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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Quick introduction (test)

This online repository contains dependency annotation documentation and visualizations, built using a combination of Jekyll, GitHub pages and embedded brat visualizations. Here’s a minimal example:

An adjectival complement of a verb is an adjectival phrase which functions as the complement (see ADJ).

She looks very beautiful
acomp(looks, beautiful)

The text is Markdown (with optional inline HTML) and the data for the visualizations is represented in either the Stanford Dependency or CoNLL-X format. For example, the above visualization is generated from this input:

An adjectival complement of a verb is an adjectival phrase which functions as the complement (see [ADJ]()).

~~~ sdparse
She looks very beautiful
acomp(looks, beautiful)
~~~

See the links below for more information.

How to contribute

See here for instructions on how to contribute to this online documentation. See below for details on how the visualized examples are created.

More information:

The following sources of documentation provide further details:

Further details are provided below.

Automatic parse visualization

Simple examples

A single tree in the Stanford Dependency format can be embedded using the following syntax:

~~~ sdparse
Dogs run
nsubj(run, Dogs)
~~~

which results in this embedded visualization:

Dogs run
nsubj(run, Dogs)

The CoNLL-X format is also supported. For example,

~~~ conllx
1    Dogs   dog    _    NNS    _    2    nsubj
2    run    run    _    VBP    _    0    ROOT
~~~

gives

1    Dogs   dog    _    NNS    _    2    nsubj
2    run    run    _    VBP    _    0    ROOT

Similarly, the new CoNLL-U format is now supported as well:

~~~ conllu
# I wrote the letter with a quill.
1   Я         ja         PRON   _   Case=Nom|Number=Sing|Person=1|PronType=Prs        2   nsubj   _   I
2   написал   napisat'   VERB   _   Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|VerbForm=Part|Voice=Act   0   root    _   wrote
3   письмо    pis'mo     NOUN   _   Case=Acc|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing                  2   dobj    _   the-letter
4   пером     pero       NOUN   _   Case=Ins|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing                  2   nmod    _   with-a-quill
~~~
# I wrote the letter with a quill.
1   Я         ja         PRON   _   Case=Nom|Number=Sing|Person=1|PronType=Prs        2   nsubj   _   I
2   написал   napisat'   VERB   _   Gender=Masc|Number=Sing|VerbForm=Part|Voice=Act   0   root    _   wrote
3   письмо    pis'mo     NOUN   _   Case=Acc|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing                  2   dobj    _   the-letter
4   пером     pero       NOUN   _   Case=Ins|Gender=Neut|Number=Sing                  2   nmod    _   with-a-quill

The comment lines in the CoNLL-U format can be used to change styles, e.g. to highlight a node / arc or to distinguish tree that does not adhere to the UD standard:

~~~ conllu
# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1   Na        na        ADP     _   _   4   AuxP   _   at
2   Hlavním   hlavní    ADJ     _   _   3   Atr    _   Main
3   nádraží   nádraží   NOUN    _   _   1   Adv    _   Station
4   došlo     dojít     VERB    _   _   0   Pred   _   there-was
5   k         k         ADP     _   _   4   AuxP   _   to
6   nehodě    nehoda    NOUN    _   _   5   Obj    _   accident
7   .         .         PUNCT   _   _   0   AuxK   _   .
~~~
# This is not UD, it is Prague Dependency Treebank, and we want to clearly distinguish it from the UD examples.
# visual-style nodes yellow
# visual-style arcs blue
1   Na        na        ADP     _   _   4   AuxP   _   at
2   Hlavním   hlavní    ADJ     _   _   3   Atr    _   Main
3   nádraží   nádraží   NOUN    _   _   1   Adv    _   Station
4   došlo     dojít     VERB    _   _   0   Pred   _   there-was
5   k         k         ADP     _   _   4   AuxP   _   to
6   nehodě    nehoda    NOUN    _   _   5   Obj    _   accident
7   .         .         PUNCT   _   _   0   AuxK   _   .

(See also http://spyysalo.github.io/conllu.js/.)

You can have any number of visualizations on a page, and any standard HTML content can be freely mixed with the visualizations.

Alternative form

As an alternative to the ~~~ syntax, you can use the equivalent HTML tag form:

<div class="sd-parse">
Dogs run
nsubj(run, Dogs)
</div>

This form is more flexible in allowing e.g. additional attributes to control aspects of the visualization. For example,

<div class="sd-parse" id="simple-example-parse" tabs="yes">
Dogs run
nsubj(run, Dogs)
</div>

gives

Dogs run nsubj(run, Dogs)

Ambiguous tokens

If your example has several instances of the same token, you can use their position to refer to the exact token. In the following example can-5 refers to the fifth token of the sentence, can.

~~~ sdparse
I can can the can .
nsubj(can-3, I)
aux(can-3, can-2)
det(can-5,the)
dobj(can-3,can-5)
punct(can-3,.)
~~~

will result in this visualization

I can can the can .
nsubj(can-3, I)
aux(can-3, can-2)
det(can-5,the)
dobj(can-3,can-5)
punct(can-3,.)

POS tags

POS tags are optional and use the format “text/POS”.

~~~ sdparse
POS/NNP tags/NNS can/MD be/VB attached/VBN to/TO ( any part of ) the/DT sentence/NN text/NN ./.
dep(tags-2, POS-1)
nsubjpass(attached-5, tags-2)
aux(attached-5, can-3)
auxpass(attached-5, be-4)
prep(attached-5, to-6)
det(text-14, the-12)
nn(text-14, sentence-13)
pobj(to-6, text-14)
det(part, any)
prep(part, of)
~~~
POS/NNP tags/NNS can/MD be/VB attached/VBN to/TO ( any part of ) the/DT sentence/NN text/NN ./.
dep(tags-2, POS-1)
nsubjpass(attached-5, tags-2)
aux(attached-5, can-3)
auxpass(attached-5, be-4)
prep(attached-5, to-6)
det(text-14, the-12)
nn(text-14, sentence-13)
pobj(to-6, text-14)
det(part, any)
prep(part, of)

Any literal slashes (“/”) can be escaped using backslash.

 ~~~ sdparse
 \\/\\ escapes/VBZ :/: \\o\//\\o\/
 nsubj(escapes, \)
 ~~~
\\/\\ escapes/VBZ :/: \\o\//\\o\/
nsubj(escapes, \)

Features

Features can be specified using the syntax “text/POS[Name=Value]”. Multiple features for a single word are separated by a bar (“|”).

~~~ sdparse
Token/TAG[Feat1=Val1|Feat2=Val2]
~~~
Token/TAG[Feat1=Val1|Feat2=Val2]

Multiple lines of text

The literal sequence \n in the SD input text is interpreted as a newline. (This sequence should be separated by space from the rest of the input.)

~~~ sdparse
One line \n and another.
~~~

gives:

One line \n and another.

Editing

Controls for visualization editing and information is accessible in elements with the attribute tabs="yes" (or any other non-empty value):

<div class="sd-parse" id="simple-example-parse" tabs="yes">
Dogs run
nsubj(run, Dogs)
</div>

This gives:

Dogs run nsubj(run, Dogs)

You can click on the tab on the top right to edit the visualization, but note that the edits are not saved anywhere as there’s no server. This is mostly useful to build and debug examples.

Unicode

Everything is unicode-compliant.

~~~ sdparse
ロボットは 東大に 入れる か 。
nsubj(入れる, ロボットは)
nommod(入れる, 東大に)
~~~
ロボットは 東大に 入れる か 。
nsubj(入れる, ロボットは)
nommod(入れる, 東大に)

The system supports a simplified syntax for linking documentation pages that are part of a collection (e.g. universal dependency types, POS tags, etc.).

The basic syntax is [COLL/DOC](), where COLL is the collection name and DOC the document title. For example, [u-dep/aux]() is linked as follows: u-dep/aux.

The shorter form [DOC]() (omitting the collection) can be used when referring to another document in the current collection (e.g. linking between different documents in the u-dep collection) or when the document title is unique. For example, [nmod:own]() can be assured to link to nmod:own as the type is unique to the Finnish annotation.