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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for acl.

edit acl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advcl.

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase (ADVP) that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

Cô ấy đẹp quá 。
advmod(đẹp, quá)
det:pmod(Cô, ấy)
nsubj(đẹp, Cô)
punct(đẹp, 。)

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modier of an NP is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the NP.

Nam ăn cá sống 。
amod(cá, sống)
det:pmod(Cô, ấy)
dobj(ăn, cá)
nsubj(ăn, Nam)
punct(ăn, 。)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modier of an NP is an NP immediately to the right of the first NP that serves to define or modify that NP.

 Ông Minh , chủ_tịch FPT , khai_mạc hội_nghị 。
nn(Ông, Minh)
punct(Ông, ,)
nn(chủ_tịch, FPT)
punct(chủ_tịch, ,)
nsubj(khai_mạc, Ông)
dobj(khai_mạc, hội_nghị)
appos(Ông, chủ_tịch)
punct(khai_mạc, 。)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause, e.g. modal verbs, “Có_thể” and “phải” in a composed tense.

Tôi phải đi 。
aux(đi, phải)
nsubj(đi, Tôi)
punct(đi, 。)

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which contains the passive information. In Vietnamese, some passive verbs are “bị”, “được”, …

 Tôi bị đánh 。
nsubj(đánh, Tôi)
auxpass(đánh, bị)
punct(đánh, 。)

edit auxpass

case: case marking

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for case.

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

A coordination is the relation between an element of a conjunct and the coordinating conjunc- tion word of the conjunct. (Note: different dependency grammars have different treatments of coordination. We take one conjunct of a conjunction (normally the first) as the head of the conjunction.)

Lan cao và xinh_xắn 。
nsubj(cao, Lan)
cc(cao, và)
conj(cao, xinh_xắn)
punct(cao, 。)

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause with an internal subject which functions like an object of the verb, or adjective.

Cô ấy nói rằng anh thích chơi bài 。 
det:pmod(Cô, ấy)
nsubj(Cô, nói)
mark(thích, rằng)
nsubj(thích, anh)
xcomp(thích, chơi)
dobj(bài, chơi)
ccomp(nói, thích)
punct(nói, 。)

 

edit ccomp

compound: compound

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for compound.

edit compound

conj: conjunct

A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as “và”, “hoặc”, etc. The head of the relation is the first conjunct and other conjunctions depend on it via the conj relation.

Lan cao và xinh_xắn 。
nsubj(cao, Lan)
cc(cao, và)
conj(cao, xinh_xắn)
punct(cao, 。)
Họ đang bơi hoặc đá bóng 。
nsubj(bơi, Họ)
advmod(bơi, đang)
cc(bơi, hoặc)
conj(bơi, đá)
dobj(đá, bóng)
punct(bơi, 。)

edit conj

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb. Copular verb in Vietnamese is “là”.

Lan là sinh_viên 。
cop(sinh_viên, là)
nsubj(sinh_viên, Lan)
punct(sinh_viên, 。)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. This is the relationship between the root of the main clause and the root of the subject clause.

Anh nói thế không đúng 。
csubj(đúng, nói)
det:pmod(nói, thế)
nsubj(nói, Anh)
neg(đúng, không)
punct(đúng, 。)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for csubjpass.

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

A dependency is labeled as dep when the system is unable to determine a more precise dependency relation between two words.

edit dep

det: determiner

A determiner is the relation between the head of an NP and its determiner. The determiners in Vietnamese are “những”, “các”, “mọi”, “cả”, “tất cả”… Beside, in Vietnamese, det also describe dependencies between nouns with its pronoun , for example, “ấy”, “kia”, “này”, “đó”, “bây giờ” . . . Meanwhile, we name this relationship is: det: pmod.

Trời mưa cả ngày 。
tmod(mưa, ngày)
det(ngày, cả)
nsubj(mưa, Trời)
punct(mưa, 。)
Anh này rất cao 。
det:pmod(Anh, này)
advmod(cao, rất)
nsubj(cao, Anh)
punct(cao, 。)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

This relation is used for interjections and other discourse particles and elements. In Vietnamese, the interjection or particles usually labeled T.

Chỗ này xưa là đồn_bốt nè !
tmod(đồn_bốt, xưa)
det:pmod(Chỗ, này)
cop(đồn_bốt, là)
nsubj(đồn_bốt, Chỗ)
discourse(đồn_bốt, nè)
punct(đồn_bốt, !)

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

The dislocated relation is used for fronted or postposed elements that do not fulfill the usual core grammatical relations of a sentence. These elements often appear to be in the periphery of the sentence, and may be separated off with a comma intonation.

Cây này , lá to 。
dislocated(to, Cây)
det:pmod(Cây, này)
nsubj(to, lá)
punct(to, ,)
punct(to, 。)

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

The direct object of a VP is the noun phrase which is the object of the verb.

Nó đạt giải nhì 。
dobj(đạt, giải)
num(giải, nhì)
nsubj(đạt, Nó)
punct(đạt, 。)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl.

edit expl

foreign: foreign words

We use foreign to label sequences of foreign words. These are given a linear analysis: the head is the first token in the foreign phrase.

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for goeswith.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

The indirect object of a VP is the noun phrase which is the object of the verb.

Hắn tặng cô ấy hoa 。
dobj(tặng, hoa)
iobj(tặng, cô)
nsubj(tặng, Hắn)
det:pmod(cô, ấy)
punct(tặng, 。)

edit iobj

list: list

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for list.

edit list

mark: marker

A marker of an adverbial clausal complement (advcl ) is the word introducing it. It will be a subordinating conjunction different from “rằng” or “là”: e.g. “mà”, “nơi”, …

Cô ấy nói rằng anh thích chơi bài 。
dobj(chơi, bài)
ccomp(nói, thích)
nsubj(nói, Cô)
det:pmod(Cô, ấy)
mark(thích, rằng)
xcomp(thích, chơi)
punct(nói, 。)

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mwe.

edit mwe

name: name

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for name.

edit name

neg: negation modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for neg.

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nmod.

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nsubj.

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nsubjpass.

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nummod.

edit nummod

parataxis: parataxis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for parataxis.

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for punct.

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for remnant.

edit remnant

reparandum: overridden disfluency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for reparandum.

edit reparandum

root: root

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for root.

edit root

vocative: vocative

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for vocative.

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for xcomp.

edit xcomp