home issue tracker

This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl stands for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a nominal. A relative clause is an instance of acl, characterized by finiteness and usually omission of the modified noun in the embedded clause. The head of the acl relation is the noun that is modified, and the dependent is the head of the clause that modifies the noun.

Hori diote futbolaz dakiten entrenatzaileek .

The coaches who know about football say that .

Hori diote futbolaz dakiten entrenatzaileek . \n That say football_about know_who coaches_the .

dobj(diote-2, Hori-1)
nsubj(diote-2, entrenatzaileek-5)
nmod(dakiten-4, futbolaz-3)
acl(entrenatzaileek-5, dakiten-4)
punct(diote-2, .-6)

Hura da haurraren etorkizuna erabaki dezakeen bakarra .

He/she is the only one who can decide the child’s future .

Hura da haurraren etorkizuna erabaki dezakeen bakarra . \n He/she is child_the_'s future decide can_who the_only_one .

nsubj(bakarra-7, Hura-1)
nmod(etorkizuna-4, haurraren-3)
dobj(erabaki-5, etorkizuna-4)
aux(erabaki-5, dezakeen-6)
acl(bakarra-7, erabaki-5)
cop(bakarra-7, da-2)
punct(bakarra-7, .-8)

edit acl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

An adverbial clause modifier (advcl) is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier, not as a core complement. This includes temporal clauses, consequences, conditional clauses, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (otherwise, it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.

Askatasunean oinarritutako alternatiba bat ematea .

To give an alternative based on freedom .

Askatasunean oinarritutako alternatiba bat ematea . \n  Freedom based_on alternative_an to give .

nmod(oinarritutako-2, Askatasunean-1)
advcl(alternatiba-3, oinarritutako-2)
nummod(aternatiba-3, bat-4)
dobj(ematea-5, alternatiba-3) 
punct(ematea-5, .-6)

Lapurdin sorturiko lehenbiziko euskal idazle-taldea .

The first Basque writer-group created in Lapurdi .

Lapurdin sorturiko lehenbiziko euskal idazle-taldea . \n  The first Basque writer-group created in Lapurdi . 

nmod(sorturiko-2, Lapurdin-1)
advcl(idazle-taldea-5, sorturiko-2)
amod(idazle-taldea-5, lehenbiziko-3)
nmod(idazle-taldea-5, euskal) 

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

An adverbial modifier of a word (advmod) is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

We differentiate adverbials realized as adverbs (advmod) and adverbials realized by noun phrases or adpositional phrases (nmod) .

Rich, ordea, ez dago bakarrik .

Rich, however, is not alone .

Rich, ordea, ez dago bakarrik . \n Rich, however, is not alone .

nsubj(dago-4, Rich-1)
advmod(dago-4, ordea-2)
neg(dago-4, ez-3)
advmod(dago-4, bakarrik-5)
punct(dago-4, .-6)

Han ez zen ezer mugitzen .

Nothing was moved there .

Han ez zen ezer mugitzen . \n There was nothing moved . 

advmod(mugitzen-5, Han-1)
neg(mugitzen-5, ez-2)
aux(mugitzen-5, zen-3)
nsubj(mugitzen-5, ezer-4)
punct(mugitzen-5, .-6)

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

Nouns may take adjectival modifiers, which are marked with the dependency type amod. Most of the adjectives appear after the noun they modify, though some of them may appear before.

Epaiketa horrek kezka handia piztu du .

That trial has caused a big concern .

Epaiketa horrek kezka handia piztu du . \n Trial that concern big_a caused has .

nsubj(piztu-5, Epaiketa-1)
det(Epaiketa-1, horrek-2)
amod(kezka-3, handia-4)
dobj(piztu-5, kezka-3)
aux(piztu-5, du-6)
punct(piztu-5, .-7)

Mutikoak heldu ditun dantzaldira atorra urdin argi batekin .

The boys have arrived to the ball with a light blue shirt .

Mutikoak heldu ditun dantzaldira atorra urdin argi batekin . \n Boys_the arrived have ball_the_to shirt blue light one_with .

nsubj(Mutikoak-1, heldu-2)
aux(heldu-2, ditun-3)
nmod(heldu-2, dantzaldira-4)
nmod(heldu-2, atorra-5)
amod(atorra-5, urdin-6)
amod(urdin-6, argi-7)
det(atorra-5, batekin-8)
punct(heldu-2, .-9)

Azkeneko 400 metroak minutu batean osatu zituen Derartu Tuluk .

Derartu Tulu made the last 400 meters in one minute .

Azkeneko 400 metroak minutu batean osatu zituen Derartu Tuluk . \n Last 400 meters_the minute one_in made Derartu Tulu .

amod(metroak-3, Azkeneko-1)
nummod(metroak-3, 400-2)
nobj(osatu-6, metroak-3)
nmod(osatu-6, minutu-4)
nummod(minutu-4, batean-5)
aux(osatu-6, zituen-7)
name(Derartu-8, Tuluk-9)
nsubj(osatu-6, Derartu-8)
punct(osatu-6, .-10)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

An appositional modifier of a noun (appos) is a nominal immediately following the first noun that serves to define or modify that noun. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

Bikote bat hil zuten Chinanin, Taref probintzian .

They killed a couple in Chinani, in the Taref province .

Bikote bat hil zuten Chinanin, Taref probintzian . \n Couple a killed Chinani_in, Taref province_the_in . 

dobj(hil-3, Bikote-1)
nummod(Bikote-1, bat-2)
aux(hil-3, zuten-4)
nmod(hil-3, Chinanin-5)
punct(hil-3, ,-6)
nmod(probintzian-8, Taref-7)
appos(Chinanin-5, probintzian-8)
punct(hil-3, .-9)

Azkenengo asanbladan, martxoaren 10ean eginikoa, adierazi zuten .

They explained it in the last assembly, in the one made in the 10th march .

Azkenengo asanbladan, martxoaren 10ean eginikoa, adierazi zuten . \n They explained it in the last assembly, in the one made in the 10th march .

amod(asanbladan-2, Azkenengo-1)
nmod(adierazi-6, asanbladan-2)
nmod(10ean-4, martxoaren-3)
nmod(eginikoa-5, 10ean-4)
appos(asanbladan-2, eginikoa-5)
aux(adierazi-6, zuten-7) 
punct(adierazi-6, .-8)

Nekazaritza eta abeltzaintza (esnea, haragia eta txerriak) dira bertako iharduera ekonomiko nagusiak .

Agriculture and stockbreeding (milk, meat and pork) are the main autochthonous economic activities .

Nekazaritza eta abeltzaintza (esnea, haragia eta txerriak) dira bertako iharduera ekonomiko nagusiak . n\ Agriculture and stockbreeding (milk, meat and pork) are autochthonous activities economic main_the .

nsubj(iharduera-13, Nekazaritza)
cc(Nekazaritza-1, eta-2)
conj(Nekazaritza-1, abeltzaintza-3)
appos(abeltzaintza-3, esnea-4)
punct(esnea-4, ,-6)
conj(esnea-4, haragia-6)
cc(esnea-4, eta-7)
conj(esnea-4, txerriak-8)
appos(abeltzaintza-3, esnea-4)
cop(iharduera-11, dira-9)
amod(iharduera-11, bertako-10)
amod(iharduera-11, ekonomiko-12)
amod(iharduera-11, nagusiak-13)
punct(iharduera-11, .-14)

Francesco Casagrandre italiarrak Nazioarteko Txirrindularitza Elkarteko (UCI) lehen postuan jarraitzen du .

The italian Francesco Casagrandre continues in the first position of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) .

Francesco Casagrandre italiarrak Nazioarteko Txirrindularitza Elkarteko (UCI) lehen postuan jarraitzen du . n\ Francesco Casagrandre italian_the Internationale_the_of Cycliste Union (UCI) first position_the_in continues .  

nmod(italiarrak-3, Francesco-1)
name(Francesco-1, Casagrandre-2)
nsubj(jarraitzen-9, italiarrak-3)
amod(lehen-8, Nazioarteko-4)
name(Nazioarteko-4, Txirrindularitza-5)
name(Txirrindularitza-5, Elkarteko-6)
appos(Elkarteko-6, UCI-7)
det(postuan-9, lehen-8)
nmod(jarraitzen-11, postuan)
aux(jarraitzen-11, du-12)
punct(jarraitzen-11, .-13)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

The aux relation occurs between a verb and and auxiliary. In general, Basque verbs encode only aspect, while temporal and agreement features show up in the auxiliary, as well as transitivity.

There are mainly two auxiliary lemmas izan (to be) corresponding to intransitives and ukan (to have) corresponding to transitives.

Even if Basque word order is quite free, the auxiliary can only appear right after the verb in non-negative sentences, and right after the negation in negative sentences.

Bi zati hauek markaturik dauden tokietatik tolesten dira .

These two parts fold by the places that are marked .

Bi zati hauek markaturik dauden tokietatik tolesten dira .\n Two parts these marked are_that sites_the_by fold .

det(zati-2, Bi-1)
nsubj(tolesten-7, zati-2)
det(zati-2, hauek-3)
acl(tokietatik-6, markaturik-4)
cop(markaturik-4, dauden-5)
nmod(tolesten-7, tokietatik-6)
aux(tolesten-7, dira-8)
punct(tolesten-7, .-9)

Eztabaida handia sortu du aldaketak .

The change has caused a huge discussion .

Eztabaida handia sortu du aldaketak .\n Discussion huge_a caused has change_the .  

amod(Eztabaida-1, handia-2)
nobj(sortu-3, Eztabaida-1)
aux(sortu-3, du-4)
nsubj(sortu-3, aldaketak-5)
punct(sortu-3, .-6)

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for auxpass.

edit auxpass

case: case marking

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for case.

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

cc relation is used to annotate the relation between the conjunction complementizer and the head of the coordination structure.

Coordination in the Basque UD annotation follows the general schema where the first element of the conjunction is the head, and each conjunct, conjunction complementizer or puntuation mark acting as a conjunction should be attached to the first conjunct::

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc eta enparauek Europako Talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat .

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc and the rest form the most robust team of Europe according to most experts .

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc eta enparauek Europako Talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat . \n Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc and rest_the Europe_of team robust_the_most experts most_according_to .

Zidane , Henry , Barthez , Deschamps , Blanc eta enparauek Europako talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat .
punct(Zidane-1, ,-2)
conj(Zidane-1, Henry-3)
punct(Zidane-1, ,-4)
conj(Zidane-1, Barthez-5)
punct(Zidane-1, ,-6)
conj(Zidane-1, Deschamps-7)
conj(Zidane-1, ,-8)
conj(Zidane-1, Blanc-9)
cc(Zidane-1, eta-10)
conj(Zidane-1, enparauek-11)
nmod(talde-13, Europako-12)
dobj(osatzen-15, talde-13)
amod(talde-13, sendoena-14)
aux(osatzen-15, dute-16)
nmod(osatzen-15, aditu-17)
det(aditu-17, gehienentzat-18)
punct(osatzen-15, .-19)

Note that it is the last conjunct the element showing the ergative case. The ergative case corresponds to subjects of transitive verbs. In this case to form

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective (ccomp) is a dependent clause which is a core argument, that is, it functions like an object of the verb, or adjective. Such clausal complements need to be finite (the relation that corresponds to non finite clausal complements is xcomp).

Arazoa da ez daudela instituzioak arau horiek betetzen diren bermatzeko .

The problem is that there are not institutions to guarantee whether those rules are observed .

Arazoa da ez daudela instituzioak arau horiek betetzen diren bermatzeko . \n Problem_the is not there_are_that institutions rules those are_observed_whether to_guarantee .

nsubj(da-2, Arazoa-1)
neg(daudela-4, ez-3)
ccomp(da-2, daudela-4)
nsubj(daudela-4, instituzioak-5)
det(arau-6, horiek-7)
dobj(betetzen-8, arau-6)
aux(betetzen-8, diren-9)
ccomp(bermatzeko-10, betetzen-8)
advcl(daudela-4, bermatzeko-10)
punct(da-2, .-11)

edit ccomp

compound: compound

compound is one of the three relations in UD for compounding. It is used for noun compounds (e.g., phone book), but also for verb and adjective compounds as well as for “phrasal verb” constructions (e.g., throw up), which in Basque are expressions such as gora egin (go up), for example:

Kazetariak aztoratuta ibili ziren atzo Euskadi Fundazioak Derion duen egoitzaren atarian .

Journalists were rowdy yesterday in the entrace of the officce that Euskadi Foundation has in Derio .

Kazetariak aztoratuta ibili ziren atzo Euskadi Fundazioak Derion duen egoitzaren atarian .\n Journalists rowdy were yesterday Euskadi Foundation Derio_in has_that officce_of entrace_the_in . 

nsubj(aztoratuta-2, Kazetariak-1)
cop(aztoratuta-2, ibili-3)
aux(ibili-3, ziren-4)
advmod(ibili-3, atzo-5)
compound(Fundazioak-7, Euskadi-6)
nsubj(duen-9, Fundazioak-7)
nmod(duen-9, Derion-8)
acl(egoitzaren-10, duen-9)
nmod(atarian-11, egoitzaren-10)
nmo(ibili-3, atarian-11)
punct(ibili-3, .-12)

Izan ere zerbait gehiago behar da nirekin bukatzeko .

In fact something esle is needed in order to end with me .

Izan ere zerbait gehiago behar da nirekin bukatzeko . \n In fact something esle needed is me_with end_in_order_to  . 

compound(ere-2, Izan-1)
nmod(da-6, ere-2)
det(zerbait-3, gehiago-4)
nsubj(da-6, zerbait-3)
compound(da-6, behar-5)
nmod(bukatzeko-8, nirekin-7)
advcl(da-6, bukatzeko-8)
punct(da-6, .-)

edit compound

conj: conjunct

conj relation is used to annotate the different conjuncts in a coordination structure.

Coordination in the Basque UD annotation follows the general schema where the first element of the conjunction is the head, and each conjunct, conjunction complementizer or puntuation mark acting as a conjunction should be attached to the first conjunct:

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc eta enparauek Europako Talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat .

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc and the rest form the most robust team of Europe according to most experts .

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc eta enparauek Europako Talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat . \n Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc and rest_the Europe_of team robust_the_most experts most_according_to .

Zidane , Henry , Barthez , Deschamps , Blanc eta enparauek Europako talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat .
punct(Zidane-1, ,-2)
conj(Zidane-1, Henry-3)
punct(Zidane-1, ,-4)
conj(Zidane-1, Barthez-5)
punct(Zidane-1, ,-6)
conj(Zidane-1, Deschamps-7)
conj(Zidane-1, ,-8)
conj(Zidane-1, Blanc-9)
cc(Zidane-1, eta-10)
conj(Zidane-1, enparauek-11)
nmod(talde-13, Europako-12)
dobj(osatzen-15, talde-13)
amod(talde-13, sendoena-14)
aux(osatzen-15, dute-16)
nmod(osatzen-15, aditu-17)
det(aditu-17, gehienentzat-18)
punct(osatzen-15, .-19)

edit conj

cop: copula

The cop relation is used with copulative verbs. The main difference between the general UD schema and the Basque annotation follows form the fact that English to be corresponds to several in Basque verbs. More precisely, izan (to be), egon (to be), ukan (to have), geratu (to stay keep), ibili (to be).

Eizagirre izan zen onena Galarretan .

Eizagirre was the best one in Galarreta .

Eizagirre izan zen onena Galarretan . \n Eizagirre was one_best_the Galarreta_in . 

nsubj(onena-4, Eizagirre-1)
cop(onena-4, izan-2)
aux(onena-4, zen-3)
nmod(onena-4, Galarretan-5)
punct(onena-4, .-6)

Beti ito beldur nabil .

I am always scared to drown .

Beti ito beldur nabil . \n always to_drown scared I_am. 

advmod(nabil-4, Beti-1)
advcl(nabil-4, ito-2)
cop(beldur-3, nabil-4)
punct(beldur-3, .-5)

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

A clausal subject (csubj) is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb. The dependent is the main lexical verb or other predicate of the subject clause.

Orain ezinezkoa da engainatzea .

It is now impossible to deceive .

Orain ezinezkoa da engainatzea .\n Now impossible is to_deceive 

advmod(da-3, Orain-1)
cop(ezinezkoa-2, da-3)
csubj(ezinezkoa-2,engainatzea)
punct(ezinezkoa-2, .-5)

Hemen inor etxekotzat hartzea zail egiten da .

Here it is difficult to take someone as relative .

Hemen inor etxekotzat hartzea zail egiten da .\n Here someone relative_as to_take difficult is .

adv(egiten-6, Hemen-1)
dobj(hartzea-4,inor-2)
xcomp(hartzea-4, etxekotzat-3)
xcomp(egiten-6, zail-5)
aux(egiten-6, da-7)
punct(egiten-6, .-8)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for csubjpass.

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dep.

edit dep

det: determiner

The relation determiner (det) holds between a nominal head and its [determiner]. Determiners are words that modify nouns or noun phrases and express the reference of the noun phrase in context. That is, a determiner may indicate whether the noun is referring to a definite or indefinite element of a class, to a closer or more distant element, to an element belonging to a specified person or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc.

Note that cardinal numerals (one, five, hundred) are not tagged DET but nummod.

Lehen partiduan hiru puntuak eskuratzea ez da ezinbestekoa .

To get the three points in the first match is not essential .

Lehen partiduan hiru puntuak eskuratzea ez da ezinbestekoa . \n First match_the_in three points_the to_get not is essential . 

det(partiduan-2, Lehen-1)
nmod(eskuratzea-5, partiduan-2)
nummod(puntuak-4, hiru-3)
dobj(eskuratzea-5, puntuak-4)
neg(da-7, ez-6)
cop(ezinbestekoa-8, da-7)
csubj(ezinbestekoa-8, eskuratzea-5)
punct(ezinbestekoa-8, .-9)

Hortxe biltzen da mota guztietako jendea .

All kind of people are met there .

Hortxe biltzen da mota guztietako jendea . \n There met are kind all_of people .

advmod(biltzen-2, Hortxe-1)
aux(biltzen-2, da-3)
det(mota-4, guztietako-5)
nmod(jendea-6, mota-4)
ncubj(biltzen-2, jendea-6)
punct(biltzen-2, .-7)

Aukera asko daude .

There are many options .

Aukera asko daude . \n Options many there_are .

det(Aukera-1, asko-2)
cop(Aukera-1, daude-3)
punct(Aukera-1-2, .-4)

Oso harreman gutxi dute gurekin .

They have very few relation with us .

Oso harreman gutxi dute gurekin . \n Very relation few have us_with .

advmod(harreman-2, Oso-1)
det(harreman-2, gutxi-3)
dobj(dute-4, harreman-2)
nmod(dute-4, gurekin-5)
punct(dute-4, .-6)

Zeintzu proiektu dituzu epe laburrera ?

Which projects do you have in the near future ?

Zeintzu proiektu dituzu epe laburrera ? \n Which projects do you have in the near future ?

det(proiektu-2, Zeintzu-1)
dobj(dituzu-3, proiektu-2)
nmod(dituzu-3, epe-4)
amod(epe-4, laburrera-5)
punct(dituzu-3, ?-6)

Euroaren kotizazio hau azken lau asteetako altuena da .

This price of the euro is the highest one in the last four weeks .

Euroaren kotizazio hau azken lau asteetako altuena da . \n Euro_the_of price this last four week_the_of highest_the is .*

nmod(kotizazio-2, Euroaren-1)
det(kotizazio-2, hau-3)
nsubj(altuena-7, kotizazio-2)
det(lau-5, azken-4)
nummod(asteetako-6, lau-5)
nmod(altuena-7, asteetako-6)
cop(altuena-7, da-8)
punct(altuena-7, .-9)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

discourse is used for interjections and other discourse particles. The guidelines of what the Penn Treebanks count as an INTJ have been followed in this case, which inlcude interjections, fillers and discourse markers.

Ez, ez naiz bakarrik egoiten e !

No, I will not be alone eh !

Ez, ez naiz bakarrik egoiten e ! \n No, I will not be alone eh !

discourse(egoiten-6, Ez-1)
neg(egoiten-6, ez-3)
aux(egoiten-6, naiz-4)
vocative(egoiten-6, e-7)
punct(egoiten-6, !-8)

Ba ez da hori, ez .

So it is not that, no .

Ba ez da hori, ez . \n So it is not that, no . 

discourse(da-3, Ba-1)
neg(da-3, ez-2)
nsubj(da-3, hori-4)
discourse(da-3, ez-5)
punct(da-3, .-6)

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dislocated.

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

The direct object (dobj) of a verb is the noun phrase that denotes the entity acted upon. Basque is a morphologically ergative language , and the direct object is always marked with the absolutive case.

Euskal gizarteak Konstituzioa errefusatu zuela oroitarazi zuen .

(He/she) reminded that Basque society refused the Constitution .

Euskal gizarteak Konstituzioa errefusatu zuela oroitarazi zuen .\n Basque society Constitution_the refused_that reminded . 

nmod(Euskal-1, gizarteak-2)
nsubj(errefusatu-4, gizarteak-2)
dobj(errefusatu-4, Konstituzioa-3)
aux(errefusatu-4, zuela-5)
ccomp(oroitarazi-6,errefusatu-4)
aux(oroitarazi-6, zuen-7)
punct(oroitarazi-6, .-8)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl.

edit expl

foreign: foreign words

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for foreign.

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for goeswith.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

The indirect object (iobj) of a verb is any nominal phrase that is a core argument of the verb but is not its subject or direct object. As Basque is a language that distinguishes morphological cases, the indirect object is marked by the dative case.

Ikasleei esan zien arratsaldean ikasi behar zutela .

(He/she told the students that they needed to study in the evening .

Ikasleei esan zien arratsaldean ikasi behar zutela .\n Students_the_to told evening_the_in to_study needed_that

iobj(esan-2, Ikasleei-1)
aux(esan-2, zien-3)
nmod(esan-2, arratsaldean-4)
xcomp(behar_zutela-6, ikasi-5)
ccomp(esan-2, behar_zutela-6)
punct(esan-2, .-8)

Ahalegin haundia egin du guri geografia irakasten .

(He/she) has made a great effort teaching us geography .

Ahalegin haundia egin du guri geografia irakasten .\n  Effort great_a made has us geography teaching . 

amod(Ahalegin-1, haundia-2)
dobj(egin-3, Ahalegin-1)
aux(egin-3, du-4)
advcl(egin-3, irakasten-7)
dobj(irakasten-7, geografia-6)
iobj(irakasten-7, guri-5)
punct(egin-3, .-8)

Djukanovicek aldaketa handia eman dio bere ildo politikoari .

Djukanovic has given a big change to his political course .

Djukanovicek aldaketa handia eman dio bere ildo politikoari .\n Djukanovic change big_a given has his course political_to .

nsubj(eman-4, Djukanovicek-1)
dobj(eman-4, aldaketa-2)
amod(aldaketa-2, handia-3)
aux(eman-4, dio-5)
nmod(ildo-7, bere-6)
amod(ildo-7, politikoari-8)
iobj(eman-4, ildo-7)
punct(eman-4, .-9)

edit iobj

list: list

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for list.

edit list

mark: marker

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mark.

A marker is the word introducing a finite or non-finite clause subordinate to another clause. The tag mark in related to dependent of the subordinate clause head. Although in some languages such as English it is used in complement clauses or adverbial clauses, in Basque, in those cases, we do not need the marker, since being an agglutinative language those marks are suffixed to words.

neskak solasa hausnartzen zuen bitartean .

while the girl was thinking about the conversation .

neskak solasa hausnartzen zuen bitartean . \n girl_the conversation_the thinking_about while . 

nsubj(hausnartzen-3, neskak-1)
dobj(hausnartzen-3, solasa-2)
aux(hausnartzen-3, zuen-4)
mark(hausnartzen-3, bitartean-5)
punct(hausnartzen-3, .-6)

Orio eta Castro garaipena lortzeko hautagaiak ziren arren, maila makala erakutsi zuten estropada hasieratik .

Although Orio and Castro were the candidates to obtain the victory, they showed a low level from the beginning of the regatta .

Orio eta Castro garaipena lortzeko hautagaiak ziren arren, maila makala erakutsi zuten estropada hasieratik . \n  Orio and Castro victory_the obtain_to candidates_the were Although, level low_a showed regata_the_of beginning_the_from  . 

nsubj(hautagaiak-6, Orio-1)
cc(Orio-1, eta-2)
conj(Orio-1, Castro-3)
dobj(lortzeko-5, garaipena-4)
advcl(hautagaiak-6, lortzeko-5)
advcl(erakutsi-12, hautagaiak-6)
cop(hautagaiak-6, ziren-7)
mark(ziren-7, arren-8)
dobj(erakutsi-12, maila-10)
amod(maila-10, makala-11)
aux(erakutsi-12, zuten-13)
nmod(hasieratik-15, estropada-14)
nmod(erakutsi-12, hasieratik-15)
punct(erakutsi-12, .-16)

ez dugu hemen azalduko, Mirande eta Kristautasuna saioan egina dago eta gehienbat .

We will not show it here, mainly because it is done in the session Mirande and Cristianity .

ez dugu hemen azalduko, Mirande eta Kristautasuna saioan egina dago eta gehienbat . \nWe will not show it here, mainly because it is done in the session Mirande and Cristianity . 

neg(azalduko-4, ez-1)
aux(azalduko-4, dugu-2)
advmod(azalduko-4, hemen-3)
nmod(saioan-8, Mirande-5)
cc(Mirande-5, eta-6)
conj(Mirande-5, Kristautasuna-7)
nmod(egina-9, saioan-8)
advcl(azalduko-4, egina-9)
cop(egina-9, dago-10)
mark(dago-10, eta-11)
advmod(dago-10, gehienbat-12)
punct(azalduko-4, .-13)

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

mwe, the multi-word expression (modifier) relation, is one of the three relations (compound, mwe, name) for compounding. It is used for certain fixed grammaticized expressions that behave like function words or short adverbials.

Eskolatik irten ondoren, beste hainbat gauza ikasten dituzte, besteak beste pianoa eta artea .

After leaving school, he/she learns some other things, among others piano and art .

Eskolatik irten ondoren, beste hainbat gauza ikasten dituzte, besteak beste pianoa eta artea . \n After leaving school, he/she also learns some other things, among others piano and art .

nmod(irten-2, Eskolatik-1)
advcl(ikasten-7, irten-2)
advcl(irten-2, ondoren-3)
det(hainbat-5, beste-4)
det(gauza-6, hainbat-5)
dobj(ikasten-7, gauza-6)
aux(ikasten-7, dituzte-8)
advmod(besteak-9, ikasten-7)
mwe(besteak-9, beste-10)
conj(beste-10, pianoa-11)
cc(pianoa-11, eta-12)
conj(pianoa-11, artea-13)
punct(besteak-9, .-14)

Hakkinen baino sendoago ari da, argi eta garbi .

He/she is stronger than Hakkinen, as clear as water .

Hakkinen baino sendoago ari da, argi eta garbi . \n Hakkinen than stronger is, as clear as water .

nsubj(baino-2, Hakkinen-1)
advmod(da-5, baino-2)
aux(da-5, ari-4)
cop(sendoago-3, da-5)
advmod(da-5, argi-6)
mwe(argi-6, eta-7)
mwe(argi-6, garbi-8)
punct(sendoago-3, .-9)

edit mwe

name: name

name is one of the three relations for compounding in UD (together with compound and mwe). It is used for proper nouns constituted of multiple nominal elements. Words joined by name should all be part of a minimal noun phrase; otherwise, regular syntactic relations should be used.
In general, names are annotated in a flat, head-initial structure, in which all words in the name modify the first one using the name label.

Scottie Pippenek polemika artean ekin zion norgehiagokari .

Scottie Pippene attacked to the competition among polemics .

Scottie Pippenek polemika artean ekin zion norgehiagokari . \n Scottie Pippene polemic among attacked competition_the_to . 

nsubj(ekin-5, Scottie-1)
name(Scottie-1, Pippenek-2)
nmod(ekin-5, polemika-3)
case(polemika-3, artean-4)
aux(ekin-5, zion-6)
iobj(ekin-5, norgehiagokari-7)
punct(ekin-5, .-8)

Dan Eggen gustora zegoen atzo .

Dan Eggen was comfortably yesterday .

Dan Eggen gustora zegoen atzo . \n Dan Eggen comfortably was yesterday .

nsubj(zegoen-4, Dan-1)
name(Dan-1, Eggen-2)
advmod(zegoen-4, gustora-3)
advmod(zegoen-4, atzo-5)
punct(zegoen-4, .-6)

Hego Koreako gobernuak Hyundai Motor enpresaren salmenta baimendu du .

South Korea’s government has authorized the sale of Hyundai Motor enterprise .

Hego Koreako gobernuak Hyundai Motor enpresaren salmenta baimendu du . \n South Korea's government Hyundai Motor enterprise_of sale_the authorized has . 

compound(Koreako-2, Hego-1)
nmod(gobernuak-3, Koreako-2)
subj(baimendu-8, gobernuak-3)
nmod(enpresaren-6, Motor-5)
name(Motor-5, Hyundai-4)
nmod(salmenta-7, enpresaren-6)
dobj(baimendu-8, salmenta-7)
aux(baimendu-8, du-9)
punct(baimendu-8, .-10)

edit name

neg: negation modifier

The negation modifier (neg) is the relation between a negation word and the word it modifies. Modifiers labeled neg depend either on a noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).

Ez da inolako hazkunderik antzematen euskararen erabileran .

It has not perceived any growth in the use of Basque .

Ez da inolako hazkunderik antzematen euskararen erabileran .\n  Not has any growth perceived Basque_of use_the_in .

neg(antzematen-5, Ez-1)
aux(antzematen-5, da-2)
amod(hazkunderik-4, inolako-3)
nsubj(antzematen-5, hazkunderik-4)
nmod(erabileran-7, euskararen-6)
nmod(antzematen-5, erabileran-7)
punct(antzematen-5, .-6)

Agian ez zela hain beharrezkoa .

That maybe it was not so necessary .

Agian ez zela hain beharrezkoa .\n  Maybe not was_that so necessary .

advmod(zela-3, Agian-1)
neg(zela-3, ez-2)
adv(beharrezkoa-5, hain-4)
cop(beharrezkoa-5, zela-3)
punct(zela-3, .-6)

Gune ez hiritarretan bizi dira nagusiki .

(They) mainly live in non urban areas .

Gune ez hiritarretan bizi_dira nagusiki .\n  Areas non_urban_in live imainly .

nmod(bizi_dira-4, Gune-1)
neg(hiritarretan-3, ez-2)
amod(Gune-1, hiritarretan-3)
advmod(bizi_dira-4, nagusiki-5)
punct(bizi_dira-4, .-6)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation (nmod) is used for nominal modifiers. They depend either on another noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”). nmod is a noun (or noun phrase) functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct. This means that it functionally corresponds to an adverbial when it attaches to a verb, adjective or other adverb. But when attaching to a noun, it corresponds to an attribute, or genitive complement.

Hegazkin txiki bat zain zegoen Findeleko aireportuan .

A small plane was waiting in the airport of Findel .

Hegazkin txiki bat zain zegoen Findeleko aireportuan . \n Plane small_a waiting was Findel_of airport_the_in .

nmod(Hegazkin-1, txiki-2)
nummod(Hegazkin-1, bat-3)
advmod(zegoen-5, zain-4)
nsubj(zegoen-5, Hegazkin-1)
nmod(aireportuan-7, Findeleko-6)
nmod(zegoen-5, aireportuan-7)
punct(zegoen-5, .-8)

Partidutxoa egin zuten hamarreko bi taldetan .

They played a match in two groups of ten .

Partidutxoa egin zuten hamarreko bi taldetan . \n Match_a played ten_of two match_in  .

dobj(egin-2, Partidutxoa)
aux(egin-2, zuten-3)
nmod(taldetan-6, hamarreko-4)
nummod(taldetan-6, bi-5)
nmod(egin-2, taldetan-6)
punct(egin-2, .-7)

Hori izango da gure zigorra .

That will be our punishment .

Hori izango da gure zigorra . \n That will be our punishment . 

nsubj(zigorra-5, Hori-1)
cop(zigorra-5, izango-2)
aux(izango-2, da-3)
nmod(zigorra-5, gure-4)
punct(zigorra-5, .-6)

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

The nsubj marks nominal subjects of the non-copular clause. Being Basque a morphologically ergative language, subjects of transitive verbs are marked with the ergative case, while subjects of intransitive verbs are marked with the absolutive case.

Example of a subject in an intransitive sentence (ABS case):

Bi zati hauek markaturik dauden tokietatik tolesten dira .

These two parts fold by the sites that are marked .

Bi zati hauek markaturik dauden tokietatik tolesten dira .\n Two parts these marked are_that sites_the_by fold .

det(zati-2, Bi-1)
nsubj(tolesten-7, zati-2)
det(zati-2, hauek-3)
acl(tokietatik-6, markaturik-4)
cop(markaturik-4, dauden-5)
nmod(tolesten-7, tokietatik-6)
aux(tolesten-7, dira-8)
punct(tolesten-7, .-9)

Example of a subject in a transitive sentence (ERG case):

Eztabaida handia sortu du aldaketak .

The change has caused a huge discussion .

Eztabaida handia sortu du aldaketak .\n Discussion huge_a caused has change_the .  

amod(Eztabaida-1, handia-2)
dobj(sortu-3, Eztabaida-1)
aux(sortu-3, du-4)
nsubj(sortu-3, aldaketak-5)
punct(sortu-3, .-6)

Being Basque a free word order language, arguments of the verb can appear in different orders with respect to the verb.

Aldaketak eztabaida handia sortu du .

The change has caused a huge discussion .

Aldaketak eztabaida handia sortu du .\n Change_the discussion huge_a caused has .

nsubj(sortu-4, Aldaketak-1)
amod(eztabaida-2, handia-3)
dobj(sortu-4, eztabaida-2)
aux(sortu-4, du-5)
punct(sortu-4, .-6)

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nsubjpass.

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

A numeric modifier of a noun (nummod) is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.

Urrezko domina irabazi zuen atletak 23 urte ditu .

The athlete who won the gold medal is 23 years old .

Urrezko domina irabazi zuen atletak 23 urte ditu . \n Gold medal_the won_who athlete_the 23 years is .

nmod(domina-2, Urrezko-1)
dobj(irabazi-3, domina-2)
aux(irabazi-3, zuen-4)
acl(atletak-5, irabazi-3)
nsubj(ditu-8, atletak-5)
nummod(urte-7, 23-6)
dobj(ditu-8, urte-7)
punct(ditu-8, .-9)

Hiru puntuak lortu ditugu .

We have got the three points .

Hiru puntuak lortu ditugu . \n Three points_the got have .

nummod(puntuak-2, Hiru-1)
dobj(lortu-3, puntuak-2)
aux(lortu-3, ditugu-4)
punct(lortu-3, .-5)

Festa bat ospatu zuten .

They celebreated one party .

Festa bat ospatu zuten . \n Party one celebreated .

dobj(ospatu-3, Festa-1)
nummod(Festa-1, bat-2)
aux(ospatu-3, zuten-4)
punct(ospatu-3, .-5)

Saiatuko naiz bi maratoi egiten .

I will try to run two maratons .

Saiatuko naiz bi maratoi egiten . \n I will try to run two maratons .

aux(Saiatuko-1, naiz-2)
nummod(maratoi-4, bi-3)
dobj(egiten-5, maratoi-4)
advcl(Saiatuko-1, egiten-5)
punct(Saiatuko-1, .-6)

Note that indefinite quantifiers such as few, many are tagged DET rather than NUM. Therefore their relation to the quantified noun is not nummod but DET (see DET section).

edit nummod

parataxis: parataxis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for parataxis.

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

punct relation is used to annotate punctuation marks.

Two kinds of punctuations can be distinguished:

Coordination in the Basque UD annotation follows the general schema where the first element of the conjunction is the head, and each conjunct, conjunction complementizer or puntuation mark acting as a conjunction should be attached to the first conjunct:

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc eta enparauek Europako Talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat .

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc and the rest form the most robust team of Europe according to most experts .

Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc eta enparauek Europako Talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat . \n Zidane, Henry, Barthez, Deschamps, Blanc and rest_the Europe_of team robust_the_most experts most_according_to .

Zidane , Henry , Barthez , Deschamps , Blanc eta enparauek Europako talde sendoena osatzen dute aditu gehienentzat .
punct(Zidane-1, ,-2)
conj(Zidane-1, Henry-3)
punct(Zidane-1, ,-4)
conj(Zidane-1, Barthez-5)
punct(Zidane-1, ,-6)
conj(Zidane-1, Deschamps-7)
conj(Zidane-1, ,-8)
conj(Zidane-1, Blanc-9)
cc(Zidane-1, eta-10)
conj(Zidane-1, enparauek-11)
nmod(talde-13, Europako-12)
dobj(osatzen-15, talde-13)
amod(talde-13, sendoena-14)
aux(osatzen-15, dute-16)
nmod(osatzen-15, aditu-17)
det(aditu-17, gehienentzat-18)
punct(osatzen-15, .-19)

Full stop is linked to the head of the sentence.

Eztabaida handia sortu du aldaketak .

The change has caused a huge discussion .

Eztabaida handia sortu du aldaketak .\n Discussion huge_a caused has change_the .  

amod(Eztabaida-1, handia-2)
nobj(sortu-3, Eztabaida-1)
aux(sortu-3, du-4)
nsubj(sortu-3, aldaketak-5)
punct(sortu-3, .-6)

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for remnant.

edit remnant

reparandum: overridden disfluency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for reparandum.

edit reparandum

root: root

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for root.

edit root

vocative: vocative

The vocative relation is used to mark dialogue participant addressed in text (common in conversations, emails and newsgroup postings). The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.

Ganix, etorri !

Ganix, come !

Ganix, etorri! \n Ganix, come!

vocative(etorri-3, Ganix-1)
punct(etorri-3, ,-2)
punct(etorri-3, !-4)

Nora zoaz, Kurt ?

Where are you going, Kurt ?

Nora zoaz, Kurt ? \n Where you_are_going, Kurt ?

vocative(zoaz-2, Kurt-4)
punct(zoaz-2, ,-3)
advmod(zoaz-2, Nora-1)
punct(zoaz-2, ?-5)

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject (“without its own subject” does not mean that a clause is an xcomp just because its subject is not overt). The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp (normally by the object of the next higher clause, if there is one, or else by the subject of the next higher clause). These clauses are non-finite in Basque (although in some languages can be finite).

Atzo entrenamendua uztea erabaki zuen .

Yesterday (he/she) decided to leave the training .

Atzo entrenamendua uztea erabaki zuen .\n  Yesterday training_the to_leave decided .

advmod(erabaki-4, Atzo-1)
dobj(uztea-3, entrenamendua-2)
xcomp(erabaki-4, uztea-3)
aux(erabaki-4, zuen-5)
punct(erabaki-4, .-6)
~~~ sdparse


*Alkateek nahi dute lehenbailehen **biltzea** .*

*Mayors want **to meet** as soon as possible .*

~~~ sdparse
Alkateek nahi dute lehenbailehen biltzea .\n  Mayors want as_soon_as_possible to_meet.

nsubj(nahi_dute-2, Alkateek-1)
xcomp(nahi_dute-2, biltzea-4)
adv(biltzea-4, lehenbailehen-3)
punct(nahi_dute-2, .-5)

Mentalki irmo ikusi ditut haiek .

I have seen them mentally firm .

Mentalki irmo ikusi ditut haiek .\n Mentally firm seen have them .

adv(ikusi-3, Mentalki-1)
xcomp(ikusi-3, irmo-2)
aux(ikusi-3, ditut-4)
dobj(ikusi-3, haiek-5)
punct(ikusi-3, .-6)

Madrilera ez joatea erabaki zuen .

(He/she) decided not to go to Madrid .

Madrilera ez joatea erabaki zuen .\n  Madrid_to not to_go decided .

nmod(joatea-3, Madrilera-1)
neg(joatea-3, ez-2)
xcomp(erabaki-4, joatea-3)
aux(erabaki-4, zuen-5)
punct(erabaki-4, .-6)

edit xcomp