|Open class words||Closed class words||Other|
Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns and specify their properties or attributes.
UD Finnish annotation follows VISK in assigning pro-adjectives the
ADJ tag (e.g. tämä/PRON “this” → tällainen/ADJ “like this”; see
e.g. VISK § 610; in
- [fi] suuri “big”, vanha “old”, vihreä “green”
- [fi] tällainen “like this”, tuollainen “like that”, semmoinen “like it”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=603 (in Finnish)
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=610 (in Finnish)
Adposition is a cover term for prepositions and postpositions.
- [fi] alla “under”, päällä “over”
- [fi] ennen “before”, jälkeen “after”
- [fi] kanssa “with”, ilman “without”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=687 (in Finnish)
- [fi] hyvin suuri “very large”
- [fi] erittäin vaikea “extremely difficult”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=646 (in Finnish)
AUX: auxiliary verb
An auxiliary verb is a verb that accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb, such as person, number, tense, mood, aspect, and voice.
Finnish modal verbs are counted as auxiliaries. Finnish auxiliary and modal verbs are
- täytyä “must”
- pitää “have to”
- tarvita “need”
- joutua “have to”
- voida “be able to, can”
- saattaa “may”
- taitaa “be+probably, may”
- mahtaa “be+probably, may”
- olla “be”
- aikoa “be going to”
- [fi] täytyy tehdä “must do”
- [fi] olemme tehneet “we have done”
- [fi] olisi pitänyt tehdä “would have had to do”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=450 (in Finnish)
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=1562 (in Finnish)
CONJ: coordinating conjunction
A coordinating conjunction is a word that links words or larger constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other and expresses a semantic relationship between them.
For subordinating conjunctions, see SCONJ.
In correlative (paired) coordinating conjuctions such as sekä - että
“both - and” and joko - tai “either - or”, both words are annotated
CONJ (see also cc:preconj).
- [fi] ja “and”, tai “or”, mutta “but”
- [fi] sekä koirat että kissat “both dogs and cats”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=817 (in Finnish)
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=815 (in Finnish)
Determiners are words that modify nouns or noun phrases and express the reference of the noun phrase in context.
Finnish has no true articles (see e.g. WALS) and many formalizations of Finnish morphology don’t involve a determiner (or related) tag. However, words such as yksi “one” and se “that” are used similarly to articles, especially in spoken language.
- [fi] yksi mies lähti “a/one man left”
- [fi] se mies lähti “the/that man left”
Turku Dependency Treebank
DET tag (or related) is annotated in TDT, and
not used in the current version of the UD Finnish corpus.
An interjection is a word that is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation.
- [fi] no, “well”, ai “oh”, hyi “yuck”
- [fi] psst
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=856 (in Finnish)
Proper nouns are not annotated as
NOUN but rather PROPN.
- [fi] tyttö “girl”
- [fi] kissa “cat”
- [fi] puu “tree”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=551 (in Finnish)
A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as a determiner, adjective or pronoun, that expresses a number and a relation to the number, such as quantity, sequence, frequency or fraction.
- [fi] 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 2014, 1000000, 3.14159265359
- [fi] yksi, kaksi, kolme “one, two, three”
- [fi] I, II, III, IV, V, MMXIV
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=771 (in Finnish)
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=792 (in Finnish)
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=793 (in Finnish)
The FI_FTB-corpus follows the general UD documentation in recognizing the particle as a part-of-speech category. The specification between PART, ADV and ADP has been carried out as in ISK § 792 (in Finnish).
Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns or noun phrases, whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context.
See also PronType.
- [fi] minä, sinä, hän, me, te, he “I, you, he/she, we, you, they” (personal pronouns)
- [fi] itse “self” (reflexive pronoun)
- [fi] tämä, tuo, se, nämä, nuo, ne “this, that, it/that, these, those, they/those” (demonstrative pronouns)
- [fi] kuka, mikä, kumpi “who, what, which” (interrogative pronouns)
- [fi] joka, mikä “who, that” (relative pronouns)
- [fi] TODO (indefinite pronouns)
- [fi] TODO (totality pronouns)
- [fi] TODO (negative pronouns)
- [fi] muu “other”, sama “same”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=713 (in Finnish)
PROPN: proper noun
A proper noun is a noun (or nominal content word) that is the name (or part of the name) of a specific individual, place, or object.
Acronyms of proper nouns, such as EU and YK, should be tagged PROPN.
- [fi] Aapo, Anna (male/female first name)
- Turku (city name)
- EU, YK “EU, UN”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=596 (in Finnish)
Punctuation marks are non-alphabetical characters and character groups used to delimit linguistic units in printed text.
- Period: .
- Comma: ,
- Parentheses: ()
SCONJ: subordinating conjunction
A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of the other.
Both the Finnish complementizer että and the comparative conjunction
kuin are tagged
- [fi] koska “because”
- [fi] vaikka “although”
- [fi] parempi kuin “better than”
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=816 (in Finnish)
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=818 (in Finnish)
A symbol is a word-like entity that differs from ordinary words by form, function, or both.
- $, %, §, ©
- +, −, ×, ÷, =, <, >
- :), ♥‿♥, 😝
- firstname.lastname@example.org, http://universaldependencies.org/, 1-800-COMPANY
Verbs typically inflect for tense, mood and person and signal events and actions. Verbs can constitute a minimal predicate in a clause, and govern the number and types of other constituents which may occur in the clause.
Auxiliary and modal verbs are not annotated as
VERB but rather
- [fi] juosta, syödä “run, eat”
- [fi] ei “no” (negation verb)
- http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=444 (in Finnish)
X is used for words that for some reason cannot be assigned
a real part-of-speech category.
Foreign words appearing inside native text are tagged
X (see also
- [fi] Uskoo ken tahtsssszzt brrrzzzt.
- [fi] Opimme fyysikoiden “Let’s assume a spherical cow” -lähestymistavan.