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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Features

Lexical features
PronType
NumType
Poss
Reflex
+Abbr
+Derivation
+Style
+Typo
+Foreign
Inflectional features
Nominal Verbal
Gender VerbForm
Animacy +InfForm
Number +PartForm
Case Mood
Definite Tense
Degree Aspect
+Number[psor] Voice
+Person[psor] Person
Polarity
+Connegative

Abbr: abbreviation

Boolean feature marking a word as an abbreviation.

Note that UD Finnish does not differentiate between different types of shortened forms. In particular, there is no separate feature identifying acronyms, which are also marked with Abbr=Yes.

Yes: word is abbreviation

Note that there is no No value. If the word is not an abbreviation, the Abbr feature will not appear.

Examples

edit Abbr

AdpType: AdpType

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for AdpType.

edit AdpType

Case: case

Nom: nominative

The base form, typically used as a citation form (lemma).

Examples

Acc: accusative

In many languages used for direct objects of verbs.

We follow ISK in not recognizing the accusative except for the personal pronouns and kuka “who” (http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=1221, http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=1226)

Examples

Gen: genitive

Examples

Ins: instructive

Instructive primarily characterizes manner or instrument. Instructive can also express place or time.

Corresponds to some uses of English by means of or with the aid of.

Examples

References

Par: partitive

In Finnish the partitive case is an object case that can also express indefinite quantity or unfinished actions.

References

Ess: essive

Essive is typically a case of temporal adverbials (e.g. tiistaina “on Tuesday”). In expressions of state, essive is a case of predicative adverbials, characterizing purpose or task (e.g. vartijana “as a guard”) in intransitive forms, and how an object or its purpose is perceived in transitive forms (e.g. syödä raakana “eat raw”).

Essive corresponds to some uses of English as a.

Examples

References

Tra: translative

In intransitive sentences, the translative case typically expresses change of state (becomes, changes to) or manner.

Examples

In transitive sentences, the translative case describes the sentence object.

Examples

References

Com: comitative / associative

The comitative (also called associative) case expresses belonging, a social relationship or a part of an entity. It often corresponds to English together with and has a descriptive or explicative function.

Examples

References

Abe: abessive

The abessive case expresses wihtout what something has happened and roughly corresponds to the English preposition without.

Examples

Ine: inessive

The inessive case expresses location inside of something.

Examples

Ill: illative

The illative case expresses direction into something.

Examples

Ela: elative

The elative case expresses direction out of something.

Examples

Ade: adessive

The adessive cases expresses location on the outer or upper surface of an entity, or movement to/from such a surface. The corresponding directional cases are allative (towards something) and ablative (from something).

(Note: this is a very incomplete listing of the uses of the Finnish adessive, which can also express place, time, state, owner, instrument, means, manner, and quantity.)

Examples

References

All: allative

The allative case expresses direction onto something (destination is adessive).

Examples

Abl: ablative

Prototypical meaning: direction from some point.

Examples

Notes: distributive

Some descriptions of Finnish recognize a distributive case conveying that something happens to every member of a set, one at a time. UD Finnish does not include Dis (distributive) as a possible value of the Case feature, but analyses the -ttain suffix as an adverbial derivation.

Examples

References

Notes: lative

Some descriptions of Finnish mark the base form of the first infinitive as being in the lative case (see e.g. Omorfi tagger documentation). UD Finnish follows ISK in not recognizing the lative case.

References

Diff

FinnTreeBank (FI_FTB) marks the base form of the first infinitive as lative in contrast to translative.

edit Case

Clitic: clitic

(Please note: this part of the documentation is not yet completed.)

Language-specific feature identifying clitics attached to the word.

Finnish has a number of particle clitics used to express questions, politeness, or focus. UD Finnish captures the presence of these clitics using the Clitic feature, which takes one or more of the following values, with multiple values expressing combinations, for example Clitic=Ko,S for -kos (-ko + -s) as in voikos.

Kin

Expresses focus. Can often be translated into English as also. Forms contrasting pair with -kaan.

Examples

Kaan

Expresses focus in negative contexts. Realized as -kaan or -kään. Forms contrasting pair with -kin.

Examples

Ko

Expresses a question. Realized as -ko or -kö.

Examples

Han

Realized as -han or -hän.

Examples

Pa

Realized as -pa or -pä.

Examples

S

TODO

Examples

Ka

Realized as -ka or -kä. Attached to the negative verb ei, serves also as a conjunction.

Examples

References

edit Clitic

Connegative: connegative

Boolean feature of verbs (VERB and AUX), marking a word as being in connegative form.

In Finnish, negations are formed of the auxiliary negative verb (ei) and the main verb, the latter of which typically appears in connegative form.

Yes: word is connegative

Note that there is no No value. If the word is not connegative, the Connegative feature will not appear.

Examples

References

edit Connegative

Degree: degree of comparison

Degree of comparison is a feature of adjectives, some adverbs, and verbs in participle form.

Pos: positive, first degree

This is the base form that merely states a quality of something, without comparing it to qualities of others.

Examples

Cmp: comparative, second degree

The quality of one things is compared to the same quality of another.

Examples

Sup: superlative, third degree

The quality of one thing is compared to the same quality of all other things within a set.

Examples

Diff

FinnTreeBank

The FI_FTB corpus applies the degree of comparison only when it is noticeable in the word form (that is, in comparative or superlative). Positive (Pos) is not used, as not all adjectives, adverbs and verb participles can appear in the other degrees of comparison at all.

edit Degree

Derivation: derivation

(Please note: this part of the documentation is not yet completed.)

Language-specific feature identifying the form of derivation applied to a word.

Minen: derivation with suffix -minen

Produces noun.

Examples

References

Sti: derivation with suffix -sti

Produces adverb.

Examples

References

Inen: derivation with suffix -inen

Produces adjective.

Examples

References

Lainen: derivation with suffix -lainen

Produces noun.

Examples

References

Ja: derivation with suffix -ja

Produces noun.

Examples

References

Ton: derivation with suffix -ton

Produces adjective.

Examples

References

Vs: derivation with suffix -vs

Produces noun

Examples

References

### Llinen: derivation with suffix -llinen

Produces adjective.

Examples

References

Ttain: derivation with suffix -ttain

Produces adverb.

Examples

References

### U: derivation with suffix -u

Produces noun.

Examples

References

Ttaa: derivation with suffix -ttaa

Produces verb.

Examples

References

Tar: derivation with suffix -tar

Produces noun.

Examples

References

Diffs

FinnTreeBank

The language-specific feature Derivation is not in use in FI_FTB.

edit Derivation

Foreign: foreign word

Is this a foreign word? Not a loan word and not a foreign name but a genuinely foreign word appearing inside native text. This feature would apply either to the “X” part of speech (unanalyzable token), or to other parts of speech if we know and are willing to annotate the class to which the word belongs in its original language.

Note: the UD Tscript (transcribed) value is not used in UD Finnish.

Foreign: it is foreign

Examples

TODO

Fscript: it is foreign and written in a foreign script

Examples

TODO

edit Foreign

InfForm: form of infinitive

(Please note: the labels on this page, including the feature name InfForm, are subject to change.)

Finnish has multiple infinitive forms, often termed the first infinitive, second infinitive, etc. Traditionally five different infinitives have been recognized, but UD Finnish follows the modern ISK grammar in only recognizing three verb forms as infinitives, namely those known as the first, second and third infinitives (alternatively termed the A-, E- and MA-infinitives, see e.g. VISK § 119; in Finnish).

1: first infinitive

The first infinitive is also known as the A-infinitive. It corresponds roughly to the English infinitive introduced by to.

The base form of the first infinitive is used as the dictionary form for verbs.

Examples

References

2: second infinitive

The second infinitive is also known as the E-infinitive.

Examples

References

3: third infinitive

The third infinitive is also known as the MA-infinitive.

Examples

References

edit InfForm

Mood: mood

Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms.

Ind: indicative

The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.

Examples

Imp: imperative

The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.

Examples

Cnd: conditional

The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen.

Examples

Pot: potential

The action of the verb is likely but not certain.

Examples

edit Mood

NumType: numeral type

Card: cardinal number or corresponding interrogative / relative / indefinite / demonstrative word

Examples

Ord: ordinal number or corresponding interrogative / relative / indefinite / demonstrative word

This is a subtype of adjective or (in some languages) of adverb.

Examples

Mult: multiplicative numeral or corresponding interrogative / relative / indefinite / demonstrative word

This is subtype of adverb.

Examples

(TODO: others from http://universaldependencies.org/u/feat/NumType.html?)

edit NumType

Number: number

Number is a feature of nouns, pronouns and numbers as well as of verbs and adjectives that mark agreement with them.

Sing: singular number

Examples

Plur: plural number

Examples

edit Number

Number[psor]: number of possessor

Number[psor] is a layered feature of nouns and … (TODO)

Sing: singular

Examples

Plur: plural

Examples

References

edit Number[psor]

PartForm: form of participle

(Please note: the labels on this page, including the feature name PartForm, are subject to change.)

Finnish has multiple participles forms, here termed the present, past, agent, and negative participles (VISK § 122; in Finnish).

Pres: present participle

The present participle, also known as the first participle and the VA-participle, has active and passive forms.

Examples

References

Past: past participle

The past participle is also known as the second participle. Its active and passive forms are also known as the NUT- and TU-participles, respectively.

Examples

References

Agt: agent participle

The agent participle is also known as the MA-participle.

Examples

References

Neg: negative participle

The negative participle is a negative counterpart to the other participle forms.

Examples

References

edit PartForm

Person: person

Person is a feature of verbs (TODO: also pronouns?).

1: first person

In singular, the first person refers just to the speaker or author. In plural, it includes the speaker/author and one or more additional persons.

Examples

2: second person

In singular, the second person refers to the addressee of the utterance or text. In plural, it may mean several addressees and optionally some third persons too.

Examples

3: third person

The third person refers to one or more persons that are neither speakers nor addressees.

Examples

TODO: consider fourth person, e.g. kirja julkaistiin? (cf. ISK http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=106, http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=1313)

edit Person

Person[psor]: person of possessor

Person[psor] is a layered feature of nouns and … (TODO)

1: first person

Examples

2: second person

Examples

3: third person

Examples

References

edit Person[psor]

Polarity: whether the word can be or is negated

In UD Finnish, the feature Polarity exclusively marks forms of the negation verb ei.

edit Polarity

Poss: possessive

Finnish does not have a separate category of possessive pronouns, instead using possessive suffixes (see Person[psor] and Number[psor]) and the genitive form of personal pronouns (see Case).

The UD feature Poss is not used in UD Finnish.

References

edit Poss

PronType: pronominal type

Prs: personal

Formal written Finnish uses the following personal pronouns:

    Person  
Number 1 2 3
Sing minä sinä hän
Plur me te he

Colloquial Finnish and regional dialects include a number of variants for each, such as mä, mie, mää and myö for minä “I”.

Examples

References

Rcp: reciprocal

Examples

References

Int: interrogative

Examples

References

Rel: relative

Examples

References

Dem: demonstrative

Examples

References

Ind: indefinite

TODO

Notes: indefinite vs. quantifier pronouns

Some descriptions of Finnish avoid the category label “indefinite pronouns” (indefiniittipronomi) in favor of “quantifier/quantifying pronouns” (kvanttoripronomini) (e.g. http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=742; in Finnish), while others recognize both categories (e.g. Voutilainen et al. 2012). UD Finnish only uses the PronType value Ind (indefinite) (See also the note on negative pronouns below).

Notes: negative pronouns

Finnish has no “inherently negative” pronouns (see e.g. http://wals.info/chapter/115) such as [en] nothing or [de] niemand “nobody” but instead uses a negator to construct such expressions:

Some descriptions separate pronouns that can occur in such expressions into their own subcategory of negative polarity (kieltohakuiset) pronouns (see e.g. VISK § 757; in Finnish). However, as the UD PronType=Neg feature only covers inherently negative pronouns, UD Finnish assigns the PronType value Ind to these pronouns.

edit PronType

PunctSide: PunctSide

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for PunctSide.

edit PunctSide

Reflex: reflexive

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for Reflex.

edit Reflex

Style: style

Coll: word is colloquial

Examples

Arch: archaic, obsolete

Examples

Diffs

Turku Dependency Treebank

The value Arch is not annotated systematically in TDT and only very few instances of this value appear in the UD Finnish corpus.

edit Style

Tense: tense

The Tense feature applies to verbs (VERB and AUX), specifying the time when the action took or takes place, in relation to the current moment or to another action in the utterance.

Tense does not apply to non-finite verbs (infinitives and participles), the negation verb ei, or verbs not in the indicative mood (see http://scripta.kotus.fi/visk/sisallys.php?p=111; in Finnish).

Pres: present tense

The present tense denotes actions that are happening right now or that usually happen.

Examples

Past: past tense / preterite

The past tense denotes actions that happened before the current moment.

Examples

References

edit Tense

Typo: misspelled

Boolean feature marking a word as involving misspelling, grammatical error, etc.

Yes: word has typo

Examples

Diffs

FinnTreeBank

The language-specific feature Typo is not in use in the FI_FTB corpus.

edit Typo

VerbForm: form of verb or deverbative

Fin: finite verb

Verbs that inflect for mood (Mood), tense (Tense) or person (Person) are finite and are assigned the VerbForm value Fin. Additionally, the negation verb ei only has finite forms (VISK § 108; in Finnish), and is always annotated with VerbForm=Fin.

Examples

Inf: infinitive

Words in infinitive forms are assigned the VerbForm value Inf. Infinitive forms are further differentiated using the feature InfForm.

UD Finnish recognizes three verb forms as infinitives, namely those known as the first, second and third infinitives (alternatively termed the A-, E- and MA-infinitives, see e.g. VISK § 119; in Finnish).

Examples

Part: participle

Words in participle forms are assigned the VerbForm value Part. Participle forms are further differentiated using the feature PartForm.

Examples

References

edit VerbForm

Voice: voice

The Voice feature captures the distinction between active and passive for verbs (fi-pos/VERB and fi-pos/AUX).

Act: active voice

Examples

Pass: passive voice

Examples

edit Voice