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Lexical features
Inflectional features
Nominal Verbal
Gender VerbForm
Animacy Mood
Number Tense
Case Aspect
Definite Voice
Degree Person

Animacy: animacy

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for Animacy.

edit Animacy

Aspect: aspect

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for Aspect.

edit Aspect

Case: case

Case is an inflectional feature of nouns and other parts of speech (adjectives, verbs, articles) that mark agreement with nouns.

In Irish four cases are used: common (which covers nominative and accusative case), vocative, genitive and dative. These cases are labelled respectively as NomAcc, Voc, Gen, and Dat.

NomAcc : common case

The common case is the base form of the noun, and is used in the citation form (lemma). This word form is used for subjects and objects of a clause, and predicates of a copula.



Voc : vocative case

The vocative case is used to mark a noun as being the addresse. It is preceded by the particle a. The vocative case triggers lenition in the word.


Gen : genitive case

The genitive case indicates possesion or ownership. It’s use is similar to the use of ’s in English. Other use cases include describing the composition of an object, compound nouns, or objects of a compound preposition.


Dat : dative case

The dative case is used with most simple prepositions in Irish. In standard Irish, the dative form is identical to the common case.


edit Case

Definite: definiteness or state

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for Definite.

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Degree: degree of comparison

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for Degree.

edit Degree

Dialect: Dialect

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for Dialect.

edit Dialect

Form: Form

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for Form.

edit Form

Gender: gender

Irish has two gender forms: masculine and feminine.

Masc : masculine gender

In general, words ending in a broad consonant are masculine. Exceptions include words ending in slender -óir, -eoir, and -ín, which are masculine.


Fem : feminine gender

In general, words ending in a slender consonant are feminine. Exceptions include words ending in a broad -óg, or -eog, which are feminine.


edit Gender

Mood: mood

Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms. It allows for a speaker to express their attitude towards what they are saying.

Ind : indicative mood

The indicative mood can be considered the default form of a verb. A verb in the indicative indicates something that has happened, is happening or will happen.


Cnd : conditional mood

The conditional mood is used to express actions that are hypothetical or contrary to known fact. In Irish, the conditional is expressed in two different verb endings; these endings begin with the suffix -f- or -ó-. In all but the 3rd person singular and the 2nd person plural, the verb endings are synthetic and do not require a subject pronoun. Conditional clauses are often introduced using go or .


Imp : imperative mood

The imperative mood is used to give a command, express advice, or make a request.


Sub : subjunctive mood

In Irish, the subjunctive mood is used to express a wish, or something that is not directly stated to be factual. It is normally formed with the particle go (positive) or nár (negative) followed by the verb in the subjunctive form. Sula ‘before’ is sometimes also used.


edit Mood

Negative: whether the word can be or is negated

In Irish, a verb is made negative with an additional negative particle . Alternative forms include níor, níl, níorbh. To form a negative yes or no question, the negative particle nach or is used. (See Dialect) This can become nár when used with past tense verbs.

Neg : negative


edit Negative

NounType: NounType

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for NounType.

edit NounType

NumType: numeral type

Irish numeral forms inflect to demonstrate different grammatical roles.

Card : cardinal numbers

Cardinal numbers can be divided into those without nouns (used in counting, giving the time, etc.), and those with nouns. Those used without nouns use a particle a that is absent in those used with nouns.


Counting, etc.:
Numbers qualifying nouns:

Pers : personal numerals

The personal numerals are used for counting people. From numbers 1-12 this system of counting differs from that used with other nouns, after that, the form is the same as the cardinal form, or a combination of the two forms.


Ord : ordinal numbers

Ordinal numbers can be used to show order of items. In Irish, the form uses the definite particle an. (see Definite). The English abbreviation “th” appended to a numeral, is given in Irish as ú.


edit NumType

Number: number

Number is an inflectional feature of nouns and other parts of speech (verbs, articles) that mark agreement with nouns.


A singular noun (or pronoun) denotes one person, animal or thing. Adjectives and referents must also be singular to agree with them.



A plural noun (or pronoun) denotes several persons, animals or things. Adjectives and referents must also be in the plural to agree with them.


edit Number

PartType: PartType

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for PartType.

edit PartType

Person: person

Person is a feature of personal and possessive pronouns and verbs. In verbs, this feature marks the subject, in some cases allowing the subject to be dropped entirely. In Irish, some verbs are constructed synthetically, and some are analytically constructed.

1 : first person

The first person refers to the speaker; singular first person includes just one speaker, while plural first person includes many speakers, or groups the speaker with others. In Irish verbs, the first person forms a synthetic verb, where the subject pronoun may be dropped from the verb. Prepositional and possessive pronouns also inflect to denote person and number.


2 : second person

The second person refers to the listener. The singular first person denotes just one listener, while the plural form denotes several listeners. Verbs in Irish do not indicate 2nd person, so subject pronouns are necessary.


3 : third person

The third person refers to one or more persons who are not present, i.e. neither speakers nor listeners.


edit Person

Poss: possessive

Boolean feature of pronouns, determiners or adjectives. It tells whether the word is possessive.

While many tagsets would have “possessive” as one of the various pronoun types, this feature is intentionally separate from PronType, as it is orthogonal to pronominal types. Several of the pronominal types can be optionally possessive, and adjectives can too.

Yes : possessive

Note that there is no No value. If the word is not possessive, the Poss feature will just not be mentioned in the FEAT column. (Which means that empty value has the No meaning.)


edit Poss

PrepForm: PrepForm

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for PrepForm.

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PronType: pronominal type

Art : articles

Dem : demonstrative

Ind : indefinite

Int : interrogative

Prs : person

Rel : relative

edit PronType

Reflex: reflexive

Yes : it is reflexive

The reflexive feature is a boolean feature of pronouns or determiners. It tells whether the word is reflexive, i.e. it refers to the subject of its clause.

In Irish, the reflexive pronoun is féin


edit Reflex

Tense: tense

Tense is a feature that specifies the time when the action took / takes / will take place, in relation to the current moment or to another action in the utterance.

Past : past tense

The past tense denotes actions that happened before the current moment. In Irish, past tense is indicated in the verb through the addition of lenition and/or a d’- prefix.


Pres : present tense

The present tense denotes actions that are happening right now or that habitually happen.


Fut : future tense

The future tense denotes actions that will happen after the current moment. In Irish, the future is indicated by the addition of a -f-, or -ó- suffix, with endings depending on person.

edit Tense

VerbForm: form of verb or deverbative

In Irish, verb form is a feature of words which have the appearance of a verb, although they function as other parts of speech. This feature appears most commonly as an inifitive construction, which functions as a noun. This feature also appears as a copula, a particle or a verbal noun.

Inf : infinitive

The infinitive verb form functions as a noun. The inifitive is always preceded by a particle or a preposition. Following a particle, the verb form takes lenition.


Introduced by particle
Introduced by preposition

Cop : copula

The copula verb form usually functions as a copula verb, though it can also be used as a mark, to introduce a complement clause, or as the root of the sentence. The copula takes many forms - predominately is, as well as gur, ba, , etc. (see cop)


Part : participle

The participle verb form functions as an adjective. It can be used to modify the head noun, or to introduce an adjectival predicate complement. (see xcomp:pred) The participle is usually inflected by adding the suffix -te (-the) or -ta (-tha) to the lemma.


Adjectival modifier
Introducing complement clause

Vnoun : verbal noun

Verbal nouns are nouns that take the form of a verb. They may be used to introduce a clausal complement, (see xcomp), as a conjunct, or as a root of the sentence. The noun is preceded by the preposition ag which loosely translates to “in the process of” in this situation.


edit VerbForm

Voice: voice

The Irish autonomous voice is similar to the passive construction, in that the agent of the verb is not (necessarily) specified. However, in this constuction, the object remains in accusative case, as opposed to the nominative case used in the passive voice. The subject in this construction remains anonymous, as a dummy subject.

Auto : autonomous voice

The autonomous voice is formed with a different verb ending: -t(e)ar in the present tense, -(e)adh in the past tense, -f(e)ar, in the future tense, and -f(a)í in the conditional.


edit Voice