Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.
acl: clausal modifier of noun
acl is used for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun, including cases of secondary predication. In Norwegian, relative clauses are assigned a language-specific subtype acl:relcl.
Han har gitt militsen ordre om å omgruppere \n He has given the militia orders to regroup acl(ordre, omgruppere)
acl relation is also used for optional predicatives.
En 12 år gammel gutt kommer inn døende \n A 12-year old boy comes in dying acl(gutt, døende)
acl:relcl: relative clause
This language-specific relation is used for relative clauses in Norwegian and the
acl:relcl relation is assigned to the main predicate of the relative clause. Relative clauses modify a nominal element and are often initiated by the relative pronoun som “that” which is assigned a nominal relation to the main predicate of the relative clause.
Jeg har en venn som kjenner deg \n I have a friend who knows you acl:relcl(venn,kjenner) nsubj(kjenner,som)
Jeg har en venn som du kjenner \n I have a friend whom you know acl:relcl(venn,kjenner) dobj(kjenner,som)
Jeg kjenner han som du danset med \n I know he who you danced with acl:relcl(han,danset) nmod(danset,som)
The relative pronoun may be omitted when it stands in a non-subject relation to the predicate of the relative clause:
Jeg har en venn du kjenner \n I have a friend you know acl:relcl(venn,kjenner)
Note that due to the analysis of the copula construction (cop), the main predicate of a relative clause may also be an adjective or even a noun:
Jeg har en venn som er morsom \n I have a friend who is funny acl:relcl(venn,morsom)
Jeg har en venn som er en dyktig snekker \n I have a friend who is a good carpenter acl:relcl(venn,snekker)
advcl: adverbial clause modifier
An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes things such as a temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.
Helt siden han tiltrådte har Kofi Annan talt de fattiges sak \n Ever since he started Kofi Annan has spoken the cause of the poor advcl(talt, tiltrådte)
Mange blir HIV-smittet fordi de ikke vet hvordan man smittes \n Many are infected with HIV because they do not know how one is infected advcl(HIV-smittet, vet)
advmod: adverbial modifier
An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word.
var også fornøyd \n was also pleased advmod(fornøyd, også)
skal nå lede \n will now lead advmod(lede, nå)
amod: adjectival modifier
An adjectival modifier of a noun is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun. In Norwegian, adjectival modifiers are placed before the noun they modify.
Den internasjonale domstolen har sete i Haag \n The international court is situated in Haag amod(domstolen,internasjonale)
Samtidig finnes det en åpenbar likhet \n At the same time there is an obvious similarity amod(likhet,åpenbar)
appos: appositional modifier
An appositional modifier of a noun is a nominal immediately following the first noun that serves to define or modify that noun.
Avtalen om et inkluderende arbeidsliv ( IA-avtalen ) skal redusere sykefravær \n The agreement on an including work place (the IA-agreement) will reduce sick leave appos(arbeidsliv,IA-avtalen)
In Norwegian, it is used also for titles which usually precede their head.
Disse visdomsordene ble formet av forfatteren Günter Grass \n These words of wisdom were formed by the writer Günter Grass appos(Günter,forfatteren)
An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause, e.g., a modal auxiliary, or a form of ha “have” or være “be” in a periphrastic tense. Exception: Auxiliary verb used to construct the passive voice is not labeled aux but auxpass.
Dette har vi i Norge merket \n This we have in Norway noticed aux(merket,har)
deres siste øyeblikk er kommet \n Their last moment has is come aux(kommet,er)
Helseadvarslene må være tydelige \n The health warnings must be clear aux(tydelige, må)
auxpass: passive auxiliary
A passive auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which contains the passive information.
I sommer har jeg også blitt intervjuet \n This summer I have also been interviewed auxpass(intervjuet,blitt)
case: case marking
The case relation is used for any case-marking element which is treated as a separate syntactic word, in Norwegian it is used to mark the relation between a preposition and what is traditionally known as its complement (its head in the UD scheme).
25-åringen selv har tatt lærdom av angrepet \n The 25-year old has taken a lesson from the attack case(angrepet,av)
effektivt mot røyking \n effective against smoking case(røyking,mot)
Hun kom hit til Berlin \n She came here to Berlin case(Berlin,til)
cc: coordinating conjunction
For more on coordination, see the conj relation. A cc is the relation between the first conjunct and the coordinating conjunction delimiting another conjunct.
Kamskjell , piggvar og lammefilet sto på menyen \n Scallops , turbot and lamb were on the menu cc(Kamskjell,og)
A coordinating conjunction may also appear at the beginning of a sentence. This is also called a cc, and it depends on the root predicate of the sentence.
Og denne gangen gjorde hun det på engelsk \n And this time she did it in English cc(gjorde,Og)
ccomp: clausal complement
A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause which is a core argument. That is, it functions like an object of the verb, or adjective.
Mikko trodde jo at jeg skulle ta ham \n Mikko thought that I was going to get him ccomp(trodde,ta)
Such clausal complements may be finite or nonfinite. However, if the subject of the clausal complement is controlled the appropriate relation is xcomp.
For Norwegian the
compound relation is used only for verbal particle constructions with the language-specific subtype compound:prt.
This language-specific relation is used for verbal particles in Norwegian and describes the relation of the particle to its verbal head.
Particles exhibit a number of syntactic properties which sets them apart from regular prepositions. For instance, a pronominal object may intercede the verb and the preposition in the particle case satte den på “put it on”, but not in the case of a regular preposition and its complement *lette den etter “*looked it for”, and only complements of a preposition may occur in an impersonal passive Det ble lett etter den nye boka “It was looked for the new book”, but an object in a particle construction may not *Det ble satt den på “*It was put it on”.
Den gang ble alt samlet inn \n That time all was collected compound:prt(samlet,inn)
Regjeringen har lagt frem et raust statsbudsjett \n The government has put forward a generous budget compound:prt(lagt,frem)
Forskningsrådet delte onsdag kveld ut to sentrale priser \n The research council handed out to central prizes Wednesday evening compound:prt(delte,ut)
References Kari Kinn, Per Erik Solberg and Pål Kristian Eriksen. “NDT Guidelines for Morphological Annotation”. National Library Tech Report.
A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as og “and”, eller “or”, etc. We treat conjunctions asymmetrically: The head of the relation is the first conjunct and all the other conjuncts depend on it via the
Lam og piggvar på bryllupsmenyen \n Lamb and turbot on the wedding menu conj(Lam,piggvar)
Kamskjell , piggvar og lammefilet sto på menyen \n Scallops, turbot and lamb were on the menu conj(Kamskjell-1,piggvar-3) punct(Kamskjell-1,,-2) conj(Kamskjell-1,lammefilet-5) cc(Kamskjell-1,og-4)
A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb være “to be”. The copula is treated as a dependent of the lexical verb.
Det er ovnsbakt piggvar \n It is ovenbaked turbot cop(piggvar, er)
This analysis entails that in copula clauses, the main predicate is not verbal, but rather an adjectival or even nominal (as in the above example).
Note that there are occurrences of være “to be” which do not give rise to a copula analysis, such as in cleft constructions (see expl).
csubj: clausal subject
A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause.
Det vil ta lang tid å rette opp feilene \n It will take a long time to correct the errors csubj(ta,rette)
When the matrix clause is a copula construction, the head of the
csubj may be an adjectival (or even nominal) predicate.
Det er rart at vi kom i mål i det hele tatt \n It is funny that we reached our goal at all csubj(rart,kom)
csubjpass: clausal passive subject
A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause. In the example below, the clause At de mener alvor “That they are serious” is the
csubjpass of the passive verb illustreres “illustrated-PASS”.
At de mener alvor, kan illustreres med følgende \n That they are serious can be illustrated by the following csubjpass(illustreres,mener)
dep: unspecified dependency
A dependency is labeled as dep when a system is unable to determine a more precise dependency relation between two words. This relation is not used for Norwegian.
The relation determiner (
det) holds between a nominal head and its determiner. Most commonly, a word of POS DET will have the relation
det and vice versa.
denne viktige posten \n this important post det(posten,denne)
Other parts of speech than
DET may in some cases be assigned a determiner relation to a nominal head.
For Norwegian the
det relation is also used for genitive nouns, like årets “this year’s” and quantity nouns like rekke “number-of”.
årets fredspris \n this year's peace prize det(fredspris,årets)
en rekke saker \n a number-of cases det(saker,rekke)
discourse: discourse element
This is used for interjections and other discourse particles and elements, which are not clearly linked to the structure of the sentence except in an expressive way.
Nei , det tror jeg ikke \n No, I don't think so discourse(tror,Nei)
Åhh , det er mye \n Oh , that is a lot discourse(mye,Åhh)
dislocated: dislocated elements
This relation is not used for Norwegian.
dobj: direct object
A direct object is a nominal which is the (accusative) object of the verbal predicate.
Vi skal ikke gjøre samme feil \n We are not going to make the same mistake dobj(gjøre,feil)
This relation captures expletive nominals. These are nominals that appear in an argument position of a predicate but which do not themselves satisfy any of the semantic roles of the predicate. The main predicate of the clause (the verb or predicate adjective or noun) is the governor.
For Norwegian, the expletive element is expressed using the neuter pronoun det “it” and the
expl relation is used for both expletive subjects and objects.
In Norwegian expletives occur in the presentational construction, which involves an expletive subject, an active verb and an indefinite subject (en debatt “a debate” in the example below).
Det eksisterer allerede en debatt \n There already exists a debate expl(eksisterer-2,Det-1) nsubj(eksisterer-2,debatt-5)
Norwegian employs the impersonal passive construction, where there is an expletive subject and the underlying subject is unexpressed.
Senere har det blitt fremsatt flere forslag \n Later has there been proposed several suggestions expl(fremsatt,det)
These constructions contain a finite or non-finite clause which semantically may be regarded as the subject, but where the subject position is occupied by an expletive.
Det er ønskelig at utvalget arbeider i dialog \n It is desirable that the committee works in dialogue expl(ønskelig-3,Det-1) csubj(ønskelig-3,arbeider-6)
Det er en offentlig oppgave å bidra økonomisk \n It is a public duty to contribute financially expl(oppgave-5,Det-1) csubj(oppgave-5,bidra-7)
We also find clause-anticipating constructions with expletive objects.
Retten finner det bevist at han handlet forsettlig \n The court finds it proven that he acted intentionally expl(finner-2,det-3) ccomp(finner-2,handlet-7)
Clefts are quite common in Norwegian. They contain an expletive subject, a form of være “to be” and a relative clause. Note that in clefts we do not adopt a copula analysis of the verb være “er”.
Det er forholdsvis få arter som har klart å tilpasse seg \n There are quite few species that have managed to adapt expl(er-2,Det-1) acl:relcl(arter-5,klart-8)
Kari Kinn, Per Erik Solberg and Pål Kristian Eriksen. NDT Guidelines for Morphological Annotation”. National Library Tech Report.
foreign: foreign words
foreign to label sequences of foreign words.
Small is beautiful er det noe som heter \n Small is beautiful is something that is said foreign(Small-1,is-2) foreign(Small-1,beautiful-3) xcomp(heter-8,Small-1)
goeswith: goes with
This relation links two parts of a word that are separated in text that is not well edited. It is used in Norwegian for elements that constitute syntactic errors and that otherwise are difficult to assign a relation in the analysis.
CNN har flere resultater fra fra valgdagsmålinger \n CNN have several results from from election polls goeswith(har-2,fra-5)
iobj: indirect object
The indirect object of a verb is any nominal phrase that is a core argument of the verb but is not its subject or direct object. The
iobj relation presupposes a
dobj argument of the same word and is only used for nominal arguments. Note that nominals with a preposition such as til “to” which are semantically similar to indirect object in the expression of a recipient role are not analyzed as
gi den ubehøvlede unge mannen en sjanse \n give the rude young man a chance iobj(gi-1,mannen-5) dobj(gi-1,sjanse-7)
list relation is not used for Norwegian.
A marker is the word introducing a subordinate clause and the marker is a dependent of the subordinate clause head. In Norwegian it is used for both finite and non-finite subordinate clauses.
Jeg føler at vi blir lurt \n I feel that we are fooled mark(lurt,at)
Dette arbeidet rakk han aldri å fullføre \n This worh, he never managed to finish mark(fullføre,å)
mwe: multi-word expression
mwe relation is not used for Norwegian.
name relation is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements.
Names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the first one using the name label.
Sven O. Høiby name(Sven-1,O.-2) name(Sven-1,Høiby-3)
A flat analysis is also adopted for names where there is a clear syntactic analysis (unlike the UD guidelines) due to the automated conversion procedure.
Universitetet i Bergen name(Universitetet-1,i-2) name(Universitetet-1,Bergen-3)
neg: negation modifier
The negation modifier is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies. For Norwegian, it is employed for the negative determiner ingen “no” and the negative adverb ikke “not”.
Ingen gratis kvoter \n No free quotas neg(kvoter,Ingen)
Det betyr ikke så mye \n It does not mean so much neg(betyr,ikke)
nmod: nominal modifier
The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers. They depend either on another noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).
nmod is a noun (or noun phrase) functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct. This means that it functionally corresponds to an adverbial when it attaches to a verb, adjective or other adverb. But when attaching to a noun, it corresponds to an attribute.
nmod is used for nouns modified by a preposition.
Og bak prosesjonen kom dagens hovedpersoner \n And behind the procession came the main people case(prosesjonen,bak) nmod(kom,prosesjonen)
Arbeiderpartiet får ledervervet i utenrikskomiteen \n Labour gets the leading role in the foreign committee case(utenrikskomiteen,i) nmod(ledervervet,utenrikskomiteen)
nmod relation is also used for temporal modifiers expressed as nominals:
Stortinget ble mandag kveld enige \n Government agreed Monday evening nmod(ble-2,mandag-3) nmod(mandag-3,kveld-4)
nsubj: nominal subject
A nominal subject is a nominal phrase which is the subject of a clause. The governor of the
nsubj relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb, which can be an adjective or noun.
Jeg har ingenting mer å si om det nå \n I have nothing more to say about that now nsubj(har,Jeg)
Dette svaret er viktig for Frp \n This answer is important for Frp nsubj(viktig,svaret)
Note that in cases where there is an expletive subject (expl), the
nsubj relation is used to express the potential/postposed subject:
Det eksisterer allerede en debatt \n There already exists a debate expl(eksisterer-2,Det-1) nsubj(eksisterer-2,debatt-5)
nsubjpass: passive nominal subject
A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause. In Norwegian, the passive subject is the dependent of a verb with passive marking or a participle with a passive auxiliary attached.
freden bygges også dag for dag \n peace is being built day by day nsubjpass(bygges,freden)
FN ble opprettet for å sikre verdensfreden \n FN was established to secure world peace nsubjpass(opprettet,FN) auxpass(opprettet,ble)
nummod: numeric modifier
A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.
I 100 år er Nobels fredspris blitt delt ut \n For 100 years the Nobel Peace Prize has been handed out nummod(år,100)
De tre partiene svarer likevel \n The three parties still answer nummod(partiene,tre)
The parataxis relation is a relation between a word (often the main predicate of a sentence) and other elements, such as a sentential parenthetical or a clause after a “:” or a “;”, placed side by side without any explicit coordination, subordination, or argument relation with the head word.
parataxis relation is largely used for reported speech and some other parentheticals.
Det er skade for minst 400.000 , sa Solberg \n There are damages for at least 400.000 , said Solberg parataxis(er,sa)
Jeg skjønner den ikke men antar at den er kjempemorsom ( ironi ) \n I don't understand it but assume it is really funny ( irony ) parataxis(skjønner,ironi)
Tokens with the relation punct always attach to content words (except in cases of ellipsis) and can never have dependents. Since punct is not a normal dependency relation, the usual criteria for determining the head word do not apply. Instead, we use the following principles:
- A punctuation mark separating coordinated units is attached to the first conjunct.
- A punctuation mark preceding or following a subordinated unit is attached to this unit.
- Within the relevant unit, a punctuation mark is attached at the highest possible node that preserves projectivity.
- Paired punctuation marks (quotes and brackets) should be attached to the same word unless that would create non-projectivity. This word is usually the head of the phrase enclosed in the paired punctuation.
remnant: remnant in ellipsis
remnant relation is used to provide a satisfactory treatment of ellipsis. In Norwegian, the remnant element is attached to the main predicate of the clause (and not to the correlate in the preceding context).
En prins er født, navnet klart til uken \n A prince is born, name ready next week remnant(navnet,født)
Jeg er norsk i Norge, og fransk i Frankrike \n I am Norwegian in Norway and French in France remnant(norsk,fransk)
reparandum: overridden disfluency
This relation is not used for Norwegian.
The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence.
ROOT Men så smalt det igjen \n But then it said bang again root(ROOT, smalt)
This relation is not used in Norwegian.
xcomp: open clausal complement
An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp. This is often referred to as obligatory control.
xcomp is used for infinitival clauses
Han har tidligere lovet å vende tilbake \n He has previously promised to return xcomp(lovet,vende)
This relation is also used for cases of obligatory secondary predication
presidentens ambisiøse helseplan kjørte seg fullstendig fast \n the president's ambitious health plan got completely stuck xcomp(kjørte,fast)
xcomp is also used for copula-like verbs such as
bli “become”, kalle “call”, hete “named” in Norwegian.
Mennesket kan bli edelt \n Man can become noble xcomp(bli,edelt)