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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD North Sami Giella

Language: North Sami (code: sme)
Family: Uralic, Sami

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.1 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Trond Trosterud, Lene Antonsen, Francis Tyers.

Repository: UD_North_Sami-Giella
Search this treebank on-line: PML-TQ
Download all treebanks: UD 2.2

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: nonfiction, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either North Sami-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [ftyers (æt) prompsit • com]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


This is a North Sámi treebank based on a manually disambiguated and function-labelled gold-standard corpus of North Sámi produced by the Giellatekno team at UiT Norgga árktalaš universitehta.

The corpus was first analysed using a finite-state morphological analyser for North Sámi, and then disambiguated using a constraint-grammar-based disambiguator. The constraint grammar disambiguator also annotated syntactic function labels. The analyses and the function labels were manually corrected to produce a gold standard, and then a rule-based dependency parser was run on top of the gold data. On top of those parsers a series of tree-rewrite rules were used to convert the corpus to Universal Dependencies. Please see the paper below for details.


We are immensely grateful to the Giellatekno team, and especially to Trond Trosterud and Lene Antonsen for annotating the original data and for producing the rule-based parser on which the treebank is based. Their comments and help were invaluable.

If you use this data in your work, please cite:

@inproceedings{sheyanova:2017, author = {Mariya Sheyanova and Francis M. Tyers}, title = {Annotation schemes in North Sámi dependency parsing}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop for Computational Linguistics of Uralic Languages}, pages = {66–75}, year = 2017 }

Statistics of UD North Sami Giella

POS Tags






Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

Degree and Polarity

Verbal Features

Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

Other Features


Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

Relations Overview