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This page still pertains to UD version 1.


Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
obj ccomp xcomp
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound fixed goeswith
flat foreign
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
Loose joining relations
list parataxis orphan
dislocated reparandum
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

The dependency type acl is used for relative clauses and clausal complements of nouns. For a relative clause, the head of the dependency is the noun modified by the clause, and the dependant is the main predicate of the clause.

太郎 が 食べ た リンゴ \n Taro NOM eat PAST apple
acl(リンゴ, 食べ)
case(太郎, が)
aux(食べ, た)

Formal noun こと / koto “fact” can have a clausal complement and forms a noun phrase denoting the action expressed by the clause. For a example, 走る / hashiru “run” こと / koto “fact” means running (or a fact that someone runs).

ほめ られ た こと \n praise PASSIVE PAST fact
acl(こと, ほめ)
auxpass(ほめ, られ)
aux(ほめ, た)

edit acl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

The dependency type advcl is reserved for subordinate clauses. The head of the dependency is the main predicate of the main clause, and the dependant is the main predicate of the subordinate clause. A subordinate clauses consists of a clause and a word of “SCONJ”, and is typically followed by the main clause.

食べ た なら 行く 。 \n eat PAST if go .
advcl(行く, 食べ)
aux(食べ, た)
mark(食べ, なら)
punct(行く, 。)

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

The dependency type advmod is used for adverbial modifiers of verbs, nominal verbs, adjectives and nominal adjectives.

ゆっくり 走る 。 \n slowly run .
advmod(走る, ゆっくり)
punct(走る, 。)

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

Adjectival modifiers (amod) are adjectives and nominal adjectives. A nominal adjective must be followed by an auxiliary な / na to modify a noun. Note that adjectival modifiers with arguments are tagged as “acl”.

きれい な リンゴ \n beautiful AUX apple
amod(リンゴ, きれい)
aux(きれい, な)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

Appositive relations.

形態素 解析 器 Mecab \n morpheme analysis tool Mecab
appos(Mecab, 器)
compound(解析, 形態素)
compound(器, 解析)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

The dependency type aux is used for auxiliary verbs and particles that attach to predicates.

ご飯 を 食べ た 。 \n rice ACC eat PAST .
case(ご飯, を)
dobj(食べ, ご飯)
aux(食べ, た)
punct(食べ, 。)
行き ます か 。 \n go POLITE QUESTION .
aux(行き, ます)
aux(行き, か)
punct(行き, 。)

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

The passive auxiliaries in Japanese are れる / reru and られる / rareru. They attach to the main verbs to form verbal phrases in the passive voice. Note that passivization causes case alternations.

太郎 が 雇わ れ た 。 \n Taro NOM employ PASSIVE PAST .
auxpass(雇わ, れ)
case(太郎, が)
nsubjpass(雇わ, 太郎)
aux(雇わ, た)
punct(雇わ, 。)

edit auxpass

case: case marking

In Japanese, case markers are particles attaching to a noun phrase. The particles are tagged as “ADP” in UD Japanese.

Typical case markers are as follows:

太郎 が 東京 へ 行く 。\n Taro NOM Tokyo TO go .
case(太郎, が)
case(東京, へ)
nsubj(行く, 太郎)
nmod(行く, 東京)
太郎 の 家 \n Taro OF house
case(太郎, の)
nmod(家, 太郎)

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

The dependency type cc is used for CCONJ, that is, conjunction and coordinating conjunctive particle (e.g. と / to, や / ya). See the example of conj.

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

Clausal complements are typically introduced by a postpositional particle と / to “that”. The head of the dependency ccomp is the main verb of the main clause, and the dependant is the main predicate of the complement.

きれい だ と 思う 。 \n beautiful AUX that think .
ccomp(思う, きれい)
aux(きれい, だ)
case(きれい, と)
punct(思う, 。)

edit ccomp

compound: compound

The dependency type compound in UD Japanese is used for noun compounds and verb compounds.

構文 解析 \n syntax analysis
compound(解析, 構文)
泳ぎ 着く \n swim reach
compound(着く, 泳ぎ)

edit compound

conj: conjunct

The dependency type conj represents coordination. Following the definition of UD, the head of the dependency is the first conjunct.

太郎 と 次郎 \n Taro and Jiro
cc(太郎, と)
conj(太郎, 次郎)

edit conj

cop: copula

The dependency type cop is reserved for a copular auxiliary だ / da. The auxiliary typically follows a noun phrase to form a copular clause. A postpositional phrase with a nominative case is commonly needed to complete sentence.

For example, dependencies for 太郎 は 学生 だ 。/ Taro ha gakusei da “Taro is a student.” are as follows.

太郎 は 学生 だ 。 \n Taro TOPIC student COPULA .
nsubj(学生, 太郎)
case(太郎, は)
cop(学生, だ)
punct(学生, 。)

Note that we treat the auxiliary だ / da after adjectives as aux. Therefore dependencies for さくら が きれい だ 。 / sakura ga kirei da “The cherry blossoms are beautiful.” do not include the `cop’ relation.

さくら が きれい だ 。 \n cherry_blossoms NOM beautiful AUX .
nsubj(きれい, さくら)
case(さくら, が)
aux(きれい, だ)
punct(きれい, 。)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject (csubj) is commonly introduced by a pair of particles, a nominal marker の / no and a nominative case marker が / ga. When the phrase is topicalized, the nominative が / ga is replaced by は / wa.

太郎 が 怒ら れる の は いや だ 。 \n Taro NOM punish PASSIVE that TOPIC dislike AUX .
csubj(いや, 怒ら)
nsubjpass(怒ら, 太郎)
case(太郎, が)
auxpass(怒ら, れる)
mark(怒ら, の)
case(怒ら, は)
aux(いや, だ)
punct(いや, 。)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

The dependency type csubjpass is used for clausal subjects of passive verbs.

言っ た の が 悔やま れる 。 \n say PAST that NOM regret PASSIVE .
csubjpass(悔やま, 言っ)
auxpass(悔やま, れる)
aux(言っ, た)
mark(言っ, の)
case(言っ, が)
punct(悔やま, 。)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency


edit dep

det: determiner

The dependency type det is for a closed set of adnominals.

The full list of the adnominals is as follows:

この 本 \n this book
det(本, この)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

Discourse elements (discourse) in UD Japanese is interjection and emoticons.

あー つかれ た 。 \n ah tire PAST .
discourse(つかれ, あー)
aux(つかれ, た)
punct(つかれ, 。)

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

The dependency type dislocated is used for topic phrases. A topic phrase introduces the topic of a sentence, and are typically prepositional phrases with a topic marker は / ha. One of the most famous examples is 象 は 鼻 が 長い 。/ zou wa hana ga nagai “For elephants, noses are long.”

象 は 鼻 が 長い 。 \n elephant TOPIC nose NOM long .
dislocated(長い, 象)
case(象, は)
case(鼻, が)
nsubj(長い, 鼻)
punct(長い, 。)

Note that the relation is not used for a topicalized phrase that is also a core argument of the sentence.

太郎 は 東京 へ 行く 。\n Taro TOPIC Tokyo TO go .
case(太郎, は)
case(東京, へ)
nsubj(行く, 太郎)
nmod(行く, 東京)

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

Direct object (typically a postpositional phrase with a case marker を / o).

ご飯 を 食べる 。 \n Rice ACC eat .
dobj(食べる, ご飯)
case(ご飯, を)
punct(食べる, 。)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

Not used in Japanese.

edit expl

fixed: multi-word expression

Multi-word functional expressions.

太郎 に よっ て 発見 さ れ た 。 \n Taro by _ _ discover do PASSIVE PAST
case(太郎, に)
mwe(に, よっ)
mwe(に, て)
nmod(発見, 太郎)
aux(発見, さ)
auxpass(発見, れ)
aux(発見, た)
punct(発見, 。)
雨 が 降る かも しれ ない 。 \n rain NOM fall maybe _ _ .
nsubj(降る, 雨)
case(雨, が)
aux(降る, かも)
mwe(かも, しれ)
mwe(かも, ない)
punct(降る, 。)

edit fixed

flat: name

Proper noun compounds.

山田 太郎 \n Yamada Taro
name(山田, 太郎)

edit flat

foreign: foreign words

Foreign words in non-Japanese characters.

google docs を 使う 。 \n google docs ACC use .
foreign(docs, google)
case(docs, を)
dobj(使う, docs)
punct(使う, 。)

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

Used when a word is somehow split into tokens.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

Indirect object (typicall a postpositional phrase with a case marker に / ni).

花子 に あげる 。 \n Hanako DAT give .
iobj(あげる, 花子)
case(花子, に)
punct(あげる, 。)

edit iobj

list: list


1. 東京 2. 大阪 \n 1. Tokyo 2. Osaka
list(大阪-4, 東京-2)
appos(1.-1, 東京-2) 
appos(2.-3, 大阪-4)

edit list

mark: marker

Subordinating conjunction, conjunctive particle, complementizer (と / to, か / ka).

東京 へ 行く と 言っ た 。 \n Tokyo to go that say PAST .
nmod(行く, 東京)
case(東京, へ)
mark(行く, と)
ccomp(言っ, 行く)
aux(言っ, た)
punct(言っ, 。)

edit mark

neg: negation modifier

Negation with ない / nai, ず / zu for clausal predicates. Negation with 不 / fu, 非 / hi for Noun dependents.

食べ ない 。 \n eat not .
neg(ない, 食べ)
punct(食べ, 。)
不 支持 \n not support
neg(支持, 不)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

Prepositional/noun phrases modifying another phrase.

明日 北海道 へ 行く 。 \n tomorrow Hokkaido TO go .
nmod(行く, 北海道)
case(北海道, へ)
nmod(行く, 明日)
punct(行く, 。)
リンゴ の ジュース \n apple OF juice
nmod(ジュース, リンゴ)
case(リンゴ, の)

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

Nominal subjects (typically a postpositional phrase with a case marker “が” or sometimes with は / wa).

太郎 が 走る 。 \n Taro NOM runs .
nsubj(走る, 太郎)
case(太郎, が)
punct(走る, 。)

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

Nominal subjects in passive forms.

太郎 が ほめ られる 。 \n Taro NOM praise PASSIVE .
nsubjpass(ほめ, 太郎)
auxpass(ほめ, られる)
case(太郎, が)
punct(ほめ, 。)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

Numeral classifier phrases.

3 冊 の 本 \n 3 COUNT of books
nummod(本, 冊)
case(冊, の)
nummod(冊, 3)

edit nummod

orphan: remnant in ellipsis

Used to annotate head-less coordination (see the definition in Universal Dependencies for details).

edit orphan

parataxis: parataxis

Listing of sentences.

「 太郎 は 花子 が 好き 。 次郎 は 梅子 が 好き 。 」 と 三郎 が 言っ た 。 \n " Taro TOPIC Hanako NOM likable . Jiro TOPIC Umeko NOM likable . " that Saburo NOM say PAST .
parataxis(好き-12, 好き-6)
punct(好き-12, 「-1)
punct(好き-12, 」-14)
case(太郎-2, は-3)
case(花子-4, が-5)
dislocated(好き-6, 太郎-2)
nsubj(好き-6, 花子-4)
punct(好き-6, 。-7)
case(次郎-8, は-9)
case(梅子-10, が-11)
dislocated(好き-12, 次郎-8)
nsubj(好き-12, 梅子-10)
punct(好き-12, 。-13)
case(好き-12, と-15)
case(三郎-16, が-17)
nsubj(言っ-18, 三郎)
ccomp(言っ-18, 好き-12)
aux(言っ-18, た-19)
punct(言っ-18, 。-20)

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation


太郎 が 走る 。 \n Taro NOM run .
nsubj(走る, 太郎)
case(太郎, が)
punct(走る, 。)
太郎 、 次郎 \n Taro , Jiro
punct(太郎, 、)
conj(太郎, 次郎)

edit punct

reparandum: overridden disfluency

Speech repair.

edit reparandum

root: root

Head of a sentence.

edit root

vocative: vocative

Dialogue participant names in text.

太郎 食べ なさい 。 \n Taro eat IMPERATIVE .
vocative(食べ, 太郎)
aux(食べ, なさい)
punct(食べ, 。)

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

Not used in Japanese.

edit xcomp