Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.
acl: clausal modifier of noun
acl is used for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun.
Note that in Irish, relative clauses get assigned a specific relation acl:relcl, a subtype of
The super type
acl is not used in version 1.0 or 1.1 of the Irish treebank.
acl:relcl: relative clause modifier
A relative clause modifier marks the relation between a relative clause and a noun phrase in a preceding clause.
The head of the relative clause is usually a verb.
Chaill sé pé rud a bhí aige `He lost everything that he had’
Chaill sé pé rud a bhí aige \n Lost he whatever thing that had he acl:relcl(bhí, pé)
advcl: adverbial clause modifier
An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes temporal, consequence, conditional and purpose clauses. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the head is the main predicate of the clause.
Nuair a bhí siad ag teacht ar ais, chonaic siad é ‘When they were coming back, they saw it’
Nuair a bhí siad ag teacht ar ais, chonaic siad é \n When  were they at coming on back, saw they it advcl(chonaic, bhí)
Má imríonn siad mar faoi is féidir leo, is dóigh liom go bhfillfidh siad ar Staid Semple ‘If they play as well as they can, I believe they will return to Semple Stadium’
Má imríonn siad mar faoi is féidir leo , is dóigh liom go bhfillfidh siad ar Staid Semple \n If play they as about be ability with-them , be belief with-me that will_return they to Stadium Semple advcl(dóigh, imríonn)
Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad `Payments are not given if they are not asked for’
Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad \n Not given payments if_not requested them advcl(thugtar, n-iarrtar)
Ach nuair a bhíodar ag dul aníos casadh mairnéalach leo `But when they were going down, they met sailors’
Ach nuair a bhíodar ag dul aníos casadh mairnéalach leo \n But when  were_they at going down were_met sailors with_them advcl(casadh, bhíodar)
advmod: adverbial modifier
An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase (ADVP) that serves to modify the meaning of the word.
Fuair mé fliú mór a bhí ag dul thart ‘I caught a bad flu that was going around’
Fuair mé fliú mór a bhí ag dul thart \n Caught I flu big  was at going around advmod(dul, thart)
Chaithimid an oíche amuigh ar an fharraige ‘We spent the night out on the sea’
Chaithimid an oíche amuigh ar an fharraige \n 'Spent_we the night out on the sea' advmod(Chaithimid, amuigh)
Níor tháinig sé go fóill ‘He hasn’t arrived yet’
Níor tháinig sé go fóill \n Not arrived he  yet advmod(tháinig, fóill)
amod: adjectival modifier
An adjectival modifier of an NP is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the NP.
tíortha forbatha ‘developed countries’
tíortha forbatha \n countries developed amod(tíortha, forbatha)
Baineann na prionsabail chéanna leis ‘The same principles apply’
Baineann na prionsabail chéanna leis \n Relate the principles same with_it amod(prionsabail, chéanna)
appos: appositional modifier
An appositional modifier of an NP is an NP immediately to the right of the first NP that serves to define or modify that NP. It also includes parenthesized examples.
Tá gearán déanta ag Unison, ceardchumann lucht na mbónaí bána, leis an gCoimisiún `Unison, the workers’ trade union, have made a complaint to the Commission’
Tá gearán déanta ag Unison , ceardchumann lucht na mbónaí bána , leis an gCoimisiún \n Is complaint made by Unison , trade_union group the collars white , with the Commission appos(Unison, ceardchumann)
Chas m’athair air sa tábhairne, O’ Shea’s i nDomhnach Broc `My father met him in the pub, O’ Shea’s in Donnybrook’
Chas m' athair air sa tábhairne , O' Shea's i nDomhnach Broc \n Met my father on him in_the pub , O' Shea's in Donnybrook  appos(tábhairne, Shea's)
case: case marking
The case relation is used for most prepositions in Irish. Prepositions are treated as dependents of the noun they introduce in an “extended nominal projection”. Thus, contrary to SD, UD abandons treating a preposition as a mediator between a modified word and its object. The case relation aims at providing a uniform analysis of prepositions and case in morphologically rich languages.
Prepositions have many functions in Irish.
PPs can precede or follow the verb they modify, or follow the noun they modify.
(i) Sa bhliain sin, bhuaigh siad an Chorn `In that year, they won the Cup’
(ii) Bhuaigh siad an Chorn sa bhliain sin `They won the Cup in that year’
(iii) An teach sa chathair `The house in the city’
The preposition ag is used with verbal nouns to form progressive aspectual phrases in Irish.
Tá sí ag rith ‘She is running’
Tá sí ag rith \n Is she at running nmod(Tá, rith) nsubj(Tá, sí) case(rith, ag)
Prepositions are also used in phrasal constructions to denote ownership or a state of being.
Tá airgead ag na daoine ‘The people have money’ (lit. Money is at the people)
Tá airgead ag na daoine \n Is pen at the people nmod(Tá, daoine) case(daoine, ag)
Tá brón ar an gcuairteoir `The visitor is sorry’ (lit. sorrow is on the visitor)
Tá brón ar an gcuairteoir \n Is sorrow on the visitor nmod(Tá, gcuairteoir) case(gcuairteoir, ar)
Oblique arguments are also labelled
Tá muintir Chorcaí an-mhíshásta le Fianna Fáil ‘The people of Cork are very unhappy with Fianna Fáil’
Tá muintir Chorcaí an-mhíshásta le Fianna_Fáil \n Be people Cork very_unhappy with Fianna_Fáil nsubj(Tá, muintir) compound(muintir, Chorcaí) xcomp:pred(Tá, an-mhíshásta) nmod(Tá, Fianna_Fáil) case(Fianna_Fáil, le)
case:voc: vocative particle
A vocative particle precedes and marks the case of an addressee.
Slán leat, a chara ‘Goodbye, friend’
Slán leat, a chara \n goodbye with_you,  friend case:voc(chara, a)
ccomp: clausal complement
ccomp relation marks a clausal complement of a verb or adjective, that has its own internal subject. In Irish, clausal complements are usually introduced by complementizers go, nach, and gur.
Tá a fhios agam gur imigh mo mháthair \n Is the knowledge at_me that left my mother ccomp(Tá, imigh)
Creidimidne, go bhforbraíonn na mic léinn a gcuid tuisceana ar shaol proifisiúna na tionsclaíochta `We believe, that the students develop their understanding of professional life of industry’
Creidimidne , go bhforbraíonn na mic léinn a gcuid tuisceana ar shaol proifisiúna na tionsclaíochta \n Believe_we , that develop the students their own understanding on life professional the industry ccomp(Creidimidne, bhforbraíonn)
UD Irish uses the
compound relation for noun compounding. In Irish, when two nouns are compounded, the second is in the genitive case. Compounds can denote ownership or an attribute.
Oifig an Phoist `Post Office’ (lit. Office the Post)
ag cosaint na n-oifigí poist tuaithe \n at protecting the offices post country compound(n-oifigí, poist) compound(n-oifigí, tuaithe)
roimh teacht na traenach ‘before the train’s arrival’
roimh teacht na traenach \n before arrival the train compound(teacht, traenach)
an tSúir Concepta \n Sr. Concepta compound(Concepta, tSúir)
Reflexive Pronoun: féin
Similar to the emphatic pronoun self in English, e.g. himself, themselves.
Cé hiad féin ? \n Who are THEY ? compound(hiad, féin)
It can also translate as ownership, yet the possessive pronoun will also be present in those constructions using féin:
ábalta a rá lena bpobal féin \n able to say to their own community compound(bpobal, féin)
le bean Choilm \n with Colm's wife compound(bean, Choilm)
compound:prt: phrasal particles
In UD Irish, the subtype
compound:prt (phrasal particle) is used in connection with phrasal verbs, where the particle is considered an integral part of the verb expression. The governor of the dependency is the verb, and the dependent is the phrasal particle.
Na sonraí atá leagtha amach in Airteagal J ‘The details that are laid out in Article J’
Na sonraí atá leagtha amach in Airteagal J \n The details that are laid out in Article J. compound:prt(leagtha, amach)
UD coordination has a right-adjunct structure (note that this differs from the structure of the Irish Dependency Treebank). The first conjunct (conjoined element) is the head of the conjoined phrase and all other conjuncts are dependents, labelled with the
Tigh Tábhairne agus Lóistín atá anois ann ‘A Public Bar and Hotel is what is there now’
Tigh Tábhairne agus Lóistín atá anois ann \n Houses Tavern and Accommodation that_is now there conj(Tábhairne,Lóistín)
ionaid oidhreachta, chultúrtha agus Ghaeilge ‘heritage, culture and Irish language centre’
ionaid oidhreachta , chultúrtha agus Ghaeilge \n centre heritage, culture and Irish_language conj(oidhreachta,chultúrtha) conj(oidhreachta,Ghaeilge)
In Irish, there is a distinction between the substantive verb bí `to be’, which inflects for tense, mood and person as per all Irish verbs – and the copula is, which only has two tensed forms - present/future and past/conditional.
Bí, as a verb, uses separate particles in negative and interrogative constructions. Is (copula) uses its own forms in these constructions. For example:
- ba (conditional/ past - positive)
- ar (past/ interrogative - positive)
- nach (present/ future - interrogative/ negative)
- ní (present/ future - negative)
The order of elements in a copula construction is in general: copula, predicate (new or focussed information), and subject
cop is used to link the copula verb is and its predicate. See xcomp:pred to see how the verb bí is linked to a predicate.
#### equative construction
Is múinteoir é ‘He is a teacher’
Is múinteoir é \n is teacher him cop(múinteoir, Is)
Ba mhaith liom gan fanacht ‘I would like not to stay’
Ba mhaith liom gan fanacht \n Be good with_me without staying cop(mhaith, Ba)
Is iad a bheidh ina gcomhaltaí de na coistí sin ‘It is they who will be members of those committees’
Is iad a bheidh ina gcomhaltaí de na coistí sin \n Is they who will_be in_their members of the committees that cop(iad,Is)
An leatsa é? ‘Is it yours?’
An leatsa é ? \n Is with_you it ? cop(leatsa, An)
csubj: clausal subject
All clausal subjects in the current version of the treebank are subjects of the copula is. We use csubj:cop for clausal subjects in copular constructions when the clause contains its own subject. We use csubj:cleft for subjects of cleft constructions.
csubj:cleft: relative clause modifier
Irish cleft constructions use a copula and are analysed in line with other copular construction: COP PRED SUBJ. In contrast to English, Irish clefts are much less restrictive with regards to the type of element that can be fronted: nouns, prepositional phrases, adverbial phrases, adjectives and verbal nouns.
Is leabhar a thug sí dom ‘It is a book that she gave me’
Is leabhar a thug sí dom \n is book  gave she to_me csubj:cleft(leabhar, thug) cop(leabhar, Is)
Is laistigh de bhliain a déanfar é ‘It is within a year that it will be done’
Is laistigh de bhliain a déanfar é \n is within a year  will_be_done it csubj:cleft(laistigh, déanfar) cop(laistigh, Is)
Prepositional phrase fronting
Is sa pháirc a chonaic mé é ‘It is in the park that I saw him’
Is sa pháirc a chonaic mé é \n is in_the park  saw I him csubj:cleft(pháirc, chonaic) cop(pháirc, Is)
csubj:cop: relative clause modifier
A clausal copular subject (
csubj:cop) is a UD Irish subtype, used to label a clause that acts as the
subject of another (copular) clause. As in all copular clauses, the
predicate acts as the head of the clause and hence it is also the
governor of the copular subject.
Is dócha go raibh an ceart aici ‘It is likely that she was correct’
Is dócha go raibh an ceart aici \n Is probable that was the right at_her csubj:cop(dócha, raibh)
dep: unspecified dependency
The UD Irish treebank does not contain any instances of
detlabel marks the relationship between a noun and its determiner.
In Irish there is no indefinite article, only a definite article. The definite article can be singular (an) or plural (na).
an clár ‘the programme’
an clár \n the programme det(clár, an)
an cláranna ‘the programmes’
na cláranna \n the programmes det(cláranna, na)
Two pre-determiners can occur before a noun:
gach uile ábhar ‘every single subject’
gach uile ábhar \n every single subject det(ábhar, gach) det(ábhar, uile)
Two determiners can be used each side of a noun: pre-determiners and post-determiners:
an tuairim sin ‘that opinion’ (an+sin = ‘that’)
an tuairim sin \n the opinion DEM det(tuairim, an) det(tuairim, sin)
an leabhar úd ‘that book
an leabhar úd \n the book DEM det(leabhar, an) det(leabhar, úd)
an alt seo ‘this paragraph’
an alt seo \n the paragraph DEM det(alt, an) det(alt, seo)
an chéad cheannaire eile ‘</b>the next</b> leader’
an chéad cheannaire eile \n the first leader other det(cheannaire, an) det(cheannaire, eile) quant(cheannaire, chéad)
discourse: discourse element
discourse label is used to connect interjections and other discourse particles to a clause.
Á, níl sé chomh holc sin! ‘Aw, it is not as bad as that!’
Á , níl sé chomh holc sin ! \n Aw , is_not it as bad that ! discourse(níl, Á)
Leoga, tá aitheantas tugtha dóibh Indeed, they are given recognition
Leoga , tá aitheantas tugtha dóibh \n Indeed , is recognition given to\_them discourse(tá, Leoga)
dislocated: dislocated elements
dislocated label has not been applied to Irish in this release of the treebank. No examples have been observed yet,
but should any be identified, they will be marked in subsequent versions of the treebank.
dobj: direct object
dobj label is used to mark the relationship between a verb and its direct object.
Bhailigh siad eolas ‘They collected information’
Bhailigh siad eolas \n Collected they information dobj(Bhailigh, eolas)
Note that the object of an infinitival phrase occurs before the infinitive form (Verbal Noun), despite Irish being a VSO language.
eolas a chur ar fáil ‘to make information available’
eolas a chur ar fáil \n information to put at available dobj(chur, eolas)
Impersonal/autonomous verbs are used to create phrases similar to the English passive. However, unlike English, the object does not become the subject of this verb form, and remains labelled as
An lá a cuireadh é ‘The day he was buried’
An lá a cuireadh é \n The day  was_buried he dobj(cuireadh, é)
foreign: foreign words
There are a handful of instances of intra-sentential Irish/English code-mixing in the treebank. Where possible we analyse the sentential structure using the appropriate labels for the English words. We only use the
when we want to explicitly mark the English words as foreign, e.g. the title of an English film in quotation marks, an example of an Irish-English dictionary entry within a sentence, or an Irish-English sign (see example below). When the
foreign label is used, the sequence of words is given a linear analysis with the first word as the head.
ar oscailt / open : Bealtaine - Meán Fómhair / May - September `open / open : May - September / May - September ‘
ar oscailt / open : Bealtaine - Meán Fómhair / May - September \n open / open : May - September / May - September foreign(oscailt,open) foreign(Bealtaine,May) foreign(May,September)
list relation is used for chains of comparable items.
Is iad seo na príomhchineálacha breiseán bia : 1) dathuithe 2) leasaithigh 3) antocsaídigh `These are the main types of food additives : 1) colouring 2) preservatives 3) antioxidants’
Is iad seo na príomhchineálacha breiseán bia : 1) dathuithe 2) leasaithigh 3) antocsaídigh \n Is they DEM the main_types additives food : 1) colouring 2) preservatives 3) antioxidants list(príomhchineálacha,1)) list(príomhchineálacha,2)) list(príomhchineálacha,3))
In Irish the
mark label is used for infinitive markers and for subordinate conjunctions.
Note that subordinate conjunctions are attached to the head of the complement clause (not the matrix clause as is the case in the Irish Dependency Treebank).
Cé go ndeachaigh sé thar fóir leis an tuairim sin , is cinnte go raibh mórán scríobhneoirí Béarla den bharúil chéanna `Although he went overboard with that opinion , it was certain that many English writers had the same opinion’
Cé go ndeachaigh sé thar fóir leis an tuairim sin , is cinnte go raibh mórán scríobhneoirí Béarla den bharúil chéanna \n Although that went he over board with the opinion DEM , is certain that was many writers English of_the opinion same mark(ndeachaigh, Cé) advcl(is, ndeachaigh)
Ba ar Mháirín a smaoiníodh sé nuair a d’ fheicfeadh sé iad `He would think of Máirín when he would see them’
Ba ar Mháirín a smaoiníodh sé nuair a d' fheicfeadh sé iad \n Was on Máirín that would_think he when   would_see he them mark(fheicfeadh, nuair)
Caithfidh mé sin a fhoghlaim `I will have to learn that’
Caithfidh mé sin a fhoghlaim \n will_have I that to learn mark(fhoghlaim, a)
The UD Irish subtype `mark:prt’ is used for the various particles in Irish, including:
- adverbial particle: go
- quantifier particle: a
- cleft particle: a
- verb particles: d’, a, and the complementisers go, nach, nár, gur, gurbh,
- comparative and superlative particles: is, níos
- days of the week particle: Dé
Níor tháinig sé go fóill `He has not arrived yet’ ~~~ sdparse Níor tháinig sé go fóill \n NEG arrived he PART yet mark:prt(fóill, go) ~~~
Ar a seacht a chlog `At seven o’ clock’
Ar a seacht a chlog \n At PART seven o' clock mark:prt(seacht, a)
Roinn a 2 `Division 2’
Roinn a 2 \n Division PART 2 mark:prt(2, a)
Is leabhar a thug sí dom `It is a book that she gave me’
Is leabhar a thug sí dom \n Is book PART gave she to_me mark:prt(thug, a)
Nuair a tógadh na scadáin ar bord `When the herring were brought onboard’
Nuair a tógadh na scadáin ar bord \n When PART was_brought the herring on board mark:prt(tógadh, a)
D’ inis tú dom `You told me’
D' inis tú dom \n PART told you to_me mark:prt(inis, D')
Is dóigh liom go raibh siad ann `I believe they were there’
Is dóigh liom go raibh siad ann \n Is belief to_me PART were they there mark:prt(raibh, go)
Ba í an difríocht is suntasaí `It was the most remarkable difference’
Ba í an difríocht is suntasaí \n Was it the difference most remarkable mark:prt(suntasaí, is)
name relation is used with compounding proper nouns, typically for
names of people, places, organisations and so on.
In UD Irish, this not only includes surnames, but also surname particles such as Mac, Mc, Ó, de, Uí and Ní.
Is mian linn ár mbuíochas a chur in iúl go háirithe do Sheán Ó Gallchóir `We want to express our thanks in particular to John Gallagher’
Is mian linn ár mbuíochas a chur in iúl go háirithe do Sheán Ó Gallchóir \n Is desire with_us our thanks to put in knowledge  particular to John PART Gallagher name(Sheán,Ó) name(Sheán,Gallchóir)
neg: negation modifier
neg label is used for Irish negative verb particles. These particles take the form of:
- ní (present/future/conditional/habitual past and irregular past),
- nach (present/future/conditional/habitual past and irregular past interrogative)
- níor (past)
- nár (past interrogative)
- ná (imperative)
Ní raibh aon Teresa ina measc `There was not any Teresa’s among them’
Ní raibh aon Teresa ina measc \n Not was any Teresa in_their midst neg(raibh,Ní)
Ná déan seo `Don’t do this’
Ná déan seo \n Not do this neg(déan,Ná)
nmod: nominal modifier
nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers of nouns or clausal predicates.
nmod is typically a noun functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct, and often marked by a preposition using case.
Tá sé ráite ag tráchtairí áirithe `It is said by some commentators’
Tá sé ráite ag tráchtairí áirithe \n Is it said by commentators some nmod(ráite, tráchtairí) case(tráchtairí, ag)
Tá an Roinn ag obair le réimse tionscadal `The Department is working with a range of projects’
Tá an Roinn ag obair le réimse tionscadal \n Is the Department at working with range projects nmod(obair,réimse) case(réimse, le)
It is also used for attaching noun phrases, such as headings, to clauses:
TOGRA IONAID - Eolas a chur ar fáil ar fholúntais fostaíochta le FÁS `CENTRE PROJECT - To provide information on employment opportunities with FÁS.’
TOGRA IONAID - Eolas a chur ar fáil ar fholúntais fostaíochta le FÁS \n PROJECT CENTRE - Information to put on getting on opportunities employment with FÁS. nmod(Eolas, TOGRA)
It is also used to label the attachment of augment pronouns to their nominal head:
Comharsain aoibhne ab ea iad `They were lovely neighbours’
Comharsain aoibhne ab ea iad \n Neighbours lovely were they them nmod(iad, ea)
nmod:poss: possessive pronoun
Irish denotes possession through the use of possessive pronouns:
- mo “my”
- do “your” (SG),
- a “his/her”
- ár “our”
- bhur “your” (PL),
- a “their”
Chuir mé ceist ar mo mhúinteoir `I asked my teacher a question’
Chuir mé ceist ar mo mhúinteoir \n Put I question on my teacher nmod:poss(mhúinteoir, mo)
nmod:prep: prepositional pronouns
nmod:prep, used for prepositional pronouns, is a UD Irish subtype of the nmod relation:
16 of the most common Irish simple prepositions can be inflected to mark pronominal objects. These are referred to as pronominal prepositions or prepositional pronouns. We regard these as playing nominal modifier roles instead of prepositional modifier roles. We introduce the language-specific label
nmod:prep so as not to lose information regarding the presence of the preposition.
agam “at me”; leis “with him”, uainn “from us”
D’inis mé di `I told her’
D' inis mé di \n  told I to_her nmod:prep(inis, di)
Is dóigh leis go bhfuil páirtíocht acu lena chéile `He believes that they have a partnership together’
Is dóigh leis go bhfuil páirtíocht acu lena chéile \n Is belief with_him that is partnership at_them with each_other nmod:prep(dóigh, leis) nmod:prep(bhfuil, acu)
Níl fhios agam `I don’t know’
Níl fhios agam \n Is_not knowledge at_me nmod:prep(Níl,agam)
nmod:tmod: temporal modifier
A temporal modifier is a subtype of the nmod relation: if the modifier is specifying a time, it is labeled as
daoine a mhair na milliúin bliain ó shin `people who lived millions of years ago’
daoine a mhair na milliúin bliain ó shin \n people who lived the millions years from then nmod:tmod(mhair, bliain)
nsubj: nominal subject
A nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause.
Rachaidh sí abhaile `She will go home’
Rachaidh sí abhaile \n Will_go she home nsubj(Rachaidh, sí)
In a copula construction, the
nsubj is dependent on the predicate (in this case the noun réitigh ‘solution’).
Is réitigh sealadach iad `They are temporary solutions’
Is réitigh sealadach iad \n Is temporary solutions they nsubj(réitigh, iad) cop(réitigh, Is)
The head of an infinitival phrase can also be
nsubj in a copula construction – in Irish, the infinitive verb form is a verbal noun.
Ar mhaith leat teach a cheannach ? ‘Would you like to buy a house?’
Ar mhaith leat teach a cheannach ? \n Is good with_you house to buy? nsubj(mhaith, cheannach)
nummod: numeric modifier
Numeric modifiers of a noun or NP, including both cardinal and
ordinal numbers, are marked with the
nummod dependency type. Quantifiers are also included.
sa bhliain 1975 `in the year 1975’
sa bhliain 1975 \n in year 1975 nummod(bhliain, 1975)
an chéad chéim `the first year’
an chéad chéim \n in first year nummod(chéim, chéad)
fo-alt (1) `sub-paragraph (1)’
fo-alt (1) \n sub-paragraph (1) nummod(fo-alt, (1))
parataxis relation is a relation between the main verb of a clause and other sentential elements, such as a sentential parenthetical, a clause after a “:” or a “;”, or two sentences placed side by side without any explicit coordination or subordination. More information can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/parataxis)
Fuaireamar é seo ; féach an é cóta do mhic é nó nach é? `We found this ; look is it your son’s coat or not?’
Fuaireamar é seo ; féach an é cóta do mhic é nó nach é? \n Found_we it this ; look is it coat your son it or not it? parataxis(Fuaireamar,féach)
This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause, regardless of its function. The punctuation mark is attached to the head of the phrase or clause to which it belongs unless this introduces a non-projective dependency. More discussion on punctuation can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/punct).
</b> Tá an méid sin suimiúil a d' inis tú dom <b>,</b> <b>'</b> a dúirt sé <b>.</b>_ ` What you have told me is interesting ,’ he said to me.’
` Tá an méid sin suimiúil a d' inis tú dom , ' a dúirt sé . \n ' Is the amount DEM interesting   told you to_me , '  said he . punct(dúirt, `) punct(dúirt, ,) punct(dúirt, ') punct(dúirt, .)
remnant: remnant in ellipsis
remnant label has not been applied to the Irish in this release. No examples have been observed yet, but should any be identified, they will be marked in subsequent versions of the treebank.
root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A dummy node “ROOT” is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with “0”, since the indices of real words in the sentence start at 1.
Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad `Payments are not made if they are not requested’
ROOT Ní thugtar íocaíochtaí mura n-iarrtar iad \n ROOT Not given payments if_not requested them root(ROOT, thugtar)
vocative relation is used to mark a dialogue participant addressed in text (common in conversations, emails and newsgroup postings). The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.
Slán leat , a chara `Goodbye , friend’
Slán leat , a chara \n Goodbye with_you,  friend vocative(Slán, chara)
Is dóigh liom a Mháiréad, go bhfuil mé i ngrá leat `I think Mairead, that I’m in love with you’
Is dóigh liom a Mháiréad , go bhfuil mé i ngrá leat \n Is belief with_me  Mairead , that am I in love with_you vocative(dóigh, Mháiréad)
xcomp: open clausal complement
xcomp is borrowed from Lexical-Functional Grammar.
An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp.
These complements are always non-finite, and they are complements (arguments of the higher verb or adjective) rather than adjuncts/modifiers.
Is leor breathnú ar na staitisticí chun a fheiceáil gur thit na caighdeáin `You must look at the statistics to see that the standards dropped’
Is leor breathnú ar na staitisticí chun a fheiceáil gur thit na caighdeáin \n Is enough look at the statistics for to see that dropped the standards xcomp(leor, fheiceáil)
Caithfidh mé a dhul abhaile `I have to go home’
Caithfidh mé a dhul abhaile \n Have I to go home xcomp(Caithfidh, dhul)
The UD Irish scheme uses
xcomp to denote progressive aspectual phrases, the structure of which follows:
Be + SUBJ + at (ag) + Verbal Noun
In these cases, and in keeping with the analysis of prepositional phrases, we attach the verbal noun to the higher verb (“be”) (using the
xcomp label instead of the
nmod used in standard PPs). The preposition is then a dependent of the verbal noun, with that relationship labelled as
Tá sé ag rith `He is running’
Tá sé ag rith \n Is he at running xcomp(Tá, rith) case(rith, ag)
There are also some similar periphrastic constructions similar to these progressives that use le or ar:
Chuirfeadh iad ar fáil `They would be made available’
Chuirfeadh iad ar fáil \n Would_be_put they on getting xcomp(Chuirfeadh,fáil) case(fáil, ar)
We extend the label
xcomp as a UD Irish subtype
xcomp:pred to mark predicates of the substantive verb bí (be), which can have predicate arguments in the form of adverbial, adjectival and prepositional phrases.
Note that this differs from Irish (cop) constructions.
Bhí sé dochreidte go raibh sé fós beo `It was unbelieveable that he was still alive’
Bhí sé dochreidte go raibh sé fós beo \n Was it unbelieveable that was he still alive xcomp:pred(Bhí, dochreidte)
Note that the head of the prepositional phrase is the noun.
Tá duine eile i_mbun peannaireachta `Someone else is in charge of writing’
Tá duine eile i_mbun peannaireachta \n Is someone else in_charge_of writing xcomp:pred(Tá, peannaireachta) case(peannaireachta, i_mbun)
Tá Meryl Streep go hiontach sa scannán sin `Meryl Streep is wonderful in that movie’
Tá Meryl Streep go hiontach sa scannán sin \n Is Meryl Streep  wonderful in movie that xcomp:pred(Tá, hiontach)