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This page still pertains to UD version 1.


Lexical features
Inflectional features
Nominal Verbal
Gender VerbForm
Animacy Mood
Number Tense
Case Aspect
Definite Voice
Degree Person

Abbr: abbreviation

Boolean feature. Is this an abbreviation?

Yes: it is abbreviation

Examples: [sv] t.ex., ca

edit Abbr

Case: case

Case is usually an inflectional feature of nouns, helping to specify the role of the noun phrase in the sentence. Swedish makes use of three cases: nominative, accusative, and genitive. The accusative is found only in pronouns (PRON), while the nominative/genitive distinction occurs with nouns (NOUN), proper nouns (PROPN) and adjectives (ADJ).

Nom: nominative

The base form, typically used as a citation form (lemma).


Acc: accusative

In many languages used for direct objects of verbs. In Swedish this form is only used for personal pronouns.


Gen: genitive

Prototypical meaning of genitive is that the noun phrase somehow belongs to its governor; it would often be translated by the English preposition of. The genitive in Swedish does not however always imply possession, for example Stillhetens hav “Sea of Tranquility


edit Case

Definite: definiteness or state

Definiteness in Swedish is an inflectional feature of nouns, as well as adjectives and determiners that agree with nouns. Its value distinguishes whether we are talking about something known and concrete, or something general or unknown.

Ind: indefinite


Def: definite


edit Definite

Degree: degree of comparison

Degree of comparison is typically an inflectional feature of some adjectives and adverbs.

Pos: positive, first degree

This is the base form that merely states a quality of something, without comparing it to qualities of others.


Cmp: comparative, second degree

The quality of one thing is compared to the same quality of another.


Sup: superlative, third degree

The quality of one thing is compared to the same quality of all other things within a set.


edit Degree

Foreign: is this a foreign word?

Boolean feature. Is this a foreign word?

Yes: it is foreign

Example: [sv] Bayless är Sveriges förste ‘drilling manager‘.

edit Foreign

Gender: gender

Gender is a lexical feature of nouns and an inflectional feature of other parts of speech (adjectives, determiners) that mark agreement with nouns.

Com: common gender

Swedish does not distinguish masculine/feminine most of the time but does distinguish neuter vs. non-neuter (neutrum/utrum). The non-neuter is called common gender.


Neut: neuter gender

Nouns and other parts of speech that are neither masculine nor feminine (grammatically).


Masc: masculine gender

Some adjectives, when referring specifically to a male person, take a masculine form in Swedish.


edit Gender

Mood: mood

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.


Imp: imperative

The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to perform the action of the verb.


Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive

In modern Swedish the subjunctive is mainly used in certain fixed expressions and as a conditional form. It is also occassionally used in the more traditional sense, expressing actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain in subordinate clauses.


edit Mood

NumType: NumType

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for NumType.

edit NumType

Number: number

Number in Swedish is a feature of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and determiners.

Sing: singular number


Plur: plural number


edit Number

Person: person

Swedish verbs do not inflect for Person. Certain personal and possessive pronouns can be considered to have Person as a feature. However, in Swedish this is always completely unambiguous given the word form. The Person feature is not currently used in the Swedish treebank. For further discussion of Person see the universal depency page (u-feat/person).

edit Person

Polarity: polarity

Polarity in Swedish is a feature of adverbs and fixed multiword expressions used to express negation. (The value “Pos” is not used.)

Neg: negative


edit Polarity

Poss: possessive

Poss is a boolean feature of some determiners in Swedish, indicating whether it is possessive or not.

Yes: it is possessive

Note that there is no No value. If the word is not possessive, the Poss feature will just not be mentioned in the FEAT column.


edit Poss

PronType: pronominal type

Pronominal type is a feature of (some) pronouns, determiners and pronominal adverbs in Swedish.

Int: interrogative pronoun, determiner, or adverb


Rel: relative pronoun, determiner, or adverb


Note: Because the original Swedish treebank annotation uses a single category subsuming both interrogative and relative (corresponding to the English wh-category), we currently do not disambiguate between Int and Rel, which means that any word belonging to one of these categories is assigned the feature PronType=Int,Rel.

edit PronType

Tense: tense

The Tense feature applies to verbs (VERB and AUX), specifying the time when the action took / takes place, in relation to the current moment or to another action in the utterance.

Note that we are defining features that apply to a single word. If a tense is constructed periphrastically (two or more words, e.g. present tense auxiliary verb + supine of the main verb) and none of the participating words are specific to this tense, then the features will not directly reveal the tense. For instance, [sv] Jag hade varit där “I had been there” is past perfect (pluperfect) tense, formed periphrastically by the simple past tense of the auxiliary att ha “to have” and the supine form of the main verb att vara “to be”. The auxiliary will be tagged VerbForm=Fin|Mood=Ind|Tense=Past and the participle will have VerbForm=Sup|Tense=Past; neither of the two will have Tense=Pqp, which is only used in languages where this tense can be directly represented morphologically on the verb.

Pres: present tense

The present tense denotes actions that are happening right now or that usually happen.


Past: preterite

The past tense denotes actions that happened before the current moment. It can also be used in secondary clauses to express a wish or something that is not reality.


edit Tense

VerbForm: form of verb or deverbative

Fin: finite verb

Verbs that inflect for mood (Mood), tense (Tense) or person (Person) are finite and are assigned the VerbForm value Fin.


Inf: infinitive

The infinitive is the citation form of verbs in Swedish. The infinitive marker in Swedish is “att”. The infinitive may be used together with auxiliaries to form periphrastic tenses.


Part: participle

Participle is a non-finite verb form that in Swedish is used adjectively. The related supine form is used to form certain periphrastic verb tenses.


Sup: supine

Supine in Swedish is a special form of the past participle, used to form the composite past form of a verb. It is used after the auxiliary verb ha (to have) but not after vara (to be):


edit VerbForm

Voice: voice

The Voice feature captures the distinction between active and passive for verbs (sv-pos/VERB and sv-pos/AUX). The value Pass is only used when the passive voice is realized morphologically. (Swedish in addition has a periphrastic passive similar to English: han blev jagad “he was chased”.)

Act: active voice


Pass: passive voice


edit Voice