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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
obj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
  acl:relcl
appos   det
nmod   neg
nmod:poss
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound fixed goeswith
flat foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis orphan
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

acl is used for finite and non-finite clauses that modify a noun. Note that in Spanish relative clauses get assigned a specific relation acl:relcl, a subtype of acl.

una buena opción a tener en cuenta \n a good option to take into account
acl(opción, tener)
acl(option, take)
una localidad situada en la región de Alta Normandía \n a location situated in the region of Upper Normandy
acl(localidad, situada)
acl(location, situated)

edit acl

acl:relcl: acl:relcl

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for acl:relcl.

edit acl:relcl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advcl.

An adverbial clause modifier is a clause which modifies a verb or other predicate (adjective, etc.), as a modifier not as a core complement. This includes things such as a temporal clause, consequence, conditional clause, purpose clause, etc. The dependent must be clausal (or else it is an advmod) and the dependent is the main predicate of the clause.

Me vió mientras lavaba los platos.
advcl(vió, lavaba)
Le habló para crear una cuenta 
advcl(habló, crear)
Estaba cansado cuando lo vi 
advcl(cansado, vi)

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advmod: adverbial modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advmod.

An adverbial modifier of a word is a (non-clausal) adverb or adverbial phrase (ADVP) that serves to modify the meaning of the word.

Pedro habla demasiado rápido . \n Pedro speaks too fast .
advmod(habla, rápido)
advmod(rápido, demasiado)

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for amod.

An adjectival modifier of an NP is any adjectival phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the NP.

Encuentran materiales peligrosos .
amod(materiales, peligrosos)

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for appos.

An appositional modifier of an NP is an NP immediately to the right of the first NP that serves to define or modify that NP. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

Mi amigo Pedro ... \n My friend Pedro ...
appos(amigo, Pedro)

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aux: auxiliary

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for aux.

An auxiliary of a clause is a non-main verb of the clause, e.g., a modal auxiliary, or a form of “estar”, “ser” or “haber” in a periphrastic tense.

Spanish modal auxiliaries include (Butt and Benjamin, 2013):

Regan ha muerto . \n Regan has died .
aux(muerto, ha)

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auxpass: passive auxiliary

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for auxpass.

Kennedy fue asesinado . \n Kennedy was murdered .
auxpass(asesinado, fue)

edit auxpass

auxpass:reflex: auxpass:reflex

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for auxpass:reflex.

edit auxpass:reflex

case: case marking

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for case.

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for cc.

A coordination is the relation between an element of a conjunct and the coordinating conjunction word of the conjunct. (Note: different dependency grammars have different treatments of coordination. We take one conjunct of a conjunction as the head of the conjunction.) A conjunction may also appear at the beginning of a sentence. This is also called a cc, and it depends on the root predicate of the sentence.

María es guapa y simpática . \n María is pretty and friendly .
cc(guapa, y)

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ccomp: clausal complement

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for ccomp.

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause with an internal subject (perhaps implicit) which functions like an object of the verb, or adjective.

Explícame que estás haciendo . \n Explain me what you are doing .
ccomp(Explícame, haciendo)

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compound: compound

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for compound.

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conj: conjunct

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for conj.

A conjunct is the relation between two elements connected by a coordinating conjunction, such as “y”, “o”, etc. We treat conjunctions asymmetrically: The head of the relation is the first conjunct and other conjunctions depend on it via the conj relation.

María es guapa y simpática . \n Maria is pretty and friendly .
conj(guapa, simpática)

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cop: copula

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for cop.

Juan es una buena persona . \n Juan is a good person .
cop(es, persona)
Juan es alto . \n Juan is tall .
cop(es, alto)

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csubj: clausal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for csubj.

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb.

Le gusta comer tarde . \n He\/she likes to eat late .
csubj(gusta, comer)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for csubjpass.

Es sabido que Maria llega siempre tarde . \n It is known that Maria arrives always late .
csubjpass(sabido, llega)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dep.

edit dep

det: determiner

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for det.

Esta moneda está sucia . \n This coin is dirty .
dep(moneda, está)

edit det

discourse: discourse element

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for discourse.

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dislocated.

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for obj.

Hoy comeremos pescado . \n We will eat fish today .
dobj(comeremos, pescado)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl.

edit expl

fixed: multi-word expression

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for fixed.

Tengo que estudiar . \n I have to study .
mwe(Tengo, que)

edit fixed

flat: name

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for flat.

edit flat

foreign: foreign words

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for foreign.

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for goeswith.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for iobj.

te voy a contar un cuento . \n I'm going to tell you a story .
iobj(contar, te)

edit iobj

list: list

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for list.

edit list

mark: marker

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mark.

A marker is the word introducing a finite clause subordinate to another clause. For a complement clause, this will typically be “que” or “si”. For an adverbial clause, the marker is typically a preposition like “mientras” or “aunque”. The mark is a dependent of the subordinate clause head.

Escuchan música mientras comen . \n They listen to music while they eat .
mark(comen, mientras)

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neg: negation modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for neg.

María no canta . \n María does not sing .
neg(canta, no)
Nunca llueve . \n It never rains .
neg(llueve, Nunca)

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nmod.

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nsubj.

A nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb, which can be an adjective or noun.

Juan ha invitado a Pedro . \n Juan has invited Pedro .
nsubj(invitado, Juan)

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nsubjpass.

Pedro ha sido invitado por Juan . \n Pedro has been invited by Juan .
nsubjpass(invitado, Pedro)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nummod.

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.

hay dos espacios \n There are two spaces
nummod(espacios, dos)
15 años \n 15 years 
nummod(años, 15)

edit nummod

orphan: remnant in ellipsis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for orphan.

edit orphan

parataxis: parataxis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for parataxis.

Ya sé lo que llevaré a la fiesta: fruta y vino . \n I already know what I will bring to the party : fruit and wine .
parataxis(llevaré, fruta)

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punct: punctuation

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for punct.

Cierra la puerta ! \n Close the door !
punct(Cierra, !)

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reparandum: overridden disfluency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for reparandum.

edit reparandum

root: root

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for root.

The root grammatical relation points to the root of the sentence. A fake node “ROOT” is used as the governor. The ROOT node is indexed with “0”, since the indexation of real words in the sentence starts at 1.

ROOT Me gusta el cine . \n I like the cinema .
root(ROOT, gusta)
ROOT María es simpática . \n María is friendly .
root(ROOT, es)

edit root

vocative: vocative

vocative: vocative

The vocative relation is used to mark dialogue participant addressed in text (common in emails and newsgroup postings). The relation links the addressee’s name to its host sentence.

No me digas , hombre vocative(digas, hombre)
Señor , podemos entender vocative(entender, Señor)

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for xcomp.

Quiero comprar un ordenador . \n I want to buy a computer  .
xcomp(Quiero, comprar)

edit xcomp