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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Features

Lexical features
PronType
NumType
Poss
Reflex
Inflectional features
Nominal Verbal
Gender VerbForm
Animacy Mood
Number Tense
Case Aspect
Definite Voice
Degree Person
Polarity

Animacy: animacy

Animacy is not used.

edit Animacy

Aspect: aspect

Aspect is not used.

edit Aspect

Case: case

Case is not used.

edit Case

Definite: definiteness or state

The feature Definite is marked to identify definite and indefinite articles.

Ind: indefinite

Examples

Def: definite

Examples

Red: reduced

Not used.

Com: complex

Not used.

edit Definite

Degree: degree of comparison

Degree of comparison is used as an inflectional feature of some adjectives and adverbs.

Pos: positive, first degree

Not used.

Cmp: comparative, second degree

The quality of one object is compared to the same quality of another object.

Examples

Sup: superlative, third degree

The quality of one object is compared to the same quality of all other objects within a set.

Italian does not seem to have single words for ‘relative’ superlatives, such as [en] “youngest”. One would say instead:

Abs: absolute superlative

The quality of the given object is so strong that there is hardly any other object exceeding it. The quality is not actually compared to any particular set of objects.

Examples

edit Degree

Gender: gender

Masc: masculine gender

Nouns denoting male persons are masculine. Other nouns may be also grammatically masculine, without any relation to sex.

Examples

Fem: feminine gender

Nouns denoting female persons are feminine. Other nouns may be also grammatically feminine, without any relation to sex.

Examples

Neut: neuter gender

Not used.

Com: common gender

Not used.

edit Gender

Mood: mood

Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms.

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.

Examples

Imp: imperative

The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.

Examples

Cnd: conditional

The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen.

Examples

Pot: potential

Not used.

Sub: subjunctive / conjunctive

The subjunctive mood is used under certain circumstances in subordinate clauses, typically for actions that are subjective or otherwise uncertain.

Examples

Jus: jussive

Not used.

Qot: quotative

Not used.

Opt: optative

Not used.

Des: desiderative

Not used.

Nec: necessitative

Not used.

edit Mood

NumType: numeral type

The NumType feature applies to:

Card: cardinal number or corresponding word

Examples

Ord: ordinal number or corresponding word

This is a subtype of adjectives or pronouns.

Examples

Mult: multiplicative numeral or corresponding word

Not used.

Frac: fraction

Not used.

Sets: number of sets of things

Not used.

Dist: distributive numeral

Not used.

Range: range of values

Used for expressions such as: * 2/3 Sett. * 3/4 volte

Gen: generic numeral, i.e. a numeral that is neither of the above

Used for time expressions such as: * 23’ * 1’13’’ * 1.00’16’’

edit NumType

Number: number

Number is an inflectional feature of nouns, pronouns,adjectives, determiners and verbs).

Sing: singular number

A singular noun denotes one person, animal or thing.

Examples

Plur: plural number

A plural noun denotes several persons, animals or things.

Examples

Dual: dual number

Not used.

Examples

Ptan: plurale tantum

Not used.

Coll: collective / mass / singulare tantum

Not used.

edit Number

Number: number

Number is an inflectional feature of nouns, pronouns,adjectives, determiners and verbs).

Sing: singular number

A singular noun denotes one person, animal or thing.

Examples

Plur: plural number

A plural noun denotes several persons, animals or things.

Examples

Dual: dual number

Not used.

Examples

Ptan: plurale tantum

Not used.

Coll: collective / mass / singulare tantum

Not used.

edit Number

Polarity: whether the word can be or is negated

Not used.

edit Polarity

Poss: possessive

Boolean feature of pronouns or adjectives.It tells whether the word is possessive.

Yes: it is possessive

Examples

edit Poss

PronType: pronominal type

This feature typically applies to pronouns, determiners, pronominal numerals (quantifiers) and pronominal adverbs.

Prs: personal or possessive personal pronoun or determiner

See also the Poss feature that distinguishes normal personal pronouns from possessives. Note that Prs also includes reflexive personal/possessive pronouns (see the Reflex feature).

Examples

Note: the category clitic pronouns includes cases such as: Si è trasformato “Has transformed itself” (reflexive), Ti ho dato “I have given you” (indirect object), Ora si cerca il colpevole “Now one/somebody searches for the culprit” (impersonal form), Lo vediamo spesso “We often see him/it”. These are not marked by the appropriate PronType.

Rcp: reciprocal pronoun

We do not seem to have cases of reciprocal pronouns in Italian.

Art: article

Article is a special case of determiner that bears the feature of definiteness.

Examples

Int: interrogative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

Note that possessive interrogative determiners (whose) can be distinguished by the Poss feature.

Examples:

Note: for the time being we do not use the feature ProntType=Int interrogative pronouns such as dove “where” and quando “when” in sentences like Dov’ è Siena? “Where is Siena?”.

Rel: relative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

Examples:

Dem: demonstrative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

These are often parallel to interrogatives. Some tagsets might also distinguish a separate feature of distance (here / there; [es] aquí / ahí / allí).

Examples

Note: Demonstrative adverbs such as qui “here” and “there”, ora “now” e allora “then” are not marked with PronType=Dem.

Tot: total (collective) pronoun, determiner or adverb

Examples

We are not using PronType=Tot.

Neg: negative pronoun, determiner or adverb

Examples:

We distinguish only negative adverbs such as: non, nemmeno, _neppure.

Ind: indefinite pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb

Examples

Exc: exclamative determiners. This value is language specific.

Examples

Clit: clitic pronouns. This value is language specific.

Used for clitic pronouns, part of speech PRON/PC.

Examples

Predet: predeterminer. This value is language specific.

It is always used along with det:predet dependency relations.

Examples

Ord: ordinal pronouns. This value is language specific.

It is used to mark ordinal pronouns. Part of speech is PRON/NO. When ordinals are used as noun modifiers they are marked as [ADJ].

Examples

edit PronType

Reflex: reflexive

Boolean feature of pronouns. It tells whether the word is reflexive, i.e. refers to the subject of its clause.

Yes: it is reflexive

Reflexive pronouns are a subset of clitic pronouns.

Examples

edit Reflex

Tense: tense

Tense is a feature of verbs.

Past: past tense

Examples

Pres: present tense

The present tense denotes actions that are happening right now or that usually happen.

Examples

Fut: future tense

Examples

Imp: imperfect

Nar: narrative

Not used.

Pqp: pluperfect

Not used.

edit Tense

VerbForm: form of verb or deverbative

Fin: finite verb

Examples

Inf: infinitive

Examples

Sup: supine

Not used.

Part: participle

Examples

Trans: transgressive

Not used.

Ger: gerund

Examples

edit VerbForm

Voice: voice

Voice is not used.

edit Voice