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This page pertains to UD version 2.

UD Bambara

Language: Bambara (code: bm)
Family: Mande

This treebank has been part of Universal Dependencies since the UD v2.2 release.

The following people have contributed to making this treebank part of UD: Katya Aplonova, Francis Tyers.

Repository: UD_Bambara

License: CC BY-SA 4.0

Genre: nonfiction, news

Questions, comments? General annotation questions (either Bambara-specific or cross-linguistic) can be raised in the main UD issue tracker. You can report bugs in this treebank in the treebank-specific issue tracker on Github. If you want to collaborate, please contact [aplooon (æt) gmail • com]. Development of the treebank happens outside the UD repository. If there are bugs, either the original data source or the conversion procedure must be fixed. Do not submit pull requests against the UD repository.

Annotation Source
Lemmas annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
UPOS annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
XPOS annotated manually
Features annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD
Relations annotated manually in non-UD style, automatically converted to UD


The UD Bambara treebank is a section of the Corpus Référence du Bambara annotated natively with Universal Dependencies.



The conversion and annotation has been done by Katya Aplonova and Francis M. Tyers at the Higher School of Economics in Moscow. We would like to thank the developers and annotators of the Corpus Référence du Bambara for permission to base this on their work.

Statistics of UD Bambara

POS Tags





[](bm-dep-.html) – advmodamodapposauxcaseccconjcopdislocatedflatflat:namenmodnmod:possnsubjnummodoblpunctroot

Tokenization and Word Segmentation



Nominal Features

  • Number
    • Plur
      • NOUN: Silamɛjamanaw, diinɛɲɛmɔgɔw, lasigidenw
      • NUM: fɔlɔw
      • PRON: olu
    • Sing
      • PRON: a
  • Degree and Polarity

  • Polarity
    • Pos
      • AUX: b', bɛ
      • VERB: dara
  • Verbal Features

  • Tense
    • Past
      • PART: tun
  • Voice
    • Cau
      • NOUN: lasigiden, lasigidenw
  • Pronouns, Determiners, Quantifiers

  • PronType
    • Prs
      • PRON: a, olu
  • NumType
    • Card
      • NUM: 8
  • Person
    • 3
      • PRON: a
  • Other Features

  • AdjType
    • Attr
      • ADJ: caman
  • ASpect
    • Perf
      • VERB: kɛra
  • Aspectpect
    • Perf
      • VERB: dara
  • Valency
    • 1
      • VERB: dara, kɛra
  • Syntax

    Auxiliary Verbs and Copula

    Core Arguments, Oblique Arguments and Adjuncts

    Here we consider only relations between verbs (parent) and nouns or pronouns (child).

    Relations Overview