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This page pertains to UD version 2.

Dependencies for French corpora

One of the French corpora (French-Spoken) uses a large number of new relations which are not present in other corpora.

We present first the common list of relations used in most Treebanks and at the end of the page, the full list (including French-Spoken specific Dependencies)

Common list

Nominals
Clauses
Modifier words
Function Words
Core arguments
nsubj
nsubj:caus
nsubj:pass
obj
obj:agent
iobj
iobj:agent
csubj
csubj:pass
ccomp
xcomp
Non-core dependents
obl
obl:agent
vocative
expl
dislocated
advcl
advmod
discourse
aux
aux:caus
aux:pass
cop
mark
Nominal dependents
nmod
appos
nummod
acl
acl:relcl
amod
det
case
Coordination
MWE
Loose
Special
Other
conj
cc
fixed
flat
compound
list
parataxis
orphan
goeswith
reparandum
punct
root
dep

Full list

Nominals
Clauses
Modifier words
Function Words
Core arguments
nsubj
nsubj:caus
nsubj:expl
nsubj:pass
nsubj:quasi
obj
obj:agent
iobj
iobj:agent
obl:comp
csubj
csubj:pass
csubj:quasi
ccomp
ccomp:cleft
xcomp
Non-core dependents
obl
obl:agent
obl:mod
obl:periph
vocative
expl
dislocated
dislocated:cleft
advcl
advcl:periph
advmod
advmod:periph
discourse
aux
aux:caus
aux:pass
cop
mark
Nominal dependents
nmod
nmod:appos
appos
nummod
acl
acl:cleft
acl:relcl
amod
det
det:complex
case
case:complex
Coordination
MWE
Loose
Special
Other
conj
conj:appos
conj:coord
conj:dicto
cc
fixed
flat
compound
list
parataxis
parataxis:conj
parataxis:discourse
parataxis:dislocated
parataxis:insert
parataxis:obj
parataxis:parenth
orphan
goeswith
reparandum
punct
root
dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl is used for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun, including cases of secondary predication. Note that in French relative clauses get assigned a specific relation acl:relcl, a subtype of acl.

Non-relative clausal dependents of nouns are limited to complement clauses with a subset of nouns like fait (fact). We analyze them as acl (parallel to the analysis of this class as “content clauses” in Huddleston and Pullum 2002).

Comment est-ce que cela peut être réconcilié avec le fait que beaucoup de mariages cassent ? \n How can that be reconciled with the fact that many marriages break up?
acl(fait, cassent) 
Une photo de ce qui s'est passé \n A picture of what happens
acl(photo, passé)
Un culte nourri d'influences d'anciens mythes \n A cult nourrished with influences from old myths
acl(culte, nourri)

The acl relation is also used for secondary predicates modifying a nominal:

Il quitta la pièce pleurant . \n He left the room crying .
acl(Il, pleurant)

FrenchSpoken also uses the acl relation:

on va donc avoir nos regards braqués sur l'hémisphère sud \n so we will be focused on the southern hemisphere
acl(regards, braqués)
la difficulté à vivre \n a difficulty to live with
acl(difficulté,vivre)
mark(vivre,à)
j'avais de la chance d' avoir des enfants qui travaillaient \n I was lucky to have children who were working
acl(chance,avoir)
mark(avoir,d')

N.B.: For cleft sentences FrenchSpoken uses a subrelation of acl : the acl:cleft relation.

edit acl

acl:cleft: cleft clause modifier

FrenchSpoken uses the acl:cleft relation to link the clefted nominal element (i.e. the head of the cleft construction) and the clause of the cleft sentence. The nsubj:expl relation is used to annotate the syntactical subject of the cleft construction.

Les vendanges commencent aujourd'hui. C' est un vigneron du coin qui me l'a dit . \n Harvest starts today. It's a wine-grower who told me so.
nsubj:expl(vigneron, C')
acl:cleft(vigneron, dit)
nsubj(dit, qui)
Il y a Marie qui danse dans la pièce. \n Marie dances in the room.
nsubj(a,Il)
advmod(a,y)
obj(a,Marie)
acl:cleft(Marie,danse)
J' ai le mari de ma voisine qui est réparateur de voiture. \n I've got a neighbour whose husband is a car repairer.
nsubj(ai,J')
obj(ai,mari)
acl:cleft(mari,réparateur)

N.B.: acl:cleft is only used for clefted nominal subjects or objects. All other cases are annotated with the ccomp:cleft relation (for example when the clefted element is a verb or an adverb). Also see the specific-syntax page.

edit acl:cleft

acl:relcl: relative clause modifier

The acl:relcl relation is used for relative clauses modifying a nominal. The relation points from the head of the nominal to the head of the relative clause.

J'ai vu l' homme qui t' aime \n I saw the man who loves you
acl:relcl(homme, aime)
nsubj(aime, qui)
dobj(aime, t')

FrenchSpoken also uses the acl:relcl relation:

j'ai eu envie d' être un intellectuel qui marque son temps \n I wanted to be an intellectual who marks his time 
acl:relcl(intellectuel, marque)
nsubj(marque, qui)
est-ce que vous avez des enseignants dont vous vous souvenez particulièrement \n do you have teachers of whom you have a strong memory
acl:relcl(enseignants,souvenez)
obl:comp(souvenez,dont)

N.B.: For cleft sentences, FrenchSpoken uses the acl:cleft subrelation.

edit acl:relcl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes things such as a temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.

L'accident s'est produit quand il faisait noir \n The accident happened when it was dark
advcl(produit, faisait)
Il faut venir tôt pour avoir de la place \n One needs to get there early to have a seat
advcl(venir, avoir)

FrenchSpoken also uses the advclrelation. Here are some examples:

ils ont fait médecine parce que euh ça va être un métier stable \n they studied medecine because uh it's gonna be a steady job
advcl(fait, va)
ça donne un aspect plus moderne quand même si tu mets le tissu tout autour \n it gives a more modern look if you put the fabric all around 
advcl(donne, mets)

However FrenchSpoken uses another subrelation advcl:periph for averbial clause modifiers that cannot be clefted.

edit advcl

advcl:periph: peripheral adverbial clause modifier

FrenchSpoken uses the advcl:periph relation for adverbial clause modifiers that cannot be clefted and cannot be moved inside the core of the sentence, unless they are put in parenthesis. For other adverbial modifiers the advcl relation is used.

Il doit être à la fac puisque sa voiture est dans le parking. \n He must be on the campus since his car is in the parking lot.
advcl:periph(doit, parking.)
Quand l'accident s'est produit , il faisait noir. \n When the accident happened, it was night.
advcl:periph(faisait, produit)

edit advcl:periph

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

Ca devrait être fortement souligné \n It should be strongly emphasised
advmod(souligné, fortement)
moins souvent \n less often
advmod(souvent, moins)
le jour le plus long \n the longest day
advmod(long, plus)

FrenchSpoken uses the advmod relation, here are a few examples:

je connaissais très bien Marc Allégret \n I knew Marc Allégret very well
advmod(connaissais, bien)
advmod(bien, très)
c'est vraiment très agréable \n it's really very pleasant
advmod(agréable, très)
advmod(agréable, vraiment)

For adverbial modifiers which are not governed by their heads, FrenchSpoken uses the advmod:periph relation.

edit advmod

advmod:periph: peripheral adverbial modifier

FrenchSpoken uses the advmod:periph relation for periphal adverbial modifiers, i.e. adverbial modifiers which are not governed by their heads. Peripheral adverbial modifiers (like all peripheral elements) cannot be moved inside the core of the sentence, unless they are put in parenthesis. Other adverbial modifiers are annotated with the advmod relation.

Franchement , tu aurais pu faire un effort. \n Honestly, you could have made an effort.
advmod:periph(faire, Franchement)
Apparemment James a déjà vendu sa voiture. \n Apparently James has already sold his car.
advmod:periph(vendu, Apparemment)

edit advmod:periph

amod: adjectival modifier

An adjectival modifier of a nominal is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the nominal head.

Marc boit du vin rouge \n Marc drinks red wine
amod(vin, rouge)

Here are a few examples from FrenchSpoken:

ah moi je suis une fille extrêmement pudique \n well I'm an extremely modest girl
amod(fille, pudique)
on vit vraiment dans un petit microcosme \n we truly live in a small microcosm
amod(microcosme, petit)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier of a noun is a nominal immediately following the first noun that serves to define or modify that noun. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

Sam , mon frère , est arrivé \n Sam , my brother , arrived
appos(Sam, frère)
Appelation d'origine contrôlée  ( AOC )
appos(Appelation, AOC)

FrenchSpoken does not use the appos relation anymore. Instead there are two subrelations nmod:appos and conj:appos. The nmod:appos relation is used for appositions which modify nominal elements.

la place Voltaire 
nmod:appos(place, Voltaire)

The conj:appos relation is used for appositions that respect the prosody of list (the elements of such an appositions are in the same paradigm and have the same referent):

Sam , mon frère , est arrivé . \n Sam, my brother, arrived.
conj:appos(Sam, frère)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause.

In some corpora of the French treebank an auxiliary verb used to construct the passive voice is not labeled aux but auxpass (FrenchSpoken does not use this relation).

On peut nager dans le lac \n One can swim in the lake
aux(nager, peut)
Quelles conséquences cela a - t - il eu ? \n What consequences did this have ?
aux(eu, a)

The aux relation is also used in FrenchSpoken:

c'est l'esprit qui a peut-être changé \n it's the spirit that may have changed
aux(changé,a)

There is another subrelation used to annotate the causative constructions: the aux:caus relation.

N.B.: Modals like pouvoir, vouloir etc. are annotated with an aux relation in some corpora of the French treebank but FrenchSpoken does not consider them as auxiliary verbs.

edit aux

aux:caus: causative auxiliary

The aux:caus relation is used to link the infinitive verb (i.e. the governor) and the causative verb in a causative construction. The syntactical subject of the sentence (i.e. the causer) receives a nsubj:caus link. The initial agent of the action described by the sentence is demoted and will either be anotated with an iobj:agent, an obj:agent or an obl:agent relation.

Marie a fait asseoir Pierre . \n Marie made Pierre sit.
aux:caus(asseoir,fait)
nsubj:caus(asseoir,Marie)
obj:agent(asseoir-4,Pierre-5)

N.B.: For more details about the analysis of causatives see this page.

edit aux:caus

aux:pass: passive auxiliary

A passive auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause which contains the passive information. In French, only the verb être can be a passive auxiliary.

Kennedy fut assassiné \n Kennedy was murdered
aux:pass(assassiné, fut)

Other auxiliaries associated with the same main verb are not labeled aux:pass but aux since they do not themselves indicate passive voice.

Kennedy a été assassiné \n Kennedy has been murdered
aux:pass(assassiné, été)
aux(assassiné, a)

Currently FrenchSpoken does not use the aux:pass relation.

edit aux:pass

case: case marking

The case relation is used for any preposition in French. Prepositions are treated as dependents of the noun they attach to or introduce in an “extended nominal projection”. Thus, UD does not treat a preposition as a mediator between a modified word and its object. The case relation aims at providing a uniform analysis of prepositions and case in morphologically rich languages.

Taxation individuelle de rentrée salariale \n Individual taxation of employment income
case(rentrée, de)
En attendant , asseyez-vous ici \n While waiting, seat down here
case(attendant, En)

Here are a few examples from FrenchSpoken with the relation case:

je travaille dans le privé là \n I currently work in the private sector
case(privé, dans)
un rassemblement devant le ministère de l' enseignement supérieur \n a gathering in front of the Ministry of Higher Education
case(ministère, devant)
case(enseignement, de)

For complex prepositions, FrenchSpoken uses the case:complex relation.

edit case

case:complex: complex case marker

The case:complex relation is used to analyze complex prepositions. In some corpora of the French treebank these prepositions are analyzed with a fixed relation. However FrenchSpoken does not consider them as fixed but intead as regular constructions since like complex determiners (see the det:complex relation), complex prepositions can be coordinated. Moreover in complex prepositions containing a de, the contraction of the de remains possible: contrairement à toi et à ta mère, à côté du garage et de la maison etc.

Elle a trouvé du travail grâce à cette agence d'intérim. \n She found a job thanks to this temporary employment agency.
case:complex(agence,grâce)
case(agence,à)
det(agence,cette)
La tortue est à côté de son arbre favori. \n The tortoise is next to its favorite tree.
case:complex(arbre,côté)
case(arbre,de)
det(arbre,son)
case(côté,à)
Contrairement à toi et à ton frère , Patrick a fait des efforts pour être plus poli. \n Contrary to you and your brother, Patrick made some efforts to be more polite.
case:complex(toi,Contrairement)
case(toi-3,à-2)
case(frère-7,à-5)
conj:coord(toi,frère)

edit case:complex

cc: coordinating conjunction

A coordinating conjunction relation holds between the head conjunct of a coordinate structure and any of the coordinating conjunction involved in the structure. This also includes the first element in paired conjunctions like ni … ni “nor … nor”. Note that we never treat punctuation as coordinating conjunctions. For more on coordination, see the French conj relation as well as the universal dependency page (u-dep/conj).

1500 euros par an et par enfant \n 1500 euros per child and per year
cc(enfant, et)
conj(an, enfant)
Et ce n'est pas la peine d'insister \n And it is not worth insisting
cc(peine, Et)

FrenchSpoken also uses the cc relation. However the standard conj relation is not used anymore and has been replaced by a few subrelations (see conj for more details).

et j'ai vraiment mal vécu ça \n and I really didn't live this well
cc(vécu, et)
nous avons attendu sept ou huit heures dans la gare \n we waited for seven or eight hours at the station
conj:coord(sept, huit)
cc(huit, ou)

In the following example, c’est-à-dire is the coordinating conjunction in a conj:appos relation :

La fille du cousin du père de Zoé, c'est-à-dire la cousine de Zoé, est astronaute. \n The daughter of Zoe's dad's cousin, in other words Zoe's cousin, is an astronaut.
conj:appos(fille,cousine)
cc(cousine,c'est-à-dire)

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause (which is a core argument) where the subject is not determined by obligatory control, either because the clause has its own overt subject or because the subject is arbitrary or determined anaphorically. This contrasts with the xcomp relation, which is used for clausal complements with obligatory control.

Il dit que tu aimes nager \n He says that you like to swim
ccomp(dit, aimes)
Je suis certain qu'il l'a fait \n I am certain that he did it 
ccomp(certain, fait) 

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken with a ccomp:

on ne peut pas exclure qu' il y ait quelque chose de grave \n it cannot be ruled out that there is something serious
ccomp(exclure, ait) 
mark(ait, qu')

N.B.: FrenchSpoken uses the ccomp:cleft relation to annotate some cases of cleft sentences.

edit ccomp

ccomp:cleft: clefted clausal complement

FrenchSpoken uses the ccomp:cleft relation in cleft sentences when the clefted element is not a nominal subject or object . Else the appropriate relation is acl:cleft.

Juliette n'est pas ma confidente. C' est à Camille que je raconte tout. \n Juliette isn't my confidante. I tell everything to Camille.
ccomp:cleft(Camille,raconte)
nsubj:expl(Camille,C')
Il y a longtemps que j' habite ici. \n I've lived here for a long time.
ccomp:cleft(longtemps, habite)
nsubj:expl(a,Il)
advmod(a,y)
obj(a,longtemps)
Nager avec les dauphins ne me fait pas rêver. C' est explorer la forêt tropicale qui m' intéresse. \n Swimming with the dolphins isn't my dream. It's exploring the rainforest that interests me.
ccomp:cleft(explorer, intéresse.)
nsubj:expl(explorer,C')

N.B.: Also see the specific-syntax page.

edit ccomp:cleft

compound: compound

The compound relation is one of three relations for multiword expressions (MWEs) (the other two being fixed and flat). It is used for noun compounds like the following:

ambiance chalet \n
compound(ambiance, chalet)
début décembre  \n beginning (of) December
compound(début, décembre)

Here are some examples from FrenchSpoken:

alors vote sanction ou pas \n so sanction vote or not
compound(vote,sanction)
ce serveur américain est une sorte de club VIP réservé à la jet set \n this american server is a kind of VIP club only for the jet set
compound(jet,set)
elle voit le garçon pâtissier \n she can see the young pastry chef
compound(garçon,pâtissier)

N.B.: noun compounds must not be confused with apposed nominal modifiers, which are annotated with the nmod:appos relation.

edit compound

conj: conjunct

The conjunct relation holds between coordinated elements. We treat coordination asymmetrically: The head of the relation is the first conjunct and other conjuncts depend on it via the conj relation.

1500 euros par an et par enfant \n 1500 euros per child and per year
conj(an, enfant)
Une seconde d' hésitation , d' inattention ou de retard  \n A second of hesitation, carelessness or delay
conj(hésitation, inattention)
conj(hésitation, retard)

FrenchSpoken does not use the simple conj relation. Three different subrelations are used instead: conj:appos, conj:coord and conj:dicto.

edit conj

conj:appos: apposed conjunct

FrenchSpoken uses the conj:appos relation instead of appos for appositions which respect the prosody of lists. The elements in a conj:appos are not bound to a particular sequence, they can be rearranged in a different order. The elements of a conj:appos are in the same paradigm (i.e they fulfill the same role in relation to their governor). This choice of relation is meant to emphasize the similarity between some appositions and ordinary coordination. Contrary to the conjuncts of a conj:coord relation, the conjuncts of a conj:appos relation have the same referent.

Sa cousine , une grande psychiatre , habite à Charleville-Mézière. \n His cousin, a great psychiatrist, live in Charleville-Mézière.
conj:appos(cousine,psychiatre)
nsubj(habite,cousine)
Bruno , mon oncle , est un grand fan de rugby \n Bruno, my uncle, is a big fan of rugby
conj:appos(Bruno, oncle)

Not all appositions respect these critierias, for appositions which modify nominal elements but without showing these similarities to coordinations we use the nmod:appos relation instead.

edit conj:appos

conj:coord: coordinated conjunct

The conj:coord relation is used between conjuncts that are coordinated. Coordinating conjunctions such as et (and) or ou (or) may connect the conjuncts, but they are not necessary. Conjunctions are treated asymetrically with the first conjunct as the head, and all the other conjuncts as dependants of this element. Contrary to the conjuncts of a conj:appos relation, the conjuncts of a conj:coord relation do not have the same referent.

Pierre et Patrick aiment rouler en moto. \n Pierre and Patrick like driving a motorcycle.
conj:coord(Pierre,Patrick)
nsubj(aiment,Pierre)
cc(Patrick,et)
J'ai acheté des tomates , des courgettes et des aubergines pour faire une ratatouille. \n I bought tomatoes, zucchinis and eggplants to cook a ratatouille.
obj(acheté,tomates)
conj:coord(tomates,courgettes)
conj:coord(tomates,aubergines)
cc(aubergines,et)
Ni sa mère , ni son père ont répondu à ses appels. \n Neither his mother nor his dad answered his phonecalls.
cc(mère,Ni)
conj:coord(mère,père)
cc(père,ni)
nsubj(répondu,mère)

edit conj:coord

conj:dicto: spoken overridden disfluency

FrenchSpoken uses the conj:dicto relation instead of reparandum to indicate disfluencies overridden in a speech repair. This combines two cases of paradigmatic relations that are distinguished in the Rhapsodie corpus: Disfluency and reformulation. Contrary to reparandum, in the conj:dicto relation, the disfluency is the head and the “repair” is the dependent. Using conj:dicto instead of reparandum enables us to better reflect how the utterance was produced by a speaker since we stay closer to the order in which the words were uttered. Moreover, it is often difficult to distinguish reformulation and disfluency and they behave similarly to other paradigmatic relations such as coordination as has been shown in Gerdes, Kim, and Sylvain Kahane. “Speaking in piles: Paradigmatic annotation of french spoken corpus.” Proceedings of the Fifth Corpus Linguistics Conference, Liverpool. 2009.

Je vais au chez le coiffeur. \n I'm going at to the hairdresser.
conj:dicto(au,chez)
case(coiffeur.,au)

Example from FrenchSpoken:

c'est des choses dont vous parlez dans en classe euh \n These are things we talk about in in class.
conj:dicto(dans, en)
case(classe, dans)

N.B.: with reparandum, “en” would have been the dependent of “classe”, instead of “dans”

c'est des choses dont vous parlez dans en classe euh \n
reparandum(en, dans)
case(classe, en)

edit conj:dicto

cop: copula

A copula is the relation between the complement of a copular verb and the copular verb. Copular heads are avoided when possible. For more on the cop relation, see the universal dependency description (u-dep/cop)

Bill est un homme honnête \n Bill is an honest man
cop(homme, est)
nsubj(homme, Bill)
amod(homme, honnête)
det(homme, un)

The cop relation can be found in FrenchSpoken:

c' est une jeune fille pauvre \n it's a poor girl
cop(fille,est)
nsubj(fille,c')

In some corpora of the current French treebank, the following verbs are treated as copular ones: être, devenir, rester, demeurer, as well as in some constructions appeler, intituler, nommer, réputer, élir However note that not all corpora of the French treebank treat the same verbs as copulas. For example, FrenchSpoken annotates devenir like a regular verb.

il devient le sherpa du président \n he becomes the president's sherpa
nsubj(devient,il)
obj(devient,sherpa)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb.

Qu'il vienne m' embête . \n His coming bothers me.
csubj(embête, vienne)

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken :

créer des choses qui durent m'a paru être essentiel \n creating things that last seemed essential to me 
csubj(paru, créer)

edit csubj

csubj:pass: clausal passive subject

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause. It is not a very common construction in French. In the example below, qu’il avait triché is the clausal subject.

Qu'il avait triché était cru par tout le monde . \n That he cheated was believed by everyone .
csubj:pass(cru, triché)

Currently FrenchSpoken does not use the csubj:pass relation.

edit csubj:pass

csubj:quasi: quasi clausal subject

FrenchSpoken does not use the usual expl relation. There is instead a subrelation used only for impersonal construction: nsubj:expl. To annotate the other dependent of the predicate (i.e. not the dependent annotated with the nsubj:expl relation) we use the csubj:quasi relation, when this other dependent is a clause. When the other dependent is a nominal, we use the nsubj:quasi relation.

Il faut que Pierre parte rapidement. \n Pierre must leave quickly.
nsubj:expl(faut,Il)
csubj:quasi(faut,parte)
mark(parte,que)
Il est impossible de voir le sommet de la montagne. \n It is impossible to see the top of the mountain.
nsubj:expl(impossible,Il)
cop(impossible,est)
csubj:quasi(impossible,voir)
mark(voir,de)

edit csubj:quasi

dep: unspecified dependency

A dependency is labeled as dep when a more precise dependency relation between two words cannot be determined. This may be because of a weird grammatical construction, a limitation in software, a parser error, or because of an unresolved long distance dependency.

edit dep

det: determiner

A determiner is the relation between the head of a nominal phrase and its determiner.

Les fleurs sont magnifiques \n The flowers are beautiful
det(fleurs, Les)
Quel livre préfères-tu ? \n Which book do you prefer ?
det(livre, Quel)

The det relation is also used by FrenchSpoken:

donc la vigilance sera accrue à ce moment -là \n so there will be increased vigilance at that time
det(vigilance,la)
det(moment,ce)

In some corpora of the French treebank, possessive determiners are marked with the nmod:poss relation:

Mon ami  \n My friend
nmod:poss(ami, Mon)

However FrenchSpoken annotates possessive determiners with a det relation and does not use the nmod:poss relation.

nous allons vous prouver l' efficacité de notre boule magique \n we will show you the efficiency of our magic ball
det(boule,notre)
det(efficacité,l')

N.B.: The det:complex relation is used to analyze complex determiners.

edit det

det:complex: complex determiner

The det:complex relation is used to annotate complex determiners. Some corpora of the French treebank analyze them with a fixed relation but FrenchSpoken does not: complex determiners are considered as regular constructions and as such, they are syntactically analyzed. Like complex prepositions (see the case:complex relation), complex determiners can be coordinated: Il y a trop de beurre et de sucre dans ce gâteau.

Here are come examples of complex determiners that follow the pattern “Adv+de+N” like trop de chocolat, beaucoup de fraises, énormément d’étoiles etc.

Pierre a mangé trop de chocolat . \n Pierre ate too much chocolate.
det:complex(chocolat,trop)
case(chocolat,de)
Je pense que tu as mis assez de peinture sur ce mur. \n I think you put enough paint on this wall.
det:complex(peinture,assez)
case(peinture,de)

Other types of complex determiner are anotated with the det:complex relation:

Julien a acheté un tas de vêtements pendant les soldes. \n Julien bought a lot of clothing during the sales.
det:complex(vêtements,tas)
det(tas,un)
case(vêtements,de)
Hier soir, plein de gens étaient présents au concert d'hier soir. \n Many people attended the concert yesterday night.
det:complex(gens,plein)
case(gens,de)
La plupart des bactéries ont été tuées par cet antibiotique. \n Most of the bacteria were killed by this antibiotic.
det:complex(bactéries,plupart)
det(plupart,La)
case(bactéries,des)

edit det:complex

discourse: discourse element

This is used for interjections and other discourse particles and elements, which are not clearly linked to the structure of the sentence except in an expressive way.

Waouh , c' était fun :) \n Wow , that was fun :)
discourse(fun, :)-6)
discourse(fun, Waouh)
Bref , une occasion à ne pas laisser passer \n In short, an opportunity that should not be passed on
discourse(occasion, Bref)

FrenchSpoken also uses the discourse relation. Here are some examples:

je traverse euh face à la euh MDE \n I cross the road uh in front of the uh MDE
discourse(traverse-2,euh-3)
discourse(la-6,euh-7)
bah ça parait normal \n well it looks ok
discourse(parait,bah)

N.B.: FrenchSpoken uses the parataxis:discourse relation for sentential discourse markers.

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

The dislocated relation is used for fronted or postposed elements that do not fulfill the usual core grammatical relations of a sentence. Dislocated elements are attached to the same governor as the dependent that they double for.

This construction is quite frequent in spoken French.

Pierre je ne l' aime pas beaucoup  \n Peter I don't like him much
dislocated(aime, Pierre)
dobj(aime, l')

Here are some examples from FrenchSpoken:

lui il avait passé les quatres nuits ou trois nuits à ramper dans les décombres \n He had spent the four nights or three nights crawling in the rubble 
dislocated(passé, lui)
nsubj(passé, il)
c' est déjà arrivé ça \n  it's already happened
dislocated(arrivé, ça)
nsubj(arrivé, c')
ces rails du tram eh ben je vais les longer \n these tram rails well I'm gonna walk along them
dislocated(longer, rails)
obj(longer, les)

edit dislocated

dislocated:cleft: clefted dislocated element

FrenchSpoken uses the dislocated:cleft relation in pseudo-cleft structures to link the clefted element to the left part of the pseudo-cleft construction.

Ce que Thérèse aime par-dessus tout, c' est la randonnée. \n What Thérèse likes more than anything is hiking.
dislocated:cleft(randonnée.,Ce)
acl:relcl(Ce,aime)
Ce qui m' embête , c'est que tu ne m'as pas appelée. \n What bothers me is that you didn't call.
dislocated:cleft(appelée.,Ce)
acl:relcl(Ce,embête)

N.B.: For more informations on pseudo-cleft sentences see the specific-syntax page.

edit dislocated:cleft

expl: expletive

Note that currenlty expletives are not annotated consistently in the French treebank.

FrenchSpoken does not use the explrelation. The current definition sates that the explrelation should be used for “nominals that appear in an argument position of a predicate but which do not themselves satisfy any of the semantic roles of the predicate” (see the universal dependency page u-dep/expl). This definition seems to give more value to the semantic relations than to the syntactic relations. That is why FrenchSpoken only uses expl as a subrelation for impersonal constructions. All other arguments (whether they satisfy a semantic role of the predicate or not) will be annotated with the usual syntactic dependency relations (nsubj, obj etc.). For further information see this discussion.

FrenchSpoken thus uses the nsubj:expl relation for impersonal constructions such as:

il est arrivé un malheur \n something bad happened
nsubj:expl(arrivé, il)
nsubj:quasi(arrivé, malheur)

N.B.: there are also two other types of subrelation nsubj:quasi and csubj:quasi. These subrelations are both used for the other dependent of the predicate that has a nsubj:expl.

For pronominal verbs, the usual relations for core arguments are used.

se douter \n to suspect
obj(douter, se)
il se souvient \n he remembers
obj(souvient, se)

N.B.: Here the pronoun is not an expletive but a part of a fixed verbal expression that is syntactically regular.

In a-t-elle bien dormi ?, we consider the euphony marker t in a-t-elle as part as of the pronoun elle. This gives us an allomorphic form -t-elle of the pronoun elle. Due to the tokenizing choices we made (see the tokenization page), a-t-elle is split in five tokens: a, -, t, - and elle. The first hyphen is the head (i.e. it receives the link nsubj) and the other tokens are linked with a goeswith:

a - t - elle bien dormi ? \n did she sleep well?
nsubj(a,-)
goeswith(-,t)
goeswith(--2,--4)
goeswith(-,elle)

N.B.: This segmentating and tokenizing choice is arbitrary and other French treebanks could choose to do otherwise (for example they could consider a-t- or -t-elle as a token, or annotate the -t- with expl).

In some corpora of the French treebank, doubled subjects in interrogativ sentences are annotated with expl :

Marie est -elle là ? \n Is Marie here?
nsubj(est, Marie)
expl(est, -elle)

FrenchSpoken annotates the two subjects with nsubj (and follows these tokenizing rules):

Marie est - elle là ? \n Is Marie here?
nsubj(est, Marie)
goeswith(-,elle)
nsubj(est, -)

edit expl

fixed: fixed

The fixed relation is one of the three relations for multiword expressions (MWEs) (the other two being flat and compound). It is used for certain fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials. Fixed MWEs are annotated in a flat structure, where all subsequent words in the expression are attached to the first one using the fixed label.

Marie était malade mais elle est quand même venue . \n Marie was sick but she came anyway. 
fixed(quand, même)
advmod(venue, quand)
Je suis sûre d'avoir vu Paul à Paris alors qu' il est censé être à Dubai ! \n I'm sure I've seen Paul in Paris but he's supposed to be in Dubai!
fixed(alors,qu')
mark(censé,alors)

Instead of using the fixed relation, FrenchSpoken syntactically analyzes as many expressions as possible (i.e. the fixed relation is only used for syntactically irregular constructions). For instance, il y a corresponds to two frozen expressions: a particular marker of clefting (il y a trois libres sur la table) and an adposition (Paul est arrivé il y a trois jours). The first is syntactically regular and is analyzed with regular relations. The second is syntactically deviant and is analyzed with fixed:

Il y a trois livres sur la table. \n There are three books on the table.
nsubj:expl(a, Il)
advmod(a, y)
Paul est arrivé il y a trois jours . \n Paul arrived three days ago.
fixed(il, y)
fixed(il, a)
case(jours, il)

Complex determiners and complex prepositions, which are currently often analyzed with a fixed relation in some corpora of the French treebank, are respectively analyzed with the det:complex and case:complex relations by FrenchSpoken.

edit fixed

flat: name

The flat relation is one of the three relations for MWE in UD (together with compound and fixed). It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements. For example, flat would be used between the words of Hillary Rodham Clinton, New York, or Carl XVI Gustaf but not to replace the usual relations in a phrasal or clausal name like The king of Belgium or the novels The Lord of the Rings and Captured By Aliens.

Words joined by flat should all be part of a minimal noun phrase; otherwise regular syntactic relations should be used. This is basically similar to the treatment of noun compounds with compound, except that in many cases parts of the name may be another nominal element such as an adjective (United Airlines).

In general, names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the head using the flat label.

Cervélo Test Team
name(Team, Cervélo)
name(Team, Test)

For names with a clear syntactic modification structure, the dependencies should instead reflect the syntactic modification structure using regular syntactic relations, as in:

<< La Belle et la Bête >> \n The Beauty and the Beast
conj(Belle, Bête)
cc(Belle, et)
det(Belle, La)
det(Bête, la)

FrenchSpoken uses nmod:appos instead of flat.

edit flat

goeswith: goes with

This relation links two parts of a word that are separated in text that is not well edited, or due to tokenization errors. The head is in some sense the main part.

This relation is rarely used in the French treebank.

Ils sont partis aujourd' hui  \n They left today
goeswith(aujourd', hui)

For some constructions using hyphens, FrenchSpoken uses the goeswith relation:

A - t - il mangé la dernière part de gâteau ? \n Did he eat the last slice of cake?
goeswith(--2,t)
goeswith(--2,--4)
goeswith(--2,il-5)

For more details see the tokenization page.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

An indirect object is a nominal which corresponds to a dative object.

Il m' envoie une lettre . \n He sends me a letter .
iobj(envoie, m')

The iobjrelation is also used for pronouns in prononimal verbs which are indirect objects:

Il se parle tout haut. \n He speaks to himself out loud .
iobj(parle, se)

FrenchSpoken also uses the iobj relation for a nominal which corresponds to a dative objects i.e. a nominal that is a core argument of the verb but is not its subject or (direct) object.

Nous vous conseillons ce charmant petit restaurant. \n We recommend you this lovely restaurant.
iobj(conseillons, vous)

In some corpora of the French treebank, when the indirect object is realized with a preposition, it gets analyzed with the obl relation:

Il envoie la lettre à la présidente . \n He sends the letter to the president .
obl(envoie, présidente)
case(présidente, à)

However FrenchSpoken does not and uses an obl:comp relation instead:

Il envoie la lettre à la présidente . \n He sends the letter to the president .
obl:comp(envoie, présidente)
case(présidente, à)

edit iobj

iobj:agent: agentive indirect object

In a causative construction, the iobj:agent relation attaches the infinitive verb to his agent, when the latter is the syntactical indirect object of the sentence (this initial agent has been demoted and became an indirect object in the causative construction). For example, in the following sentences, the use of the pronouns leur and lui shows that these pronouns are indirect objects (see the page on the iobj relation).

Marie leur fait manger des épinards pour la première fois. \n Marie made them eat spinach for the first time.
aux:caus(manger,fait)
nsubj:caus(manger,Marie)
iobj:agent(manger,leur)
Ils lui ont fait vivre les pires vacances de sa vie. \n They made her spend the worst holidays she had ever had.
aux:caus(vivre,fait)
nsubj:caus(vivre,Ils)
iobj:agent(vivre,lui)

The infinitive verb governs the syntactical subject of the sentence (i.e. the causer) with a nsubj:caus relation and the causative verb with an aux:caus relation.

N.B.: For more details about the analysis of causatives see this page.

edit iobj:agent

list: list

The list relation is used for chains of comparable items. It is not currently attested in the French treebank.

Web text often contains passages which are meant to be interpreted as lists but are parsed as single sentences. Email signatures in particular contain these structures, in the form of contact information: the different contact information items are labeled as list; the key-value pair relations are labeled as appos.

In lists with more than two items, all items of the list shoud modify the first one.

Steve Jones GSM: 555-9814 Email: jones@abc.edf
name(Steve-1, Jones-2)
list(Steve-1, GSM:-3)
list(Steve-1, Email:-5)
appos(GSM:-3, 555-9814-4)
appos(Email:-5, jones@abc.edf-6)

The list relation is not used in FrenchSpoken.

edit list

mark: marker

A marker is the word introducing a clause subordinate to another clause. The marker is a dependent of the subordinate clause head.

Il dit que tu aimes nager \n He says that you like to swim
mark(aimes, que)
S' il pleut , on sera mouillé \n If it rains, we will get wet
mark(pleut, S')

Prepositions introducing infinitives are also analyzed as mark.

Il faut arriver tôt pour avoir de la place \n One needs to get there early to have a seat
mark(avoir, pour)

Here are some examples from FrenchSpoken:

il faudra que les parents l' acceptent \n the parents will have to accept it
mark(acceptent,que)
on n' arrive plus à maintenir des clientèles \n we can't manage to keep the customers anymore
mark(maintenir,à)

Note that in the phrase dès que, que is considered as a marker by FrenchSpoken (and not analyzed with fixed as it may be done in other corpora of the French treebank). dès is thus analyzed as a preposition, dependent of the finite verb of the clause. The fact that the clause following the dès can commute with a simple nominal phrase justifies this analysis. For instance, in the following example, que son mari est arrivé (in dès que son mari est arrivé) can commute with son arrivée (dès son arrivée).

Muriel a quitté la pièce dès que son mari est arrivé . \n Muriel left the room as soon as her husband arrived.
mark(arrivé,que)
case(arrivé,dès)

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

The multi-word expression (modifier) relation is one of the three relations (compound, fixed, flat) for compounding. It is used for certain fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials.

de toutes façons \n in any case
mwe(façons, de)
mwe(toutes, façons)
ainsi que \n 
mwe(que, ainsi)
avant de \n 
mwe(de, avant)

edit mwe

neg: negation modifier

The negation modifier is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies. Both elements of double negation are marked as neg. Note that in colloquial French, the first element of the double negation is often not present.

L'homme parfait n' existe pas \n The perfect man does not exist
neg(existe, pas)
neg(existe, n')
On ne le lâchera plus \n We will not let it go anymore
neg(lâchera, plus)
neg(lâchera, ne)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers of nouns or noun phrases.

Le résultat de la course \n The result of the race
nmod(résultat, course)
case(course, de)
Maman prend bien soin de ses enfants \n Mother takes good care of her children
nmod(soin, enfants)
case(enfants, de)

Here are some examples from FrenchSpoken:

il est à l' opéra de Vienne \n he is at the opera of Vienna
nmod(opéra,Vienne)
case(Vienne,de)
c'est un virus qui a fait le tour du monde \n it's a virus which went around the world
nmod(tour,monde)
case(monde,du)

N.B.: Apart from the usual nmod relation, FrenchSpoken also uses the nmod:appos relation for nominal modifiers which are not introduced by a preposition.

edit nmod

nmod:appos: nominal modifier apposition

In FrenchSpoken the nmod:appos relation is used for appositions which modify nominal elements. The nominal modifier is not introduced by a preposition (else we use the nmod relation). Contrary to the conj:appos relation, the nmod:appos relation doesn’t respect the prosody of lists.

Here are a few examples :

Le journal Libération a refusé de dévoiler ses sources concernant le dossier Fillon . \n The newspaper Liberation refused to reveal its sources in the fillon case.
nmod:appos(journal, Libération)
nmod:appos(dossier, Fillon)
l' affaire Dreyfus
nmod:appos(affaire, Dreyfus)
la société Hebrard
nmod:appos(société, Hebrard)
la région Auvergne
nmod:appos(région, Auvergne)
La rue Faidherbe et la place Voltaire sont situées dans le même quartier. \n Faidherbe street and place Voltaire are located in the same neigbourhood.
nmod:appos(rue, Faidherbe)
nmod:appos(place, Voltaire)
Monsieur Dupont habitait près de la ligne Maginot. \n Mister Dupont lived close to the Maginot Line. 
nmod:appos(Monsieur, Dupont)

N.B.: for phrases like “la ville de Paris” we use the nmod relation because of the preposition (which cannot be removed *la ville Paris)

la ville de Paris
nmod(ville, Paris)
case(Paris, de)

We use nmod:appos, instead of flat, for “le président Macron”, which follows in French the same pattern as other nmod:appos. The relation is also used between first and second name:

le président Macron
nmod:appos(président, Macron)
Emmanuel Macron
nmod:appos(Emmanuel, Macron)
l’ acteur Gaspard Ulliel
nmod:appos(acteur, Gaspard)
nmod:appos(Gaspard, Ulliel)
la rue Victor Hugo
nmod:appos(rue, Victor)
nmod:appos(Victor, Hugo)

edit nmod:appos

nmod:poss: possessive nominal modifier

The relation nmod:poss is used for a possessive nominal modifier expressed by a possessive determiner (mon, ton, son, ma, ta, sa, mes, tes, ses, notre, votre, leur, nos, vos, leurs).

Toute notre vie  \n All our life
nmod:poss(vie, notre)

edit nmod:poss

nsubj: nominal subject

The dependency type nsubj marks nominal subjects of a clause. Subjects are direct dependents of the main predicate of the clause, which may be a verb, noun or adjective.

Le plus jeune participant a gagné la course . \n The youngest participant won the race .
nsubj(gagné, participant)
Papa est malade . \n Dad is sick .
nsubj(malade, Papa)
Maman est une bonne cuisinière . \n Mom is a good cook .
nsubj(cuisinière, Maman)

Here are some examples from FrenchSpoken with the nsubj relation :

je peux pas vous dire \n I can't tell you
nsubj(peux, je)
on est plus confiant \n we are more confident
nsubj(confiant, on)
l' art est le reflet de la société \n art is the reflection of society
nsubj(reflet, art)

edit nsubj

nsubj:caus: causative nominal subject

In a causative construction, the nsubj:caus relation links the infinitive verb (i.e. the head of the sentence) to the syntactical subject of the sentence (i.e. the causer). The infinitive verb governs the causative verb with an aux:caus relation. The true agent of the action described by the sentence is annotated with an iobj:agent, an obj:agent or an obl:agent relation.

Ses filles lui ont fait acheter un chiot. \n His girls made him buy a puppy.
aux:caus(acheter,fait)
nsubj:caus(acheter,filles)
iobj:agent(acheter,lui)

N.B.: For more details about the analysis of causatives see this page.

edit nsubj:caus

nsubj:expl: expletive nominal subject

FrenchSpoken does not use the expl relation. Instead there is subrelation used only for impersonal constructions:

il est arrivé un malheur \n something bad happened
nsubj:expl(arrivé, il)
nsubj:quasi(arrivé, malheur)
il faudra acheter un porte-bonheur \n we will have to buy a lucky charm
nsubj:expl(faudra, il)
csubj:quasi(faudra, acheter)

N.B.: The nsubj:quasi relation is used for the other dependent of the predicate when it is a nominal and the csubj:quasi when it is a clause.

nsubj:expl also enables us to differenciate between cleft and presentative constructions, in the case where they both use c’est (or c’était, ce sont etc.):

In the following example, c’ has an obvious antecedent (Pierre) so the second sentence (C’est un ami qui habite ici.) is a presentative construction (and not a cleft sentence). In this case, we use the usual nsubj relation.

Je te présente Pierre. C' est un ami qui habite ici. \n This is Pierre. He is a friend who lives here.
nsubj(ami, C')
acl:relcl(ami, habite)

In the second example, c’ doesn’t have an obvious antecedent. The second sentence (C’est un ami qui habite ici) is a cleft sentence, that is why we use the nsubj:explrelation.

Je connais cette maison. C' est un ami qui habite ici. \n I know this house. It's a friend who lives there.
nsubj:expl(ami, C')
acl:cleft(ami, habite)

N.B.: Note that we use two different subrelations for relative clauses (acl:relcl) and for cleft sentences (acl:cleft). Also see the specific-syntax page.

edit nsubj:expl

nsubj:pass: passive nominal subject

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause.

La course a été gagnée par le plus jeune participant . \n The race got won by the youngest participant .
nsubj:pass(gagnée, participant)

Currently FrenchSpoken does not use the nsubj:pass relation.

edit nsubj:pass

nsubj:quasi: quasi nominal subject

FrenchSpoken does not use the usual expl relation. There is instead a subrelation used only for impersonal constructions: nsubj:expl. To annotate the other dependent of the predicate (i.e. not the dependent annotated with the nsubj:expl relation), the nsubj:quasi relation is used.

il est arrivé un malheur \n something bad happened
nsubj:expl(arrivé, il)
nsubj:quasi(arrivé, malheur)

When the other dependent of the impersonal construction’s predicate is a clause, the csubj:quasi relationis used.

edit nsubj:quasi

nummod: numeric modifier

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.

Sam mangea 3 bonbons \n Sam ate 3 candies
nummod(bonbons, 3)
Il perdit presque 13 pourcent  \n He lost almost 13 percent
nummod(pourcent, 13)

Dates are annotated as follows: if present the month is the head, the day and the year are nummod:

Elle est née le 12 décembre 2011  \n She was born on December 12 2011
nmod(née, décembre)
nummod(décembre, 12)
nmod(décembre, 2011)
det(12, le)

Here are some examples from FrenchSpoken:

et j'ai dit je gagne trois cents francs par mois /n and I said I earn three hundreds francs a month
nummod(francs,trois)
nummod(trois,cents)
je suis né à Alger en 1943 \n I was born in Algiers in 1943
nummod(né,1943)
case(1943,en)

edit nummod

obj: direct object

A direct object is a nominal which is the (accusative) object of the verbal predicate.

Il mange un sandwich . \n He eats a sandwich .
obj(mange, sandwich)

The obj relation is also used for a reflexive pronoun in pronominal verb when the pronoun is a direct object of the verb.

Il se lave . \n He washes himself .
obj(lave, se)

When the pronoun is a part of a fixed verbal expression that is syntactically regular, we can analyze it with obj:

se douter \n to suspect
obj(douter, se)
se souvenir \n to remember
obj(souvenir, se)

FrenchSpoken also uses the obj relation :

on voit une jeune fille habillée en noir \n we see a young girl dressed in black
obj(voit, fille)

edit obj

obj:agent: agentive object

In a causative construction, the obj:agent relation attaches the infinitive verb to his agent, when the latter is the syntactical object of the sentence (this initial agent has been demoted and became the object of the causative contruction). For example, in the following sentence, “ses petits” is the tue agent of the verb “sauter” (Ses petits ont sauté dans la mare). This nominal phrase can be pronominalized as follows: La cane les a fait sauter dans la mare. The use of the pronoun les clearly shows that “ses petits” is the syntactical object of the sentence.

La cane a fait sauter ses petits dans la mare. \n The duck made its ducklings jump into the pond.
aux:caus(sauter,fait)
nsubj:caus(sauter,cane)
obj:agent(sauter,petits)
Mon père a une femme de ménage. Il la fait venir le mercredi. \n My father has a cleaning lady. He makes her come on wednesdays.
aux:caus(venir,fait)
nsubj:caus(venir,Il)
obj:agent(venir,la)

The infinitive verb governs the syntactical subject of the sentence (i.e. the causer) with a nsubj:caus relation and the causative verb with an aux:caus relation.

N.B.: For more details about the analysis of causatives see this page.

edit obj:agent

obl: oblique nominal

In UDv2, the obl relation is used for a nominal dependent of a verb. However, this dependent is neither a subject (for which we use the nsubj relation) nor a direct object (for which we use the obj relation).

Sara donne une fleur à Tom . \n Sara gives a flower to Tom.
obl(donne, Tom)
case(Tom, à)

FrenchSpoken uses the obl:mod relation when the dependent is a modifier of the verb and the obl:comp relation when the dependent is a core argument of the verb. The obl:periph relation is used to annotate some of the non-core nominal dependents of the verb.

Here are a few examples :

Habituellement, Pierre mange une pomme à dix heures piles. \n Usually, Pierre eats an apple at ten o'clock.
obl:mod(mange, heures)
case(heures, à)
Max habite à Paris . \n Max lives in Paris.
obl:comp(habite, Paris)
case(Paris, à)
Selon ma voisine , le gardien vole parfois des colis. \n According to my neighbour, the caretaker sometimes steals packages.
obl:periph(vole, voisine)
case(voisine, Selon)

edit obl

obl:agent: agentive oblique

In a causative construction, the obl:agent relation attaches the infinitive verb to his agent, when the latter is the syntactical oblique of the sentence (this initial agent has been demoted and became the oblique complement of the causative construction). I.e a complement introduced by a preposition (see the page about the obl relation).

Patrick a fait boire du thé à Micheline alors qu'elle déteste ça. \n Patrick made Micheline drink tee, even though she hates tee.
aux:caus(boire,fait)
nsubj:caus(boire,Patrick)
obl:agent(boire,Micheline)
Monique a fait toiletter son bichon par le meilleur toiletteur de la région. \n Monique made her Bichon Frise groomed by the best groomer in the area.
aux:caus(toiletter,fait)
nsubj:caus(toiletter,Monique)
obl:agent(toiletter,toiletteur)

The infinitive verb governs the syntactical subject of the sentence (i.e. the causer) with a nsubj:caus relation and the causative verb with an aux:caus relation.

N.B.: For more details about the analysis of causatives see this page.

edit obl:agent

obl:comp: oblique complement

FrenchSpoken uses the obl:comp relation for core dependents of a verb (or an adjective), which are introduced by a preposition.

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken :

vous sortez euh de la euh commune de Pontamafrey \n you go out uh of the uh municipality of Pontamafrey
obl:comp(sortez, commune)
case(commune, de)

For prepositional phrases which are not required by the verb (or the adjective) but modify the verb (or the adjective), the obl:mod relation is used. For non-core nominal dependents of a verb not governed by their head, the obl:periph relation is used.

edit obl:comp

obl:mod: oblique modifier

FrenchSpoken uses the obl:mod relation for nominal adjuncts. They can be (but are not always) introduced by a preposition.

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken :

oui oui je prends le métro le matin à huit heures et demie \n yes i take the underground in the morning at eight thirty
obl:mod(prends, heures)
obl:mod (prends, matin)

For prepositional phrases which are required by the verb (or the adjective), we use the obl:comp relation. For non-core nominal dependents of a verb, we can also use the obl:periph relation.

edit obl:mod

obl:periph: peripheral oblique nominal

FrenchSpoken uses the obl:periph relation for nominals which are not required by the verb. The specificity of an obl:periph, compared to an obl:mod, is that the obl:periph nominal cannot be clefted. In addition, the obl:periph nominal cannot be moved inside the core of the sentence, unless it is put in parenthesis.

A mon avis , Pierre devrait rester là. \n In my opinion, Pierre should stay there.
obl:periph(devrait, avis)

Example from FrenchSpoken :

pour l' Indépendant du midi c'est la gifle \n
obl:periph(gifle, Indépendant)

Two other subrelations of obl are used: obl:comp for prepositional core dependents and obl:mod for nominal adjuncts (introduced by a preposition or not) that can be clefted.

edit obl:periph

orphan: remnant in ellipsis

The orphan relation is used to analyze cases of ellipsis where there is no function word that can be promoted to take the place of the elided content word. For a full discussion of its use, see the universal dependency description (u-dep/orphan).

Currently this construction is not correctly annotated in the French treebank.

Marie a été à Paris et Miriam à Prague \n Marie went to Paris and Miriam to Prague
nsubj(été-3, Marie-1)
nmod(été-3, Paris-5)
case(Paris-5, à-4)
cc(été-3, et-6)
orphan(Marie-1, Miriam-7)
case(Prague-9, à-8)
orphan(Paris-5, Prague-9)

Currently the orphan relation is not used in FrenchSpoken.

edit orphan

parataxis: parataxis

The parataxis relation (from Greek for “place side by side”) is a relation between the main verb of a clause and other sentential elements, such as a sentential parenthetical, a clause after a “:” or a “;”, or two sentences placed side by side without any explicit coordination or subordination. More information can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/parataxis)

Les enfants jouent tout le temps, jouer est leur travail \n Children play all the time , play is their work  
parataxis(jouent, travail)
Les enfants ont le droit d'avoir du temps libre ( voir ci-dessous ) \n Children have a right to free time ( see below )
parataxis(ont, voir)
C'est l' idée : les enfants sont le futur \n That is the thought : children are the future
parataxis(idée, futur)

FrenchSpoken does not use the simple parataxis relation. There are instead six different subrelations: parataxis:discourse, parataxis:dislocated, parataxis:insert, parataxis:obj, parataxis:parenth and parataxis:conj.

edit parataxis

parataxis:conj: parataxis conjunct

The parataxis:conj relation is used to link two juxtaposed illocutary units.

Marie est restée chez elle : elle était malade toute la soirée. \n Marie stayed at home: she was thick all night.
parataxis:conj(restée,malade)

N.B.: The two clauses linked by the parataxis:conj relation could be considered as two independent illocutary units (i.e. two independent syntax dependency trees). In that case, the parataxis:conj link becomes useless and the two illocutary units are annotated seperately. Note also that the parataxis:conj relation is used to annotate written corpora (i.e. it is not used to annotate oral corpora).

There are five more subrelations that FrenchSpoken uses: parataxis:discourse, parataxis:dislocated, parataxis:insert, parataxis:obj and parataxis:parenth.

edit parataxis:conj

parataxis:discourse: parataxis discourse

The parataxis:discourse relation is used for associated illocutary units. Contrary to parentheticals (for which the parataxis:parenth relation is used), the associated units do not allow for expansions. Additionally those clauses mostly have first or second person subjects (or on). For instance je pense, tu vois, tu penses pas ?, on dirait etc. For other discourse elements such as interjections we use the standard discourse relation.

Il aurait fallu tourner à droite, tu penses pas ? \n We should have turned left, don't you think?
parataxis:discourse(fallu, penses)

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken:

autrefois oui oui c'était pas le cas euh je veux dire euh \n in the past yes yes it wasn't the case uh I mean uh
parataxis:discourse(cas, veux)

There are five more subrelations that FrenchSpoken uses: parataxis:dislocated, parataxis:insert, parataxis:obj, parataxis:parenth and parataxis:conj.

edit parataxis:discourse

parataxis:dislocated: parataxis dislocated

The parataxis:dislocated relation is used for pre-nucleus clauses that function like dislocations. They cannot be considered as illocutary units since they are not autonomous.

For instance, in the following example, j’ai le copain de ma copine could not be an autonomous sentence. Furthermore it commutes with the nominal phrase le copain de ma copine and works like a dislocation, that is why the parataxis:dislocated relation is appropriate.

j' ai le copain de ma copine il a un petit bateau dans le port de Toulon \n this boyfriend of my friend, he's got a little boat in the port of Toulon
parataxis:dislocated(a,ai)

N.B.: Since pre-nucleus clause functions like a dislocation, it could be annotated with a simple dislocated link.

There are five more subrelations that FrenchSpoken uses: parataxis:discourse, parataxis:insert, [parataxis:obj], parataxis:parenth and parataxis:conj.

edit parataxis:dislocated

parataxis:insert: parataxis insert

The parataxis:insert relation is used for parenthetical clauses which could not be considered as independent sentences, since they are not saturated. In French such clauses can usually be found in formal writings (news, tales etc.). They are also typically caracterized by an inversion of the subject.

N.B.: When the parenthetical clause is saturated, the parataxis:parenth relation is more appropriate.

Demain, déclara gravement Mathilde, il faudra partir dès l'aube. \n Tommorow, Mathilde declared gravely, we must leave at dawn.
parataxis:insert(faudra, déclara)

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken:

vraiment dit Job la vie de l'homme sur Terre est une corvée \n truely, said Job, man's life on earth is nothing more than pressed service
parataxis:insert(corvée, dit)

There are five more subrelations that FrenchSpoken uses: parataxis:discourse, parataxis:dislocated, parataxis:obj, parataxis:parenth and parataxis:conj.

edit parataxis:insert

parataxis:obj: parataxis object

The parataxis:obj relation is used for direct speech when it is governed by a verb.

Ma mère m'a dit tu dois ranger ta chambre. \n My mother told me you have to clean your room.
parataxis:obj(dit, dois)

In the previous example, we can see that Ma mère m’a dit cannot constitute a core sentence without the phrase tu dois ranger ta chambre. This clearly shows that tu dois ranger ta chambre is an object of dit, that is why the parataxis:obj relation is used.

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken:

on m'a dit tu as l'antenne un mois \n they told me you have the antenna for one month
parataxis:obj(dit, as)

There are five more subrelations that FrenchSpoken uses: parataxis:discourse, parataxis:dislocated, parataxis:insert, parataxis:parenth and parataxis:conj.

edit parataxis:obj

parataxis:parenth: parataxis parenthesical

The parataxis:parenth relation is used for parenthetical clauses. They could constitute autonomous sentences but they are inserted within another illocutary unit.

Les enfants ont le droit d'avoir du temps libre ( voir ci-dessous ) \n Children have a right to free time ( see below )
parataxis:parenth(ont, voir)

Here is an example from FrenchSpoken:

alors que heinze c'est quand même assez extraordinaire hein c'est le patron de la défense \n wheras Heinze it's quite extraordinary he's the boss of defense
parataxis:parenth(patron, extraordinaire)

There are five more subrelations that FrenchSpoken uses: parataxis:discourse, parataxis:dislocated, parataxis:insert, parataxis:obj and parataxis:conj.

edit parataxis:parenth

punct: punctuation

This is used for any piece of punctuation in a clause, regardless of its function. The punctuation mark is attached to the head of the phrase or clause to which it belongs unless this introduces a non-projective dependency. More discussion on punctuation can be found on the universal dependency page (u-dep/punct).

Tous les bénéfices sont hors-taxe ! \n All profits are tax-free !
punct(hors-taxe, !)
S' il pleut , on sera mouillé . \n If it rains , we will get wet .
punct(pleut, ,)
punct(mouillé, .)

Since the FrenchSpoken corpus is an oral corpus, there are no punctuation signs (apart from hyphens in certain words or constructions).

N.B.: In FrenchSpoken some constructions containing hyphens are annotated with the goeswith relation. See the tokenization page.

edit punct

reparandum: overridden disfluency

The reparandum relation is used to indicate disfluencies overridden in a speech repair. The disfluency is the dependent of the repair.

Currently this construction is not annotated in the French treebank (but there are probably no attested uses).

Va à droi- à gauche . \n Go to the righ- to the left .
nmod(Va, gauche)
reparandum(gauche, droi-)
case(droi-, à-2)

For disfluences and reformulations FrenchSpoken uses the conj:dicto relation instead of the reparandum relation.

edit reparandum

root: root

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A fake node ROOT is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with 0, since the indexing of real words in the sentence starts at 1. There should only be one node with the root dependency relation in every tree.

ROOT J' aime les frites . \n I love French fries .
root(ROOT, aime)
ROOT Il est grand . \n He is tall .
root(ROOT, grand)

Some examples from FrenchSpoken:

ROOT ils ont discuté \n they chatted
root(ROOT,discuté)
ROOT tu prends la grande rue \n you take the big street
root(ROOT,prends)

edit root

vocative: vocative

The vocative relation is used to mark a dialogue participant addressed in text (common in conversations, emails and newsgroup postings). The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.

Les gars , faites attention ! \n Guys , be careful !
vocative(faites, gars)
David , comment ça va ? \n David, how 's it going ?
vocative(va, David)

Currently FrenchSpoken does not use this relation.

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp (normally by the object of the next higher clause, if there is one, or else by the subject of the next higher clause). These complements are always non-finite, and they are complements (arguments of the higher verb or adjective) rather than adjuncts/modifiers. The name xcomp is borrowed from Lexical-Functional Grammar.

Il dit que tu aimes nager \n He says that you like to swim
xcomp(aimes, nager)
Je compte y retourner \n I am planning to go back there
xcomp(compte, retourner)
Je le considère comme un ami \n I consider him as a friend
xcomp(considère, ami)

Here are examples from FrenchSpoken:

j' aimerais enseigner dans un établissement public \n I'd like to teach in a public school
xcomp(aimerais, enseigner)
on pourrait imaginer des mélanges \n we could imagine some mixes
xcomp(pourrait, imaginer)

N.B.: For causative constructions (Marie fait repeindre les murs à Jean-Pierre. etc.) see the specific syntax page.

edit xcomp