個	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	CL:generic
7	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	4	punct	_	_
8	我	_	PRON	_	_	1	root	_	1SG
9	也	_	ADV	_	_	8	orphan	_	also
10	五	_	NUM	_	_	11	nummod	_	five
11	個	_	NOUN	_	_	8	orphan	_	CL:generic
12	。	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_

1	"If	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	eat	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	five,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	I'll	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	also	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	(eat)	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	five."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

References

edit orphan

parataxis: parataxis

Parataxis is a relation for “side-by-side sentences” including reported speech (1), parenthetical comments and clausal interjections (2), tag questions (3), and generally pairs of clauses that are pragmatically understood to be related in a discursive way despite lacking linking words between them (4). Clauses introduced after a colon (冒號 “:”) or long dash (破折號 “──”) also exemplify this kind of usage (5).

# visual-style 4 11 parataxis	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 11	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 11	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	突然	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	suddenly
3	大聲	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	loudly
4	叫	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	yell
5	:	_	PUNCT	_	_	11	punct	_	_
6	「	_	PUNCT	_	_	11	punct	_	_
7	我	_	PRON	_	_	11	nsubj	_	1SG
8	是	_	VERB	_	_	11	cop	_	be
9	個	_	NOUN	_	_	11	det	_	CL:generic
10	大	_	ADJ	_	_	11	amod	_	big
11	笨蛋	_	NOUN	_	_	4	parataxis	_	idiot
12	!	_	PUNCT	_	_	11	punct	_	_
13	」	_	PUNCT	_	_	11	punct	_	_

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	suddenly	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	yelled	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	out	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	loud,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	'I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	big	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	idiot!'"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 8 parataxis	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
1	這	_	DET	_	_	2	det	_	this
2	市場	_	NOUN	_	_	4	nsubj	_	market
3	也	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	also
4	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	have
5	臭豆腐	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	stinky-tofu
6	(	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
7	超	_	ADV	_	_	8	advmod	_	super
8	好吃	_	ADJ	_	_	4	parataxis	_	tasty
9	的	_	PART	_	_	8	discourse:sp	_	SP
10	!	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
11	)	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_

1	"This	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	market	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	also	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	has	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	stinky	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	tofu	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	(it's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	super	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	tasty!)."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 5 parataxis	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG
2	生氣	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	get-angry
3	了	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP
4	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	是	_	VERB	_	_	2	parataxis	_	be
6	不	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	NEG
7	是	_	VERB	_	_	5	conj	_	be
8	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_

1	"He's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	angry,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	isn't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	he?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 4 10 parataxis	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 10	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 10	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	3SG.M
2	是	_	VERB	_	_	4	cop	_	be
3	紀律	_	NOUN	_	_	4	compound	_	discipline
4	部隊	_	NOUN	_	_	0	root	_	team
5	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	10	reparandum	_	_
6	你	_	PRON	_	_	10	nsubj	_	2SG
7	也	_	ADV	_	_	10	advmod	_	also
8	將	_	ADV	_	_	10	advmod	_	soon
9	會	_	AUX	_	_	10	aux	_	will
10	是	_	VERB	_	_	4	parataxis	_	be

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	member	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	disciplinary	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	team	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	--	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	will	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	also	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
13	be	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
14	one	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
15	soon."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 11 parataxis	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 11	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 11	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	2SG
2	買	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	buy
3	這	_	DET	_	_	5	det	_	this
4	本	_	NOUN	_	_	3	clf	_	CL:book
5	書	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	book
6	吧	_	SP	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP
7	──	_	PUNCT	_	_	11	punct	_	2SG
8	那	_	DET	_	_	9	det	_	that
9	本	_	NOUN	_	_	11	nsubj	_	CL:book
10	不	_	ADV	_	_	11	advmod	_	NEG
11	好	_	ADJ	_	_	2	parataxis	_	good

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	should	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	buy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	this	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	book;	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	one	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	not	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	good."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This relation is used for all punctuation symbols.

# visual-style 2 4 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	我們	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3PL
2	走	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go
3	吧	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP
4	!	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_

1	"Let's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	go!"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

We follow the official UD principles in determining the head of punctuation marks:

  1. A punctuation mark separating coordinated units is attached to the following conjunct.
  2. A punctuation mark preceding or following a subordinated unit is attached to this unit.
  3. Within the relevant unit, a punctuation mark is attached at the highest possible node that preserves projectivity.
  4. Paired punctuation marks (e.g. quotes and brackets, sometimes also dashes, commas and other) should be attached to the same word unless that would create non-projectivity. This word is usually the head of the phrase enclosed in the paired punctuation.
# visual-style 5 4 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 8 6 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 2 9 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 6	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 6	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 9	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 9	fgColor:white
1	我們	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3PL
2	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	have
3	蘋果	_	NOUN	_	_	2	obj	_	apples
4	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	梨子	_	NOUN	_	_	3	conj	_	pears
6	、	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
7	和	_	CCONJ	_	_	8	cc	_	and
8	香蕉	_	NOUN	_	_	3	conj	_	bananas
9	。	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_

1	"We	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	have	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	apples,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	pears,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	and	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	bananas."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 5 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 8 11 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 11	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 11	fgColor:white
1	雖然	_	SCONJ	_	_	2	mark	_	although
2	晚	_	ADJ	_	_	8	advcl	_	late
3	了	_	AUX	_	_	2	aux	_	PERF
4	一點	_	ADV	_	_	2	advmod	_	a-bit
5	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_
6	但是	_	ADV	_	_	8	advmod	_	but
7	還	_	ADV	_	_	8	advmod	_	still
8	有	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	have
9	機會	_	NOUN	_	_	8	obj	_	chance
10	的	_	PART	_	_	8	discourse:sp	_	SP
11	。	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_

1	"Although	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	it's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	bit	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	late,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	there's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	still	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	chance."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 1 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 2 3 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 8 4 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 8 7 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 8 9 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 8 10 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 17 18 punct	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
# visual-style 9	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 9	fgColor:white
# visual-style 10	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 10	fgColor:white
# visual-style 17	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 17	fgColor:white
# visual-style 18	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 18	fgColor:white
1	《	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_
2	紅樓夢	_	PROPN	_	_	17	nsubj	_	Dream-of-the-Red-Chamber
3	》	_	PUNCT	_	_	2	punct	_	_
4	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
5	原	_	ADJ	_	_	6	amod	_	original
6	名	_	NOUN	_	_	8	nsubj	_	name
7	《	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
8	石頭記	_	PROPN	_	_	2	parataxis	_	Records-of-the-Stone
9	》	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
10	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	8	punct	_	_
11	是	_	VERB	_	_	17	cop	_	be
12	中國	_	PROPN	_	_	15	nmod	_	China
13	四	_	NUM	_	_	15	nummod	_	four
14	大	_	ADJ	_	_	15	amod	_	big
15	小説	_	NOUN	_	_	17	nmod	_	novel
16	之	_	PART	_	_	15	case	_	GEN
17	一	_	NUM	_	_	0	root	_	one
18	。	_	PUNCT	_	_	17	punct	_	_

1	"Dream	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Red	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	Chamber,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	originally	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	titled	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	Records	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	the	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	Stone,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
13	one	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
14	of	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
15	China's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
16	four	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
17	great	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
18	novels."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit punct

reparandum: overridden disfluency

The reparandum relation is used for disfluencies that are subsequently repaired. The disfluency is a dependent of the repair. Examples include false starts due to stuttering or a change in lexical choice. Hesitation sounds (“fillers”), however, are generally considered interjections and therefore should be given the relation discourse instead.

# visual-style 3 1 reparandum	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	就	_	ADV	_	_	3	reparandum	_	then
2	-	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_
3	就	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	then
4	照	_	ADP	_	_	6	case	_	according-to
5	你	_	PRON	_	_	6	nmod	_	2SG
6	意思	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obl	_	wishes
7	處罰	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	punish

1	"Then-	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	then	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	let's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	punish	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	according	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	wishes."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 8 5 reparandum	color:blue
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
# visual-style 8	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 8	fgColor:white
1	那	_	ADV	_	_	9	discourse	_	then
2	我	_	PRON	_	_	9	nsubj	_	1SG
3	就	_	ADV	_	_	9	discourse	_	then
4	往	_	ADP	_	_	5	case	_	toward
5	西	_	NOUN	_	_	8	reparandum	_	west
6	⋯⋯	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
7	往	_	ADP	_	_	8	case	_	toward
8	東	_	NOUN	_	_	9	obl	_	east
9	走	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	go
10	吧	_	PART	_	_	9	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"Then	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	I'll	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	go	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	west...	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	east	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	then."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit reparandum

root: root

The root of a sentence is the predicate of the main clause. This may be a verb (1), a predicate adjective (2), or a nominal in a copular construction (3). Sometimes only an auxiliary (see AUX) is present, in which case that will be promoted to root (4). If there is only a phrase, whatever is the governor of that phrase will be the root (5).

# visual-style 1 5 root	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	ROOT	_	_	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	你	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	2SG
3	也	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	also
4	要	_	AUX	_	_	5	aux	_	need
5	幫幫	_	VERB	_	_	1	root	_	help
6	我們	_	PRON	_	_	5	obj	_	1PL

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	have	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	help	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	us,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	too."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 4 root	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	ROOT	_	_	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	的確	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	indeed
3	很	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	very
4	棒	_	ADJ	_	_	1	root	_	great

1	"It's	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	great	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	indeed."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 5 root	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	ROOT	_	_	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	他	_	PRON	_	_	5	nsubj	_	3SG.M
3	是	_	VERB	_	_	5	cop	_	be
4	我	_	PRON	_	_	5	nmod	_	1SG
5	男朋友	_	NOUN	_	_	1	root	_	boyfriend

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	my	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	boyfriend."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 3 root	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	ROOT	_	_	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	他	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	3SG.M
3	能	_	AUX	_	_	1	root	_	can

1	"He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	can	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	(do	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	it)."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 1 4 root	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	ROOT	_	_	_	_	0	root	_	_
2	哪	_	DET	_	_	4	det	_	which
3	一	_	NUM	_	_	4	nummod	_	one
4	位	_	NOUN	_	_	1	root	_	CL:person
5	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	4	punct	_	_

1	"Who	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	(which	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	person)?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit root

vocative: vocative

We use the vocative relation when the speaker of the sentence calls the addressee by their name or appellation, which depends on the head of the main clause.

# visual-style 3 1 vocative	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
1	爺爺	_	NOUN	_	_	3	vocative	_	grandpa
2	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	1	punct	_	_
3	是	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	be
4	不	_	ADV	_	_	5	advmod	_	NEG
5	是	_	VERB	_	_	3	conj	_	be
6	很	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	very
7	累	_	ADJ	_	_	3	ccomp	_	tired
8	?	_	PUNCT	_	_	3	punct	_	_

1	"Grandpa,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	you're	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	tired,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	aren't	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	you?"	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 5 vocative	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	2SG
2	放心	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	rest-assured
3	吧	_	PART	_	_	2	discourse:sp	_	SP
4	,	_	PUNCT	_	_	5	punct	_	_
5	校長	_	NOUN	_	_	2	vocative	_	principal

1	"Rest	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	assured,	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	Principal."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

The open clausal complement functions like an object of another verb, but unlike the ccomp dependent, it obligatorily lacks an overt subject. More crucially, the absent or “silent” subject is coreferent with an argument outside of the clausal complement in a higher clause (this is also known as “obligatory control” in some linguistic literature).

When the silent subject of xcomp is obligatorily coreferent with the subject of the higher clause, it is known as “subject control”. Some matrix verbs that take a clausal complement with subject control include 準備 / zhǔnbèi “prepare”, 打算 / dǎsuàn “plan”, 決定 / juédìng “decide”, 開始 / kāishǐ “start”, 答應 / dāyìng “promise”.

# visual-style 4 5 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	4	nsubj	_	1SG
2	早	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	early
3	就	_	ADV	_	_	4	advmod	_	then
4	打算	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	plan
5	換	_	VERB	_	_	4	xcomp	_	change
6	車	_	NOUN	_	_	5	obj	_	car

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	already	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	planned	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	change	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	cars	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	early	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	on."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

The matrix verb may require both a non-clausal object and a clausal complement:

# visual-style 2 4 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	答應	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	promise
3	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	obj	_	2SG
4	買	_	VERB	_	_	2	xcomp	_	buy
5	那	_	DET	_	_	7	det	_	that
6	頭	_	NOUN	_	_	5	clf	_	CL:cattle
7	牛	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	cow

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	promise	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	buy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	that	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	cow."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In the case of “object control”, the subject of the clausal complement is obligatorily coreferent with the direct object of the higher clause. Chinese “pivotal constructions” are considered to fall under this category. Some matrix verbs that may take a clausal complement with object control include 麻煩 / máfán “trouble”, 勸 / quàn “advise”, 派 / pài “dispatch”, 求 / qiú “beg”, / 委託 wěituō “entrust”, 請 / qǐng “asl”, 命令 / mìnglìng “order”, 叫 / jiào “tell”, 原諒 / yuánliàng “forgive”, 恭喜 / gōngxǐ “congratulate”, 批評 / pīpíng “criticize”, among others (however, note that some of these verbs may also take just a non-clausal object).

# visual-style 2 7 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 7	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 7	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	命令	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	order
3	你	_	PRON	_	_	2	obj	_	2SG
4	立刻	_	ADV	_	_	7	advmod	_	immediately
5	把	_	ADP	_	_	6	case	_	BA
6	腳	_	NOUN	_	_	7	obl:patient	_	leg
7	放	_	VERB	_	_	2	xcomp	_	put
8	下	_	VERB	_	_	7	compound:dir	_	go-down

1	"I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	order	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	you	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	put	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	down	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	your	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	feet	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	immediately."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Secondary predicates

Note that the complement may be simply a nominal predicate, where the structure should not be confused with a ditransitive verb requiring a direct object and an indirect object, such as the examples below. This is also known as a “secondary predicate” or “small clause” in the linguistic literature.

# visual-style 1 4 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 1	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 1	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	叫	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	call
2	我	_	PRON	_	_	1	obj	_	1SG
3	羅	_	PROPN	_	_	4	compound	_	Luo
4	先生	_	NOUN	_	_	1	xcomp	_	Mr.

1	"Call	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	me	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	Mr.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	Luo."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 4 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	她	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	3SG.F
2	當	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	consider
3	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	obj	_	1SG
4	傻瓜	_	NOUN	_	_	2	xcomp	_	fool

1	"She	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	considers	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	me	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	a	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	fool."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

In “extent compound” constructions

Additionally, xcomp is used when the predicate or clause following a V-得 extent compound (see compound:ext) is lacking its local subject.

# visual-style 2 4 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	説	_	VERB	_	_	0	root	_	say
3	得	_	PART	_	_	2	compound:ext	_	DE
4	對	_	ADJ	_	_	2	xcomp	_	correct

1	"You	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	said	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	it	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	correctly."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

# visual-style 2 5 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 2	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 2	fgColor:white
# visual-style 5	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 5	fgColor:white
1	我	_	PRON	_	_	2	nsubj	_	1SG
2	熱	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	hot
3	得	_	PART	_	_	2	compound:ext	_	DE
4	想	_	AUX	_	_	5	aux	_	want
5	吐	_	VERB	_	_	2	xcomp	_	vomit
6	了	_	PART	_	_	5	discourse:sp	_	SP

1	"I'm	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	so	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	hot	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	I	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	want	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	vomit."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

Raising constructions

A small class of predicate adjectives, including 容易 róngyì “easy”, 難 nán “difficult”, 可能 kěnéng “possible”, take a clausal complement in which its subject or object is in the subject or topic position of the main clause.

# visual-style 3 4 xcomp	color:blue
# visual-style 3	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 3	fgColor:white
# visual-style 4	bgColor:blue
# visual-style 4	fgColor:white
1	他	_	PRON	_	_	3	nsubj	_	3SG
2	很	_	ADV	_	_	3	advmod	_	very
3	容易	_	ADJ	_	_	0	root	_	easy
4	忘記	_	VERB	_	_	3	xcomp	_	forget
5	事情	_	NOUN	_	_	4	obj	_	things

1	"It	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
2	is	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
3	easy	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
4	for	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
5	him	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
6	to	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
7	forget	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
8	things.	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
9	/	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
10	He	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
11	forgets	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
12	things	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_
13	easily."	_	_	_	_	0	_	_	_

The predicate of the clausal complement is linked to the predicate adjective as an xcomp dependent, whereas the noun phrase preceding the predicate adjective is treated as its syntactic subject (nsubj) regardless of whether it can be semantically understood to be the subject or object of the clausal complement.

ccomp vs. object-control xcomp

Since both ccomp and object-control xcomp may both contain an argument between the matrix verb and the embedded verb, confusion may arise as to which relation is appropriate.

We adopt a test from Chao (1968) which allows one to separate “clausal objects” (ccomp) from “pivotal constructions” (object-control xcomp). In the case of ccomp, it is grammatical to dislocate the matrix verb with its subject to the end, while the same operation on an xcomp sentence would result in ungrammaticality:

ccomp   xcomp
他 認為 你 有 禮貌   他 請 你 幫忙
3SG consider 2SG have politeness   3SG ask 2SG help
“He thinks you’re polite”   “He asked you to help”
OKAY: 你 有 禮貌, 他 認為   BAD: * 你 幫忙, 他 請

References

edit xcomp