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This page still pertains to UD version 1.


Latvian UD Treebank is based on the Latvian Treebank. Latvian Treebank was created 2010-2014 in the University of Latvia, Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science. Latvian Treebank is annotated according to an in-house hybrid annotation model and then automatically transformed to UD.

Annotations in Latvian Treebank:

Annotations in Latvian UD Treebank:

  1. ID: Word index, currently no ranges used.
  2. FORM: Word form from Latvian Treebank - “words with spaces” are splitted automatically, otherwise used as-is.
  3. LEMMA: Lemma from Latvian Treebank - for “words with spaces” are splitted automatically, otherwise used as-is.
  4. UPOSTAG: Universal part-of-speech tag is automatically induced from original POS tag and syntactic role.
  5. XPOSTAG: Original POS tag.
  6. FEATS: List of morphological features is automatically induced from original POS tag and wordform.
  7. HEAD: Head of the current token is automatically induced from original annotations.
  8. DEPREL: Universal Stanford dependency relation to the HEAD is automatically induced from original annotation.
  9. DEPS: Not used.
  10. MISC: Curently only SpaceAfter=No and (since UDv2.0) NewPar=Yes are used.


Data convertions is done by Lauma Pretkalniņa with the help of Baiba Saulīte. Latvian Treebank was created by Laura Rituma, Lauma Pretkalniņa and Baiba Saulīte.


Pretkalniņa L., Rituma L. Constructions in Latvian Treebank: the Impact of Annotation Decisions on the Dependency Parsing Performance Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Language Technologies — the Baltic Perspective (HLT 2014), Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Vol. 268, IOS Press, 2014, pp. 219–226

Pretkalniņa L., Nešpore G., Levāne-Petrova K., and Saulīte B. Towards a Latvian Treebank. Actas del 3 Congreso Internacional de Lingüística de Corpus. Tecnologias de la Información y las Comunicaciones: Presente y Futuro en el Análisis de Corpus, eds. Candel Mora M.Á., Carrió Pastor M., 2011, pp. 119–127