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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Gothic

Language: Gothic (code: got)
Family: Indo-European, Germanic

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v1.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Dag Haug.

Repository: UD_Gothic

License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0

Genre: bible

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Gothic-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [daghaug (æt) ifikk • uio • no]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD

Description

The UD Gothic treebank is based on the Gothic data from the PROIEL treebank, and consists of Wulfila’s Bible translation.

The UD Gothic treebank is based on the Gothic data in the PROIEL treebank, which is maintained at the Department of Philosophy, Classics, History of Arts and Ideas at the University of Oslo. The conversion is based on the 20170214 release of the PROIEL treebank available from https://github.com/proiel/proiel-treebank/releases. The original annotators are acknowledged in the files available there. The conversion code is available in the Rubygem proiel-cli, https://github.com/proiel/proiel-cli.

The treebank contains the text of Wulfila’s Bible translation. The original annotation guidelines are available at http://folk.uio.no/daghaug/syntactic_guidelines.pdf. The text and tokenization comes from the Wulfila project www.wulfila.be.

Acknowledgments

The data have been automatically converted to the UD scheme by Dag Haug. Thanks to all the original annotators!

Statistics of UD Gothic

POS Tags

ADJADPADVAUXCCONJDETINTJNOUNNUMPRONPROPNSCONJVERBX

Features

AspectCaseDegreeGenderMoodNumberPersonPolarityPossPronTypeReflexStrengthTenseVerbFormVoice

Relations

acladvcladvmodamodapposauxaux:passcaseccccompconjcsubj:passdepdetdiscoursefixedflatflat:nameiobjmarknmodnsubjnsubj:passnummodobj:diroblobl:agentorphanparataxisrootvocativexcomp

Tokenization and Word Segmentation

Morphology

Tags

Nominal Features

  • Gender
    • Fem
      • ADJ: meina, þeina, þo, izwara, seinai, seina, anþara, meinai, unsara, þeinai
      • AUX: sik, sis
      • DET: so, þo, þizai, allai, alla, þizos, þos, allos, allaizos, jainai
      • NOUN: managein, sunjai, manageins, galaubeinai, managei, galaubein, marein, airþai, baurg, alh
      • NUM: aina, twos, þusundjos, ainaizos, þusundjom, ainai, þusundjo
      • PRON: izai, sei, izos, þoei, þizaiei, ƕo, þizozei, þozei, ija, si
      • PROPN: Marja, Galeilaia, Galeilaias, Magdalene, Galeilaian, Iudaia, Iudaias, Marþa, Aifaison, Iudaian
      • VERB-Part: qiþandei, gasaiƕandei, gahausjandei, habandei, wisandein, atgaggandei, atgibana, gibana, qimandei, qiþandeins
    • Fem,Masc
      • ADJ: izwaris, meinaim, seinos, sunjeins, þeinaim, þlaqus
      • AUX: sik
      • DET: allaim
      • NOUN: nidwa, ulbandau, ahak, ahakim, ahaks, frastim, grets, krusts, maiþms, ulbandaus
      • NUM: þrins, tiguns, tigum, tigiwe
      • PRON: izwis, jus, izwara, uns, unsis, weis, ik, mik, þu, mis
    • Fem,Neut
      • ADJ: silbo, taihswo, wraiqo
      • NOUN: malo, sunno
    • Masc
      • ADJ: sa, ƕas, sumai, managai, allai, þai, meins, ainshun, þamma, silba
      • AUX: sik, sis
      • DET: sa, þai, þamma, þana, þans, þaim, þize, þis, allai, allans
      • NOUN: gudis, guþ, frauja, guda, fraujins, fraujin, manna, sunus, atta, sunaus
      • NUM: ains, ainana, twans, ainamma, twai, ainai, ainans, ainis, twaim, twalibe
      • PRON: imma, ina, izwis, is, im, mis, ik, saei, mik, þus
      • PROPN: Iesus, Iesu, Xristaus, Xristau, Xristus, Iesuis, Xristu, Iesua, Paitrus, Peilatus
      • VERB-Part: qiþands, qiþandans, andhafjands, gasaiƕands, qimands, habandans, wisands, habands, wisandans, gasaiƕandans
    • Masc,Neut
      • ADJ: unsaris, seinamma, meinamma, unsar, unsaramma, þeinamma, izwaramma, seinis, izwaris, godaize
      • AUX: silbin
      • DET: þamma, þis, þize, allaize, jainamma, allamma, þizei, ƕammeh, sumaize, þaim
      • NOUN: skufta, anza, faihuþraihna, gramsta, lew, skauta, plat, sinapis, staþa, stomin
      • NUM: ainamma, þrim, ainis, twaddje, þrije, niuntehundis
      • PRON: silbin, silbam, þammei
      • PROPN: Siloamis, Aþeinim
      • VERB-Part: libandins, andhulidamma, wisandam, afwandjandane, bimaitanaize, faursniwandam, frawardidaize, gabairhtjandin, gafriþondin, gahulidamma
    • Neut
      • ADJ: þata, all, mein, þo, alla, ƕa, allamma, allata, leitil, þat
      • AUX: sik
      • DET: þata, þo, þamma, all, alla, allata, þis, þize, þaim, allamma
      • NOUN: waurd, leika, andwairþja, leik, waurda, waiht, namin, witoda, witoþ, gawairþi
      • NUM: ain, twa, ainis, ainamma, hunda, ainata, bajoþum, fidwor, hundam, tiguns
      • PRON: þatei, ƕa, þoei, ita, þammei, þizei, ƕamma, ƕis, im, is
      • PROPN: laigaion
      • VERB-Part: gameliþ, skuld, gamelido, qiþan, atgiban, gamelid, hausjandona, waurþano, waurþanamma, diwano
  • Number
    • Dual
      • PRON: iggqis, igqis, uggkis, ugkis, wit, inqis
      • VERB-Fin: gaggats, qiþaits, bigitats, siju, taujats, andbindats, attiuhats, bidjats, bidjos, driggkats
    • Plur
      • ADJ: sumai, managai, seinaim, allai, allaim, þai, þo, alla, þaim, dauþaim
      • AUX: sik, sis
      • DET: þai, þaim, þans, þize, þo, allaim, þos, allai, allaize, allans
      • NOUN: broþrjus, siponjos, manne, siponjam, barna, mannam, augona, Fareisaieis, waurda, himinam
      • NUM: twans, þrins, twaim, tiguns, twai, twos, þrim, twa, twalibe, ainai
      • PRON: izwis, im, jus, uns, ize, ins, weis, unsis, þaiei, eis
      • PROPN: Seidone, Twre, Gaddarene, Galeilaie, Þaissalauneikaium, Rumonim, Saudaumjam, Akaje, Akaïje, Aþeinim
      • VERB-Fin: qeþun, sind, sijuþ, wesun, qemun, waurþun, habaiþ, sijum, wituþ, galiþun
      • VERB-Part: qiþandans, habandans, wisandans, gasaiƕandans, gahausjandans, gaggandans, hausjandans, usgaggandans, witandans, bidjandans
    • Sing
      • ADJ: þata, sa, ƕas, all, seinamma, meinamma, þamma, þeinamma, meina, izwar
      • AUX: sik, sis, silbin
      • DET: sa, þamma, þata, þana, so, þis, þo, þizai, allai, alla
      • NOUN: gudis, guþ, frauja, guda, fraujins, fraujin, manna, sunus, waurd, atta
      • NUM: ains, ain, ainamma, ainana, aina, ainis, ainaizos, ainai, ainata, ainz
      • PRON: imma, ina, is, mis, ik, saei, mik, þatei, ƕa, þus
      • PROPN: Iesus, Iesu, Xristaus, Xristau, Xristus, Iesuis, Xristu, Iesua, Paitrus, Peilatus
      • VERB-Fin: ist, qaþ, was, warþ, qiþa, im, qam, wairþiþ, sijai, nist
      • VERB-Part: qiþands, andhafjands, gameliþ, gasaiƕands, qimands, wisands, habands, gahausjands, skuld, usstandands
  • Case
    • Acc
      • ADJ: þata, þo, seina, all, izwara, silban, þeinana, þana, ƕa, meinana
      • AUX: sik
      • DET: þo, þana, þata, þans, alla, allans, þos, allos, all, allana
      • NOUN: waurd, attan, guþ, waiht, galaubein, mannan, ahman, fraujan, gard, akran
      • NUM: ainana, twans, ain, þrins, tiguns, aina, twa, twos, ainans, hunda
      • PRON: ina, mik, izwis, þuk, þatei, ƕa, ins, uns, þanei, sik
      • PROPN: Iesu, Xristu, Iohannen, Iakobu, Paitru, Galeilaian, Barabban, Iairusaulwma, Abraham, Iudan
      • VERB-Part: habandans, sitandan, qimandan, sandjandan, hausjandona, waurþanana, gabundanana, gawalidans, gawasidana, habandan
    • Dat
      • ADJ: seinamma, meinamma, seinaim, þamma, þeinamma, allaim, seinai, þaim, allamma, dauþaim
      • AUX: sis, silbin
      • DET: þamma, þaim, þizai, allaim, allai, jainamma, allamma, himma, jainai, jainaim
      • NOUN: guda, fraujin, daga, leika, andwairþja, attin, ahmin, garda, namin, sunjai
      • NUM: ainamma, twaim, þrim, twalibim, þusundjom, ainai, ainaim, ainlibim, tigum, bajoþum
      • PRON: imma, izwis, im, mis, þus, sis, þammei, izai, unsis, uns
      • PROPN: Xristau, Iesu, Iesua, Israela, Galeilaia, Mose, Paitrau, Iairusaulwmai, Iohanne, Peilatau
      • VERB-Part: galaubjandam, wisandam, habandin, sandjandin, wisandin, gaggandam, qimandin, rodjandin, ungalaubjandam, usgaggandin
    • Gen
      • ADJ: unsaris, þis, meinis, seinis, izwaraizos, seinaizos, þize, izwaris, meinaizos, seinaize
      • DET: þis, þize, þizos, allaize, allaizos, allaizo, jainaize, jainis, þizo, þizei
      • NOUN: gudis, fraujins, sunaus, mans, manne, leikis, attins, ahmins, Iudaie, galaubeinais
      • NUM: ainis, twalibe, ainaizos, twaddje, þrije, niune, niuntehundis, tigiwe, þusundjo
      • PRON: is, ize, izwara, þizei, izos, meina, þizozei, þizeei, ƕis, unsara
      • PROPN: Xristaus, Iesuis, Daweidis, Israelis, Abrahamis, Seimonis, Galeilaias, Iakobis, Iohannis, Iosefis
      • VERB-Part: libandins, sandjandins, standandane, anakumbjandane, daupjandins, atstandandane, galaubjandane, gataurnandins, gawalidane, habandane
    • Nom
      • ADJ: sa, ƕas, sumai, managai, allai, þai, meins, ainshun, þata, meina
      • DET: sa, þai, so, þata, allai, þo, alla, þos, sums, all
      • NOUN: guþ, manna, sunus, frauja, atta, siponjos, waurd, managei, Fareisaieis, leik
      • NUM: ains, ain, twai, aina, ainai, þusundjos, twos, bajoþs, twa, ainata
      • PRON: ik, saei, jus, is, þu, weis, ƕas, þatei, þaiei, eis
      • PROPN: Iesus, Xristus, Paitrus, Peilatus, Iohannes, Moses, Marja, Pawlus, Helias, Seimon
      • VERB-Part: qiþands, qiþandans, andhafjands, gameliþ, gasaiƕands, qimands, wisands, habands, gasaiƕandans, gahausjands
    • Voc
      • ADJ: liubans, unhrainja, weiha, þiuþeiga, audahafta, batista, dwala, garaihta, goda, inwindo
      • DET: allos
      • NOUN: frauja, broþrjus, laisari, atta, guþ, sunau, talzjand, barnilo, barnilona, dauhtar
      • PRON: jus, þu
      • PROPN: Iesu, Filippisius, Filippu, Israel, Lazaru, Satana, Seimon, Xristu, Zakkaiu, Þaiaufeilu
      • VERB-Part: galaubjandans, ungalaubjando, fraqiþanans, gatairands, gatimrjands
  • Degree and Polarity

  • Degree
    • Cmp
      • ADJ: managizo, maiza, fruma, sutizo, azetizo, iftumin, batizo, frumin, hleidumein, maizo
      • ADV: mais, aljaleikos, mins, airis, framis, hauhis, sniumundos, wairs
    • Pos
      • ADJ: managai, anþar, silba, dauþaim, silban, anþara, silbans, leitil, goþ, managans
      • ADV: filu, sniumundo, fram, uhteigo, usdaudo
    • Sup
      • ADJ: auhumistans, frumista, spedistin, sinistam, hauhistins, sinistans, auhumista, auhumistins, auhumistam, frumistin
      • ADV: frumist
  • Polarity
    • Neg
      • ADV: ni, nih, niþ, nis, nibai, nei
  • Verbal Features

  • Aspect
    • Perf
      • VERB-Fin: driggka, lagjid
      • VERB-Inf: afaikan, gaswiltan, haitan, swaran
      • VERB-Part: gameliþ, skuld, gamelido, qiþan, atgiban, gabaurans, gamelid, daupidai, haitans, bigitans
  • Mood
    • Imp
      • VERB-Fin: gagg, saiƕiþ, urreis, gaggam, galaubeiþ, let, usgagg, faginoþ, gaggiþ, gif
    • Ind
      • VERB-Fin: ist, qaþ, was, warþ, qeþun, qiþa, sind, im, wairþiþ, qam
    • Opt
      • VERB-Fin: sijai, wesi, wairþai, sijaiþ, wairþaiþ, sijaina, sijais, taujaiþ, habai, gaggaiþ
  • Tense
    • Past
      • VERB-Fin: qaþ, was, warþ, qeþun, qam, galaiþ, wesun, andhof, rodida, gatawida
      • VERB-Inf: afaikan, gaswiltan, haitan, swaran
      • VERB-Part: gameliþ, skuld, gamelido, qiþan, atgiban, gabaurans, gamelid, daupidai, haitans, bigitans
    • Pres
      • VERB-Fin: ist, qiþa, sind, im, wairþiþ, qiþiþ, habaiþ, sijai, sijuþ, nist
      • VERB-Inf: wisan, taujan, galeiþan, qiman, qiþan, gaggan, wairþan, rodjan, saiƕan, giban
      • VERB-Part: qiþands, qiþandans, andhafjands, gasaiƕands, qimands, habandans, wisands, habands, wisandans, gasaiƕandans
  • Voice
    • Act
      • VERB-Fin: ist, qaþ, was, warþ, qeþun, qiþa, sind, im, wairþiþ, qam
      • VERB-Inf: wisan, taujan, galeiþan, qiman, qiþan, gaggan, wairþan, rodjan, saiƕan, giban
      • VERB-Part: qiþands, qiþandans, andhafjands, gasaiƕands, qimands, habandans, wisands, habands, wisandans, gasaiƕandans
    • Pass
      • VERB-Fin: haitada, afletanda, afnimada, atgibada, gibada, haitaidau, merjada, usfulljada, bigitaidau, frijoda
      • VERB-Inf: afaikan, swaran
      • VERB-Part: gameliþ, skuld, gamelido, qiþan, atgiban, gabaurans, gamelid, daupidai, haitans, bigitans
  • Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

  • PronType
    • Int
      • ADV: niu, ƕaiwa, ibai, u, duƕe, ƕan, ƕar, ƕaþro, ƕe, ƕaþ
      • PRON: ƕa, ƕas, ƕo, ƕamma, ƕana, ƕis, ƕaþar, ƕarjis, ƕarja, ƕarjai
    • Prs
      • PRON: izwis, imma, ina, is, im, mis, ik, mik, jus, þus
    • Rcp
      • PRON: anþar, anþaris, anþarana
    • Rel
      • ADV: swaswe, swe, þarei, þei, þadei, ei, þan, þanei, ƕaiwa, þaþroei
      • PRON: saei, þatei, þammei, þoei, þanei, þaiei, sei, þizei, þaimei, þizaiei
  • Poss
    • Yes
      • ADJ: seinamma, meina, izwara, meinamma, seinaim, þeinamma, seina, þeina, izwar, meinai
  • Reflex
    • Yes
      • ADJ: seinamma, seinaim, seina, seinai, seinana, seinis, seinans, sein, seinaizos, seinos
      • PRON: sis, sik, silban, silbin, silbans, silba, silbins, silbam, seina
  • Person
    • 1
      • ADJ: meina, meinamma, meinai, unsaris, meins, mein, meinana, unsar, unsaramma, unsara
      • PRON: mis, ik, mik, uns, weis, unsis, meina, unsara, uggkis, ugkis
      • VERB-Fin: qiþa, im, qaþ, sijum, wiljau, bidja, gagga, was, qam, tauja
    • 2
      • ADJ: izwara, þeinamma, þeina, izwar, þeinai, þeinana, þeins, þein, izwaraim, izwaraizos
      • PRON: izwis, jus, þus, þuk, þu, izwara, þeina, iggqis, igqis, iggqara
      • VERB-Fin: sijuþ, is, gagg, habaiþ, wituþ, qiþiþ, saiƕiþ, sijaiþ, wairþaiþ, galaubeiþ
    • 3
      • ADJ: seinamma, seinaim, seina, seinai, seinana, seinis, seinans, sein, seinaizos, seinos
      • AUX: sik, sis, silbin
      • PRON: imma, ina, is, im, ize, sis, ins, eis, sik, izai
      • VERB-Fin: ist, qaþ, was, warþ, qeþun, sind, wairþiþ, sijai, nist, wesun
  • Other Features

  • Strength
    • Strong
      • ADJ: managai, anþar, dauþaim, anþara, leitil, goþ, anþaramma, manag, managans, ubil
      • VERB-Part: qiþands, andhafjands, gameliþ, gasaiƕands, qimands, wisands, habands, gahausjands, skuld, usstandands
    • Weak
      • ADJ: silba, silban, silbans, samo, aiweinon, auhumistans, managizo, weiham, dauþans, taihswon
      • VERB-Part: qiþandans, habandans, wisandans, gasaiƕandans, gahausjandans, gaggandans, hausjandans, usgaggandans, witandans, gamelido
  • Syntax

    Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

    Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

    Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

    Verbs with Reflexive Core Objects

    Relations Overview