Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.
acl: clausal modifier of noun
acl stands for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a nominal.
The head of the
acl relation is the noun that is modified,
and the dependent is the head of the clause that modifies the noun.
Like non-clausal adjectives, most adjectival clauses in Turkish precede the noun they modify. The only exception is the adjectival clauses formed by ki that is similar to English relative pronouns “which” or “who” (not to be confused by suffix -ki).
The primary means of subordination, including forming adjectival clauses, is through the subordinating suffixes attached to the head of the subordinate clause. The adjectival clauses formed by -ki is not as frequent and cover only a limited range uses of adjectival clauses.
Ali'nin okuduğu kitap \n The book that Ali is reading acl(kitap, okuduğu)
Ali , ki çok kitap okur , henüz son kitabını okumamış. \n Ali, who reads a lot, hasn't read your last book yet acl(Ali, okur) mark(okur, ki)
Almost all adjectival clauses in Turkish are relative clauses. There are only a few marginal constructions where a pronoun referring to the modified noun can be present in the subordinate clause.
Ali , ki onu\/kendisini üç gündür görmüyorduk , evde kitap okuyormuş \n Ali, who we haven't been seeing (him\/himself) for three days, has apparently been reading books at home acl(Ali, görmüyorduk) mark(görmüyorduk, ki)
We currently do not mark (non-)relative clauses differently.
advcl: adverbial clause modifier
An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes things such as a temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.
Note that we treat the conditional clauses specially and mark then with a subtype: advcl:cond.
Turkish adverbial clauses are mainly formed by a set of converbial suffixes.
Ali gelince sevindi . \n He\/she became happy when Ali arrived advcl(sevindi, gelince)
Okurken uyuyakalmışım . \n I fell asleep while reading advcl(uyuyakalmışım, Okurken)
The subordinator ki and a few other subordinating words may also form adverbial clauses.
Bu kitabı sen de okursun diye aldım \n I bought this book so that you would read it too advcl(aldım, okursun) mark(okursun, diye)
Bu kitabı aldım ki sen de okuyasın \n I bought this book so that you would read it too advcl(aldım, okuyasın) mark(okuyasın, ki)
Bu kitabı okudun mu herşeyi anlayacaksın \n You will understand everything once you have read this book advcl(anlayacaksın, okudun) mark(okudun, mu)
A large number of adverbials and adverbial clauses are formed by postpositions attached to nouns or noun clauses.
We do not mark these as adverbial (
For both cases we use nmod (see discussion of subordination
advcl:cond: conditional adverbial clause modifier
This relation is a subtype of advcl. It is used for conditional clauses.
Kitabı okusaydın anlardın . \n You would understand if you had read the book advcl:cond(anlardın, okusaydın)
In Turkish conditional clauses are formed by a verbal inflection on the head of the clause. There are also two redundant words, eğer and şayet that may be included at the beginning or end of the phrase. Use of these words are only for emphasis or an early signal that a conditional clause follows. We use discourse (not mark) for marking the relation between these words and head of the conditional clause.
advmod: adverbial modifier
An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word.
Çok iyi bir kitap \n A very good book advmod(iyi, Çok)
Sürekli konuşuyorlar \n They are talking continuously advmod(konuşuyorlar, Sürekli)
We use a special label, tr-dep/advmod:emph for adverbial modifiers that are used for emphasis.
advmod:emph: emphasizing word, intensifier
This is a subtype of advmod. It used for (non-clausal) modifiers that emphasize or intensify their heads.
Çok da güzel bir kızmış \n She was (apparently) a very (very) beautiful girl. admod:emph(Çok, da) admod(güzel, Çok)
Güzel mi güzel bir kız \n A very (very,very) beautiful girl advmod:emph(Güzel-1, mi)
Kitabı bile okumamış \n He (apparently) hasn't even read the book admod:emph(okumamış, bile)
İlk kitabı bile okumamış \n He (apparently) hasn't read even the book admod:emph(kitabı, bile)
amod: adjectival modifier
An adjectival modifier of a noun is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun.
Ali kırmızı şarap sever . \n Ali likes red wine amod(şarap, kırmızı)
Kıza kırmızı bir gül verdi . \n He gave the girl a red rose . amod(gül, kırmızı) det(gül, bir)
Büyük tahta kapının önünde bekliyordu . \n He\/she was waiting in front of the big wooden door amod(kapının, büyük) compound(kapının, tahta)
appos: appositional modifier
An appositional modifier of a noun is a nominal immediately following the first noun that serves to define or modify that noun. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.
Ali , en iyi arkadaşım , beni partiye davet etmedi . \n Ali, my best friend, did not invite me to the party . appos(Ali, arkadaşım)
Devlet Tiyatroları ( DT ) \n State Theatre ( DT ) appos(Tiyatroları, DT)
appos is also used to link key-value pairs in addresses, signatures, etc. (see also the list label):
Ali Yılmaz , tel : 555-55-55 , email : email@example.com name(Ali, Yılmaz) list(Ali, tel) list(Ali, email) appos(tel, 555-55-55) appos(email, firstname.lastname@example.org)
An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause.
In Turkish two verbs, ol- and, in formal registers, bulun, complement the main verb with additional tense/aspect/modality suffixes that cannot be attached to the main verb due to morphological restrictions (or sometimes stylistic reasons).
The auxiliary use of ol- is different than its use as a copula, where the cop relation is used.
We use a subtype of
aux, aux:q, question particle mi.
Yarın çalışıyor olacak . \n He\/she will be working tomorrow aux(çalışıyor, olacak)
Okumuş olsa bilirdi . \n He would know if he had read (it) . aux(Okumuş, olsa)
Sorumluluğu almış bulunduk . \n He have taken the responsibility aux(almış, bulunduk)
We also use
aux in case bound auxiliary
-abil is separated from the main verb.
Göremeye de bilirdin . \n You might have also not seen it aux(Göremeye, bilirdin)
aux:q: question particle
This is a subtype of aux, used for question particle -mI (mı/mi/mu/mü).
The question particle, when attached to a predicate, typically carries some of the tense/aspect/modality suffixes as well as person/number agreement suffixes.
Although it does not function as an auxiliary when attached to non-predicate words or phrases,
aux:q for all uses of the question particle.
Annotation of question particles are not well-specified in UD, and currently under discussion.
Okuyacak mısınız ? \n Are you going to read ? aux:q(Okuyacak, mısınız)
Kitabı Ali'den aldın mı ? \n _Did_ you take the book from Ali ? aux:q(aldın, mı)
Kitabı Ali'den mi aldın ? \n Did you take the book _from Ali_ ? aux:q(Ali'den, mi)
Kitabı mı Ali'den aldın ? \n Did you take _the book_ from Ali ? aux:q(Kitabı, mı)
auxpass: passive auxiliary
We do not use
case: case marking
The case relation is used for any case-marking element which is treated as a separate syntactic word (including prepositions, postpositions, and clitic case markers). Case-marking elements are treated as dependents of the noun or clause they attach to.
In Turkish, case marking is typically done through suffixation,
in which case the case-marked word will carry the appropriate Case feature.
case relation marks postpositions,
and some of the case-like suffixes that are tokenized as separate syntactic tokens (inflectional groups).
Ağaçların arasında kayboldular . \n They disappeared _between_ the trees case(Ağaçların, arasında)
Bu kitabı annem için aldım . \n I bought this book _for_ my mother case(annem, için)
Öğleden sonra dersim var . \n I have a class _after_ noon (=in the afternoon) case(Öğleden, sonra)
İkiye kadar bunu bitirmem gerek \n I need to finish this until\/by two case(İkiye, kadar)
Siyah saç –lı kız \n The girl _with_ black hair case(saç, –lı)
Currently, we also use
case for some not-so-case-like modifiers.
Arabada –ki kız \n The girl in the car case(Arabada, –ki)
cc: coordinating conjunction
cc is the relation between the first conjunct and the coordinating conjunction delimiting another conjunct.
Note that we currently diverge from UD specification by marking the last conjunct as the head. See the conj relation, for more information.
Elma ve armut aldık . \n We both apples and oranges . cc(armut, ve) conj(armut, Elma)
Geldiler ve film başladı . \n They arrived and the movie started. cc(başladı, ve) conj(başladı, Geldiler)
Okudum ama hiçbirşey anlamadım . \n I read it but I did not understand anything cc(anlamadım, ama) conj(anlamadım, Okudum)
Ali ile Ayşe'yi gördüm . \n I saw Ali and Ayşe conj(Ayşe'yi, Ali) cc(Ayşe'yi, ile)
Note that in instrumental or commutative usage of ile the relation case is used.
Ya Ayşe ya Ali oradadır . \n Either Ayşe or Ali would be there . cc(Ali, ya-3) cc(Ali, Ya-1) conj(Ali, Ayşe)
Ne Ayşe ne Ali geldi . \n Neither Ayşe nor Ali came . cc(Ali, ne-3) cc(Ali, Ne-1) conj(Ali, Ayşe)
Almak isterim de çok pahalı . \n I want to buy but it is too expensive cc(pahalı, de) conj(pahalı, isterim)
ccomp: clausal complement
A clausal complement of a predicate is a dependent clause which is a core argument. That is, it functions like an object of the predicate.
We split the verbal noun suffixes,
and mark them as the head of the subordinate clause.
The unit with the subordinating suffix is tagged as noun.
However, we still use
ccomp for the relation between the higher level clause and the clausal object.
At present, we use
ccomp only for direct objects, i.e., non-finite noun phrases in accusative or nominative Case.
The arguments in other cases are marked using nmod relation or appropriate subtype of it.
Sonunda " artık yeter " dedi . \n Finally, he said " that's enough " . ccomp(dedi, yeter)
Sevmiyorum demedim . \n I did not say I don't like it . ccomp(demedim, Sevmiyorum)
Sevme/VERB –diğimi/NOUN söylemedim/VERB . \n I did not that I don't like it . ccomp(söylemedim, –diğimi) acl(–diğimi, Sevme)
Yarın gelecek sanıyordum . \n I thought he'd come tomorrow ccomp(sanıyordum, gelecek)
Sanıyordum ki yarın gelecek . \n I thought he'd come tomorrow ccomp(Sanıyordum, gelecek) mark(gelecek, ki)
Yarın gelecek diye biliyordum . \n I knew (as if) she'd come tomorrow . ccomp(biliyordum, gelecek) makr(gelecek, diye)
See also xcomp.
ccomp:cau: clausal complement of a causative verb which refers to the "causee"
This is the clausal counterpart of dobj:cau.
compound is one of the relations in UD for compounding.
In Turkish it is used for bare noun compounds, compound verbal forms and numbers.
Anneannem bana bir çift yün çorap örmüş . \n My grandmother knitted pair of woolen socks for me . compound(çorap, yün)
Yagmurlu havalardan nefret ediyor . \n He\/she hates rainy weather compound(nefret, ediyor)
Onun fiyatı iki yüz elli lira . \n Price of it is two hundred and fifty liras . compound(iki, yüz) conj:num(yüz, elli)
This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation
compound:redup: reduplicated compounds
This subtype of compound covers a range of reduplicated forms in Turkish. Reduplication is a common process especially for adverbs and adjectives, but it is also used for reduplicated noun and verb forms.
The reduplication typically involves two identical words, but some morpho-phonological alternations (as in m-reduplication in example 3 below) are possible. In some cases one of the words in reduplicated forms may also be modified individually by other words (see example 4 below).
Koca koca adamlar oyun oynuyorlar . \n _Big (+emph)_ men are playing games . compound:redup(koca-2, Koca-1)
Açık açık söylüyorum . \n I am telling it _clearly_ compound:redup(açık-2, Açık-1)
Araba maraba almışlar . \n They bought (a) car (and things like that) compound:redup(Araba, maraba)
Güzel mi güzel bir kız . \n A pretty (emphasized) girl . compound:redup(güzel-3, Güzel) advmod:emph(Güzel-1, mi)
Herşeyi kendi kendilerine planlamışlar . \n They planed it all by themselves . compound:redup(kendilerine, kendi)
Ayağını sürükleye sürükleye yürüyordu . \n He\/she was walking by dragging his\/her feet. compound:redup(sürükleye-3, sürükleye-2)
Bu kadar zamanda okusa okusa birkaç sayfa okumuştur . \n In that time he\/she could have read _at most_ half of it . compound:redup(okusa-5, okusa-4)
Mektubu aldı alalı odasından çıkmadı . \n He\/she has not left his\/her room since he\/she got the letter compound:redup(aldı, alalı)
Mektubu alır almaz yanıt verdi . \n He\/she responded as soon as he\/she received the letter . compound:redup(almaz, alır)
For lexicalized multi-word items with repetition where one or more of the words are not free lexemes, (e.g. paldır küldür, ufak tefek), we use mwe.
A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as and, or, etc.
We diverge from UD specification by marking the last (instead of the first) conjunct as the head of the relation.
All the other conjuncts depend on the last via the
Bir kız , iki erkek çocukları var . \n They have one girl and two boys. conj(erkek, kız)
Film siyah beyaz . \n The movie is black and white conj(beyaz, siyah)
Ayşe'yle Ali kavga ediyoralardı . \n Ayşe and Ali were fighting . conj(Ali, Ayşe'yle)
Ayşe , Ali ve beni davet etmedi . \n He\/she did not invite Ayşe , Ali and me . conj(beni, Ali) conj(beni, Ayşe) cc(beni, ve) punct(beni, ,-2)
Ya Ayşe , ya Ali ya da beni davet etmeliydi . \n He\/she should have invited not Ayşe , Ali or me . conj(beni, Ali) conj(beni, Ayşe) cc(beni, ya-6) cc(beni, ya-4) cc(beni, Ya-1) mwe(ya-6, da)
See the relation cc for a few more examples.
A copula is the relation between a subject complement and a copular verb or copular suffix. We always mark copula as dependent of the subject complement.
In Turkish, the auxiliary verb ol- and in some constructions the negative particle değil act like a free copula. The main means of forming copular constructions, however, is through the bound morpheme -(y), and (infrequently) its clitic form i-. Since the morpheme -(y) consists only of a “buffer” consonant, in some morphological contexts, it is not realized.
Copular morphemes carry features, e.g., Number, Person, that may conflict with the complement they are attached to. Furthermore, the copular suffixes can also attach to verbal nouns, causing conflicting dependency relations besides more feature conflicts. As a result, all copular markers, including the “zero copula” are considered as a separate syntactic tokens.
Güzel olacak . \n (He\/she\/it) will be beautiful cop(Güzel, olacak)
Güzel idi . (He\/she\/it) was beautiful cop(Güzel, idi)
Güzel –di . (He\/she\/it) was beautiful cop(Güzel, –di)
Güzel –im . \n I am beautiful cop(Güzel, –im)
Güzel –0 . \n He\/she\/it is beautiful (–0 represents the zero morpheme) cop(Güzel, –0)
When an overt subject is present, it is headed by the subject complement (not the copula).
Kitap güzel –0 . \n The book is nice\/beautiful cop(güzel, –0) nsubj(güzel, Kitap)
Kitap güzel olacak . \n The book will be nice\/beautiful cop(güzel, olacak) nsubj(güzel, Kitap)
csubj: clausal subject
A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause.
Kitabı oku –manız gerek . \n You need to read the book (You reading the book is necessary) csubj(gerek, –manız)
Kitabı oku –mak gerek . \n You need to read the book (Reading the book is necessary) csubj(gerek, –mak)
TODO: link to the explanation of splitting of subordinating suffixes.
The following needs more discussion We also analyze the nominal predicates with clausal subjects formed by subordinating conjunction ki similarly. In the METU-Sabancı treebank they are marked (somewhat inconsistently) as modifiers rather than main predicates.
İyi ki okumuşsun . \n Good that you have read (that you read it is good) csubj(İyi, okumuşsun)
Tabii ki okudum . \n Of course I read it (that I read it is natural) csubj(Tabii, okumuşsun)
csubjpass: clausal passive subject
A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause.
Düya dönmüyor deniyordu . \n It was said "the earth is not rotating" csubjpass(deniyordu, dönmüyor)
Dünyanın dön –düğü biliniyor . \n (The fact that) the earth is rotating is known csubjpass(biliniyor, –düğü)
Biliniyor ki dünya dönüyor . \n It is known that the earth is rotating csubjpass(Biliniyor, dönüyor)
dep: unspecified dependency
A dependency is labeled as
dep when a system is unable to determine a more precise dependency relation between two words.
We currently do not use the
The relation determiner (det) holds between a nominal head and its determiner.
Bütün kitapları okudu . \n (He\/she) have read all books det(kitapları, Bütün)
Güzel bir kitap okudum . \n I read a nice book det(kitap, bir) amod(kitap, Güzel)
Bu kitabı okumalısın . \n You should read this book det(kitabı, Bu)
Bazı kitaplar bombadan tehlikelidir . \n Some books are more dangerous than a bomb det(kitaplar, Bazı)
discourse: discourse element
This is used for interjections and other discourse particles and elements (which are not clearly linked to the structure of the sentence, except in an expressive way).
Okudu mu acaba ? \n Did he\/she read (I wonder) ? discourse(Okudu, acaba)
Çabuk okusa bari . \n I wish he reads quickly 'bari' discourse(okusa, bari)
Aferin , okumuşsun . \n Well done! You must have read it. discourse(okumuşsun, Aferin)
Bak , bu kitabı okumalısın . \n look, you need to read this book discourse(okumalısın, Bak)
Peki , kitabı okudun mu ? \n OK, have you read the book? discourse(okudun, Peki)
dislocated: dislocated elements
dislocated relation is used for fronted or postposed elements that do not fulfill the usual core grammatical relations of a sentence.
These elements often appear to be in the periphery of the sentence,
and may be separated off with a comma intonation.
Ali ki hızlı okur, o bile kitabı bitiremedi . \n Ali, who is a fast reader, even he could not finish the book . dislocated(o, Ali)
Bir öğrenci ki yazım kurallarına dikkat etmez, ben onu dersten geçirmem . \n A student who does not pay attention to the spelling, I do not allow him/her to pass the course . dislocated(onu, öğrenci)
dobj: direct object
The direct object of a verb is the noun phrase that denotes the entity acted upon.
In Turkish, direct objects take either nominative (unmarked), or accusative cases.
We do not mark arguments of verbs in other cases with
(NOTE: Kyrgiz treebank marks ablatives as in pastadan aldı ‘he took from the cake’. We may consider doing the same. At least we should try to unify the analyses.)
Note also that we mark objects of intransitive causative verbs using dobj:cau.
Hafta sonları kitap okurum . \n I read (books) during weekends dobj(okurum, kitap)
Kitabı okudum . \n I read the book. dobj(okudum, Kitabı)
We also mark the non-case marked or accusative noun phrases as
dobj even if they are not the entities that are acted upon.
Dün 10 kilometre koştum . \n I ran 10 kilometers yesterday dobj(koştum, kilometre)
Dün 10 kilometreyi 35 dakikada koştum . \n Yesterday, I ran 10 kilometers in 35 minutes dobj(koştum, kilometreyi)
dobj:cau: direct object of an intransitive causative verb
This is a subtype of dobj. We mark direct objects of causative voice intransitive verbs with this subtype, since the interpretation is different in comparison to a direct object of a non-causative verb. In general, if the verb is intransitive, direct object indicates the “causee”, the subject of the content verb, or the entity that performs the action. If the verb is transitive the direct object is the entity that is acted upon as in the non-causative case (see nmod:cau).
Annesi bebeği giydirdi . \n His mother dressed (caused to dress) the baby dobj:cau(giydirdi, bebeği)
Bebek herkesi sevindirdi . \n The baby causes everyone to be happy dobj:cau(sevindirdi, herkesi)
Öğretmen dersi kolaylaştırdı . \n The teacher made the course easier dobj:cau(kolaylaştırdı, dersi)
Turkish does not have expletives.
foreign: foreign words
We use foreign to label sequences of foreign words. These are given a linear analysis: the head is the first token in the foreign phrase.
Diplomat ve uzmanlarla off the record görüşmeler yaptım . \n I had off the record interviews with diplomats and experts . amod(görüşmeler, off) foreign(off, the) foreign(off, record)
goeswith: goes with
This relation links two parts of a word that are separated in text that is not well edited. The head is in some sense the “main” part, often the second part.
Bu kitap hiç bir işe yaramaz . \n This book is worth nothing. goeswith(bir, hiç) det(bir)
iobj: indirect object
We do not use the dependency label
TODO: link to argument/adjunct discussion.
list relation is used for chains of comparable items. In lists with more than two items, all items of the list should modify the first one. Informal and web text often contains passages which are meant to be interpreted as lists but are parsed as single sentences. Email signatures often contain these structures, in the form of contact information: the different contact information items are labeled as
list; the key-value pair relations are labeled as appos.
Ali Yılmaz , tel : 555-55-55 , email : email@example.com name(Ali, Yılmaz) list(Ali, tel) list(Ali, email) appos(tel, 555-55-55) appos(email, firstname.lastname@example.org)
A marker is the subordinating conjunction introducing a finite clause subordinate to another clause. The mark is a dependent of the subordinate clause head.
Okusun diye kitaplar aldım . \n I bought books for him to read . mark(Okusun, diye)
Okudum ki öğreneyim . \n I read in order to learn. mark(öğreneyim, ki)
Göründüğü kadar güzel mi ? \n Is it as good as it looks? mark(Göründüğü, kadar)
Başladın mı , gerisi gelir. \n Once you start, the rest would follow mark(Başladın, mı)
Okudum da anladım . \n I understood by reading mark(Okudum, da)
mwe: multi-word expression
The multi-word expression (modifier) relation is one of the three relations (compound,
mwe, name) for compounding.
It is used for certain fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials.
Note that, we mark most of the expressions that are marked
MWE in METU-Sabancı treebank as
mwe is only used for fixed expressions that do not show any morphological variation.
Ali ya da Ahmet \n Ali or Ahmet mwe(ya, da)
Bir tek Ali okumamış . \n Only Ali did not read mwe(bir, tek)
Her ne kadar aradıysam da ulaşamadım . \n Despite calling many times, I could not reach (him\/her) mwe(Her, ne) mwe(Her, kadar)
name is one of the three relations for compounding in UD (together with compound and mwe).
It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements.
For phrasal or clausal names the usual relations are used.
Mustafa Kemal name(Kemal, Mustafa)
Mustafa Kemal Paşa name(Kemal, Mustafa) nmod(Paşa, Kemal)
Necla Hanım nmod(Hanım, Necla)
Mahmut öğretmen nmod(öğretmen, Mahmut)
Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi nmod:poss(Meclisi, Millet) amod(Meclisi, Büyük) nmod:poss(Meclisi, Türkiye)
Van Gölü nmod:poss(Gölü, Van)
neg: negation modifier
The negation modifier is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies.
In Turkish, negation is typically done through suffixation.
neg only if the non-predicative use of the word değil.
Elma değil , armut al demiştim . \n I asked for pears, not for apples. neg(Elma, değil)
En büyüğünü al dedim, küçük değil . \n I told you to get the biggest not small(est) neg(küçük, değil)
Değil üniversite , orta okulu bile bitirmemiş . \n Let alone the university, he did not even finish the secondary school neg(üniversite, Değil)
nmod: nominal modifier
nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers.
They depend either on another noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).
nmod is a noun (or noun phrase) functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct.
This means that it functionally corresponds to an adverbial when it attaches to a verb, adjective or other adverb.
But when attaching to a noun, it corresponds to an attribute, or genitive complement (the terms are less standardized here).
We also use the following language-specific subtypes for nmod:
- nmod:cau: nominal modifier of a causative predicate that markes the causee.
- nmod:comp: a comparative nominal modifier
- nmod:pass: nominal modifier of a passive predicate that express the actor (subject of the active predicate)
- nmod:tmod: nominal modifier that indicates time
- nmod:own: owner in a possessive existential sentence
- nmod:poss: possessor in in a genitive-possessive construction
- nmod:part: noun modifier specifying the whole-part relation
We do not currently distinguish between core arguments and adjuncts (TODO: link to discussion).
# I read the book on the plane 1 Kitabı kitap NOUN NOUN Case=Acc 3 dobj 2 uçakta uçak NOUN NOUN Case=Loc 3 nmod 3 okudum oku VERB VERB Tense=Past|Person=1|Number=Sing 0 root
# I read the book with the glasses 1 Kitabı kitap NOUN NOUN Case=Acc 3 dobj 2 gözlükle gözlük NOUN NOUN Case=Ins 3 nmod 3 okudum oku VERB VERB Tense=Past|Person=1|Number=Sing 0 root
# I read the book out of curiosity 1 Kitabı kitap NOUN NOUN Case=Acc 3 dobj 2 meraktan merak NOUN NOUN Case=Abl 3 nmod 3 okudum oku VERB VERB Tense=Past|Person=1|Number=Sing 0 root
# I read the book to the children 1 Kitabı kitap NOUN NOUN Case=Acc 3 dobj 2 çocuklara çocuk NOUN NOUN Case=Dat 3 nmod 3 okudum oku VERB VERB Tense=Past|Person=1|Number=Sing 0 root
resim –li kitap \n (the\/a) book with illustrations nmod(kitap, resim) case(resim, –li)
nmod:cau: nominal modifier indicating the causee of a causative predicate
This subtype of nmod is used for marking the performer of the real action, “causee”, in a causative predicate. The subject of the causative predicate is the actor who causes the action to be taken. Occasionally the performer of the action is also included in the phrase/sentence, and it is useful to mark it. The causee is predictable for intransitive verbs, since it is the object of the causative predicate. For transitive verbs, it is often marked with dative Case, but it is ambiguous as a dative nominal modifier also has the function of marking the “beneficiary” (and possibly others).
Annesi bebeği uyuttu . \n Her mother caused the baby to sleep (=put the baby to sleep) nmod:cau(uyuttu, bebeği) nsubj(uyuttu, Annesi)
Öğretmen kitabı Ali'ye okuttu . \n The teacher caused (made) Ali to read the book nmod:cau(okuttu, Ali'ye) nsubj(okuttu, Öğretmen)
Note that the above is ambiguous. It may also mean “The teacher made someone to read the book to/for Ali”. In that case nmod should be used.
nmod:comp: comparative modifier of an adjective or adverb
Türkiye'den sıcak bir ülke \n A country warmer than Turkey nmod:comp(sıcak, Türkiye'den)
Benden çok okudu . \n He\/she read more than me (more than I did) nmod:comp(çok, Benden)
nmod:own: owner in a possessive existential sentence
This needs more discussion
This subtype of nmod is used for marking the owner of a possessive existential sentence.
In Turkish possessive sentences (e.g., “I have a book”) resemble existential sentences
where the subject is the entity that “exists”, or “owned”.
nmod:own relation marks the entity that “owns” the subject.
The head of the relation is the predicate,
as opposed to the subject noun phrase
(this allows a uniform analysis in case the subject is dropped).
It should not be confused with nmod:poss,
which is used in (genitive-)possessive constructions.
Benim bir kitabım var . \n I have a book nmod:own(var, Benim) nsubj(var, kitabım)
Benim var , ama Ali'nin yok . \n I have (it\/something), but Ali doesn't nmod:own(var, Benim) nmod:own(yok, Ali'nin)
nmod:part: nominal modifier indicating part-whole relations
This subtype of nmod is used for marking the part-whole relations. The structure is similar to nmod:poss in most cases, but the range structures expressing “part of” is diverse, and distinction is often be useful.
Kitapların üçü \n three of the books nmod:part(üçü, Kitapların)
Kitapların hepsi \n All of the books nmod:part(hepsi, Kitapların)
Sevidiğim kitaplardan biri \n One of the books I like nmod:part(biri, kitaplardan)
Şu elmalardan bir kilo \n A kilo of\/from those apples nmod:part(kilo, elmalardan)
Öğrencilerden bir kız \n A girl from\/among the students nmod:part(kız, Öğrencilerden)
Öğrenciler arasından bir kız \n A girl from\/among the students nmod:part(kız, Öğrenciler) case(Öğrenciler, arasından)
nmod:pass: nominal modifier indicating the actor of a passive predicate
This subtype of nmod is used for marking the performer of action (the subject in the corresponding active sentence) in a passive predicate.
Kitap öğrenciler tarafından okundu . \n The book was read by the students nmod:pass(okundu, öğrenciler) case(öğrenciler, tarafından) nsubjpass(okundu, Kitap)
Kitap öğrenciler –ce okundu . \n The book was read by the students nmod:pass(okundu, öğrenciler) case(öğrenciler, –ce) nsubjpass(okundu, Kitap)
Araba aşırı sıcaktan bozulmuş . \n The car was broken by extreme heat nmod:pass(bozulmuş, sıcaktan)
nmod:poss: possessive nominal modifier
This subtype of nmod is used in (genitive-)possessive constructions.
Typically, the head of the construction is a possessive noun phrase,
and the dependent is in genitive case.
We also use
nmod:poss in the alternative construction where the modifier is not in genitive case.
So-called “bare noun compounds” are marked using the compound relation.
Ali'nin kitabı \n Ali's book nmod:poss(kitabı, Ali'nin)
Sabah kahvesi \n Morning coffee nmod:pos(kahvesi, Sabah)
nmod:tmod: temporal modifier
A temporal modifier is a subtype of the nmod relation: if the modifier is specifying time, it is labeled as
Geçen hafta bir kitap okudum . \n Las week I read a book nmod:tmod(okudum, hafta)
Üç ay –dır okumuyorum . \n I haven't been reading for three months case(ay, –dır) nmod:tmod(okumuyorum, ay)
Öğleden sonra okuyacağım . \n I will read (it) in the afternoon case(Öğleden, sonra) nmod:tmod(okuyacağım, Öğleden)
Her yıl aynı yere gidiyoruz . \n We go to the same place every year nmod:tmod(gidiyoruz, yıl)
nsubj: nominal subject
A nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause.
Ali okuyor . \n Ali is reading nsubj(okuyor, Ali)
For existential sentences, “the thing that exists” is the subject. This includes possessive existentials.
Üç kitap var . \n There are three books nsubj(var, kitap)
Benim üç kitabım var . \n I have three books nsubj(var, kitabım)
Although we currently mark the head of the verbal nouns as nouns, we use csubj when they are in the subject position.
nsubjpass: passive nominal subject
A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause.
The distinction between nsubj and
nsubjpass is not strictly necessary in Turkish,
since the predicate will always be morphologically marked as passive.
Kitap okundu . \n The book was read nsubjpass(okundu, Kitap)
nummod: numeric modifier
A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.
Üç kitap aldım \n I bought three books nummod(kitap, Üç)
Üçüncü kitabı da bitirdim . \n I finished third book as well nummod(kitap, Üçüncü)
Üçer kitap aldık . \n We boot three books each nummod(kitap, Üçer)
1500 lira harcadı \n He\/she spent 1500 liras nummod(lira, 1500)
The parataxis relation (from Greek for “place side by side”) is a relation between the main verb of a clause and other sentential elements, such as a sentential parenthetical, a clause after a “:” or a “;”, or two sentences placed side by side without any explicit coordination or subordination.
Kitabı okudum , uyudum . \n I read the book , slept. parataxis(uyudum, okudum)
Kitabı okudun , değil mi ? \n You read the book , aren't you ? parataxis(okudun, değil)
Sabah , babam diyor ki , erken kalkacakmışız . \n In the morning, my father says, we have to get up early parataxis(kalkacakmışız, diyor)
This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause. See u-dep/punct for details.
Kitabı okudum . \n I read the book punct(okudum, .)
remnant: remnant in ellipsis
The remnant relation is used to provide a satisfactory treatment of certain instances of ellipsis.
Ali kitabı okudu , Ahmet de . \n Ali read the book, Ahmet too. nsubj(okudu, Ali) remnant(Ali, Ahmet)
Ali okudu kitabı , Ahmet değil . \n Ali read the book, not Ahmet. nsubj(okudu, Ali) remnant(Ali, Ahmet)
Ali kitap , Ahmet gazete okudu . \n Mehmet read newspapers, Ahmet books. nsubj(okudu, Ahmet) dobj(okudu, gazete) remnant(Ahmet, Ali) remnant(gazete, kitap)
reparandum: overridden disfluency
reparandum to indicate disfluencies overridden in a speech repair.
The disfluency is the dependent of the repair.
Sağa– sola dön . \n Turn right- left . nmod(dön, sola) reparandum(sola, Sağa–)
root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence.
A fake node “ROOT” is used as the governor.
The ROOT node is indexed with “0”, since the indexation of real words in the sentence starts at 1.
The vocative relation is used to mark dialogue participant addressed in text. The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.
Ali , gel . \n Ali, come here! vocative(gel, Ali)
xcomp: open clausal complement
An open clausal complement of a predicate is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp (normally by the object of the next higher clause, if there is one, or else by the subject of the next higher clause. These complements are always non-finite, and they are complements (arguments of the higher predicate) rather than adjuncts/modifiers, such as a purpose clause.
In majority of the cases, we use
xcomp for the verbal nouns formed by the suffix -mAk.
Note that we split the nominal part, and mark the noun as the head of the predicate.
(TODO: link to the subordination discussion)
Oku/VERB –mak/NOUN istiyor/VERB . \n He wants to read xcomp(istiyor, –mak) acl(–mak, Oku)
In addition, we also use
xcomp for secondary predicates,
or in general, what Göksel & Kerslake (2005) calls “small clauses”.
The decision between a secondary predicate or adverb analysis is often diffcult,
since most adjectives also function as adverbs.
Ali çayını soğuk içer . \n Ali drinks his tea cold xcomp(içer, soğuk)
Bu kitap bir baş yapıt sayılır . \n This book is considered a master piece xcomp(sayılır, yapıt)
Onu İstanbul'da sanıyordum . \n I tought he\/she was in Istanbul xcomp(sanıyordum, İstanbul'da)
Aslı Göksel and Celia Kerslake. Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar. London: Routledge, 2005.