Boolean feature. Is this an abbreviation? Note that the abbreviated word typically belongs to a part of speech other than cs-pos/X.
Yes: it is abbreviation
- Acronyms: ČR (Česká republika) “Czech Republic”, LN (Lidové noviny) (a newspaper), ODS (Občanská demokratická strana) “Civic Democratic Party”, OSN (Organizace spojených národů) “United Nations Organization”, ODA (Občanská demokratická aliance) “Civic Democratic Alliance”
- Initials: J, M, V, A, C
- Abbreviations: r. (rok) “year”, např. (například) “for example”, tzv. (takzvaný) “so-called”, a. s. (akciová společnost) “joint-stock company”, tel. (telefon) “phone”
AdpType: adposition type
Czech has neither postpositions nor circumpositions but there are several forms of prepositions that this feature distinguishes.
Prep: (normal) preposition
- v “in”, na “on”, o “about”, z “of”, s “with”, do “into”, k “to”, pro “for”, za “behind”, po “after”
Voc: vocalized preposition
Some Czech prepositions are non-syllabic and their form has to be changed in some contexts to facilitate pronunciation. Moreover, some syllabic prepositions are altered too, if the following word starts with certain consonant clusters.
The first line shows examples of vocalized preposition forms, the second line shows corresponding base forms.
- ve, se, ze, ke, ode, beze, ku, skrze, přede, nade
- v, s, z, k, od, bez, k, skrz, před, nad
Comprep: dependent part of compound preposition
This value marks dependent first part of a compound preposition. This word cannot occur alone.
Not all compound prepositions contain words marked
Many compound prepositions consist of two normal prepositions and a noun
(an example is na rozdíl od “in contrast to”).
Sometimes there are just two words, the second one is normal preposition and the first one
is a secondary preposition (etymologically some other part of speech, but it has been frozen as
- vzhledem k(e) “due to”, nehledě na “regardless of”, narozdíl od “in contrast to”
Similarly to Gender, animacy is a lexical feature of nouns and inflectional feature of other parts of speech that mark agreement with nouns. It is independent of gender, therefore it is encoded separately in some tagsets (e.g. all the Multext-East tagsets). On the other hand, in Czech the (almost) only grammatical implications occur within the masculine gender, which is why the PDT tagset does not have animacy as separate feature and instead defines four genders: masculine animate, masculine inanimate, feminine and neuter.
Human beings, animals, fictional characters, names of professions etc. are all animate. Even nouns that are normally inanimate can be inflected as animate if they are personified. For instance, consider a children’s story about cars where cars live and talk as people; then the cars may become and be inflected as animates.
PDT examples of masculine animate nouns:
- člověk “man”, ministr “minister”, prezident “president”, předseda “chairman”, ředitel “director”
Nouns that are not animate are inanimate.
PDT examples of masculine inanimate nouns:
- rok “year”, zákon “law”, stát “state”, případ “case”, milión “million”
Aspect is a feature that specifies duration of the action in time, whether the action has been completed etc.
In Czech, aspect is considered a lexical feature of verbs. While many imperfective verbs have morphologically related perfective counterparts, it is not a regular system and the two verbs are represented by different lemmas.
Imp: imperfect aspect
The action took / takes / will take some time span and there is no information whether and when it was / will be completed.
- péci “to bake” (Imp); pekl chleba “he baked / was baking a bread”
Perf: perfect aspect
The action has been / will have been completed. Since there is emphasis on one point on the time scale (the point of completion), this aspect does not work well with the present tense. Czech morphology can create present forms of perfective verbs but these actually have a future meaning.
- upéci “to bake” (Perf); upekl chleba “he baked / has baked a bread”
Prague Dependency Treebank
The PDT tagset does not encode aspect. However, verb lemmas in PDT contain their own features
that encode the aspect:
Perf. These lemma features were removed
during conversion, and the
Aspect feature was introduced instead.
Unfortunately the morphological lexicon underlying the PDT annotation is incomplete and numerous verbs lack the aspect information. Without this imperfection there would be only a tiny group of verbs that work with both aspects.
Case is an inflectional feature of nouns and other parts of speech (adjectives, numerals) that mark agreement with nouns. It is also valency feature of prepositions (saying that the preposition requires its argument to be in that case).
Case helps specify the role of the noun phrase in the sentence. For example, the nominative and accusative cases often distinguish subject and object of the verb, while in fixed-word-order languages these functions would be distinguished merely by the positions of the nouns in the sentence.
Czech morphology distinguishes seven cases:
(this ordering is fixed in the grammar and the cases are also referred to by numbers 1–7).
- singular nominative matka “mother”, genitive matky , dative matce, accusative matku, vocative matko, locative matce, instrumental matkou
- plural nominative matky, genitive matek, dative matkám, accusative matky, vocative matky, locative matkách, instrumental matkami
The descriptions of the individual case values below include semantic hints about the prototypical meaning of the case. Bear in mind that quite often a case will be used for a meaning that is totally unrelated to the meaning mentioned here. Valency of verbs, adpositions and other words will determine that the noun phrase must be in a particular grammatical case to fill a particular valency slot (semantic role).
The base form of the noun, also used as citation form (lemma). This is the word form used for subjects of clauses.
Prototypical meaning of genitive is that the noun phrase somehow belongs to its governor; it would often be translated by the English preposition of.
Note that despite considerable semantic overlap, the genitive case is not the same as the feature of possessivity (Poss). Possessivity is a lexical feature, i.e. it applies to lemma and its whole paradigm. Genitive is a feature of just a subset of word forms of the lemma. Semantics of possessivity is much more clearly defined while the genitive (as many other cases) may be required in situations that have nothing to do with possessing. For example, bez prezidentovy dcery “without the president’s daughter” is a prepositional phrase containing the preposition bez “without”, the possessive adjective prezidentovy “president’s” and the noun dcery “daughter”. The possessive adjective is derived from the noun prezident but it is really an adjective (with separate lemma and paradigm), not just a form of the noun. In addition, both the adjective and the noun are in their genitive forms (the nominative would be prezidentova dcera). There is nothing possessive about this particular occurrence of the genitive. It is there because the preposition bez always requires its argument to be in genitive.
- Praha je hlavní město České republiky. “Prague is the capital of the Czech Republic.”
This is the word form often used for indirect objects of verbs.
- Dal jsem dárek svému bratrovi. “I gave my brother a present.” (svému bratrovi “my brother” is dative and dárek “present” is accusative.)
Perhaps the second most widely spread morphological case. This is the word form most frequently used for direct objects of verbs.
The vocative case is a special form of noun used to address someone. Thus it predominantly appears with animate nouns (see the feature of Animacy). Nevertheless this is not a grammatical restriction and inanimate things can be addressed as well.
- Co myslíš, Filipe? “What do you think, Filip?”
The locative case often expresses location in space or time, which gave it its name. As elsewhere, non-locational meanings also exist and they are not rare. On the other hand, some location roles may be expressed using other cases (e.g. because those cases are required by a preposition).
This is the only Czech case that is used exclusively in combination with prepositions.
- V červenci jsem byl ve Švédsku. “In July I was in Sweden.”
- Mluvili jsme tam o morfologii. “We talked there about morphology.” (Non-locational non-temporal example)
The role from which the name of the instrumental case is derived is that the noun is used as instrument to do something (as in psát perem “to write using a pen”). Many other meanings are possible, for example the instrumental is required by the preposition s “with” and thus it includes the meaning expressed in other languages by the comitative case.
In Czech the instrumental is also used for the agent-object in passive constructions (cf. the English preposition by).
- Tento zákon byl schválen vládou. “This bill has been approved by the government.” (Passive example)
ConjType: conjunction type
This feature further subclassifies the parts of speech cs-pos/CONJ and cs-pos/SCONJ;
in Czech, it is used only with
CONJ. The main distinction between coordinating and
subordinating conjunctions is done already at the part-of-speech level.
Oper: mathematical operator
Note that operators can be expressed either using symbols or using words.
The words are considered special kind of coordinating conjunctions and they are marked using
- x “×”, krát “times”, plus “plus”, minus “minus”, kráte “times”
Degree: degree of comparison
Pos: positive, first degree
This is the base form that merely states a quality of something, without comparing it to qualities of others. Note that although this degree is traditionally called “positive”, negative properties can be compared, too.
- mladý muž “young man”
Cmp: comparative, second degree
The quality of one object is compared to the same quality of another object.
- ten muž je mladší než já “the man is younger than me”
Sup: superlative, third degree
The quality of one object is compared to the same quality of all other objects within a set.
- toto je nejmladší muž v našem týmu “this is the youngest man in our team”
Foreign: is this a foreign word?
Boolean feature. Is this a foreign word? Not a loan word but a genuinely foreign word appearing inside native text, e.g. inside direct speech, titles of books etc.
Note that Czech data (especially those from the PDT) often indicate the original part of speech of foreign words. Thus this feature may occur with any POS tag. If the original part of speech is not known, the feature will accompany the cs-pos/X tag.
Foreign: it is foreign
- … nese jméno VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word – velmi dlouhé instrukční slovo)
Fscript: it is foreign and written in a foreign script
- V nepálštině se hora jmenuje सगरमाथा. “In Nepali, the mountain is called सगरमाथा.”
Tscript: it is foreign and transcribed from a foreign script
- Výše uvedené nepálské slovo lze přepsat jako Sagaramāthā. “The above Nepali word can be transcribed Sagaramāthā.”
Prague Dependency Treebank
PDT does not contain words in foreign scripts (what it does contain are foreign letters based on
the Latin script), and transcriptions from foreign scripts are not explicitly marked, hence the
Tscript do not appear in the converted PDT data.
For proper nouns the borderline between foreign words and loan words is somewhat fuzzy, so e.g. the English personal name George is marked as foreign even though it would not normally be translated (except for names of rulers and saints, which would become Jiří).
Gender is a lexical feature of nouns and inflectional feature of other parts of speech (adjectives, verbs) that mark agreement with nouns. There are three values of gender: masculine, feminine, and neuter.
See also the related feature of Animacy.
Masc: masculine gender
Nouns denoting male persons are masculine. Other nouns may be also grammatically masculine, without any relation to sex.
- pán “gentleman”
- hrad “castle”
- muž “man”
- stroj “machine”
- předseda “chairman”
- soudce “judge”
Fem: feminine gender
Nouns denoting female persons are feminine. Other nouns may be also grammatically feminine, without any relation to sex.
- žena “woman”
- růže “rose”
- píseň “song”
- kost “bone”
Neut: neuter gender
This third gender is for nouns that are neither masculine nor feminine (grammatically). Nouns whose nominative suffix is -o or -í (including a large group of deverbative nouns denoting actions) are usually neuter.
- město “city”
- moře “sea”
- kuře “chicken”
- stavení “building”
Gender[psor]: possessor’s gender
Possessive adjectives and pronouns may have two different genders: that of the
possessed object (gender agreement with modified noun) and that of
the possessor (lexical feature, inherent gender). The
feature captures the possessor’s gender.
In the Czech examples below, the masculine gender implies using one of the suffixes -ův, -ova, -ovo, and the feminine gender implies using one of -in, -ina, -ino.
Masc: masculine possessor
- otcův syn “father’s son”
- otcova dcera “father’s daughter”
- otcovo dítě “father’s child”
Fem: feminine possessor
- matčin syn “mother’s son”
- matčina dcera “mother’s daughter”
- matčino dítě “mother’s child”
Hyph: hyphenated compound or part of it
Boolean feature. Is this the first part of a hyphenated compound?
Compound adjectives with hyphens, such as česko-slovenský “Czech-Slovak” get split during tokenization. The last part, slovenský, is an independent adjective with full inflection paradigm. However, the first part, česko, is a form that does not occur elsewhere than in compounds (the independent form would be český).
Yes: it is part of hyphenated compound
- česko-slovenský “Czecho-Slovak”
Mood is a feature that expresses modality and subclassifies finite verb forms.
The indicative can be considered the default mood. A verb in indicative merely states that something happens, has happened or will happen, without adding any attitude of the speaker.
- Studuješ na univerzitě. “You study at the university.”
The speaker uses imperative to order or ask the addressee to do the action of the verb.
Czech verbs (except for modal verbs) have imperative forms of the second person singular, first person plural and second person plural.
- Studuj na univerzitě! “Study at the university!”
The conditional mood is used to express actions that would have taken place under some circumstances but they actually did not / do not happen.
Czech has present conditional and past conditional, both formed periphrastically using
the past participle of the content verb, and a special form of the auxiliary verb
být. The special form is historically aorist tense, but the tense does not exist
in modern Czech, so the auxiliary form is better described by
The past participle of the content verb is not marked as conditional because it can also be used in past indicative.
- Kdybych byl chytrý, studoval bych na univerzitě. “If I were smart I would study at the university.”
NameType: type of named entity
Classification of named entities (token-based, no nesting of entities etc.)
The feature applies mainly to the cs-pos/PROPN tag;
in multi-word foreign names, adjectives may also have this feature
(they preserve the
ADJ tag but at the same time they would not exist in Czech
otherwise than in the named entity).
Conversion from the Prague Dependency Treebank
Lemmas in PDT contain features
that also encode types of named entities. When converting the PDT annotation
to UD, these lemma features are removed and the feature
NameType is added to the universal features to preserve the type.
The following table lists the name types together with the most frequent examples. See http://ufal.mff.cuni.cz/techrep/tr27.pdf, page 8, section 2.1 (Lemma structure) for more details.
|_;Y||given name||Jan, Jiří, Václav, Petr, Josef||“Jan, Jiří, Václav, Petr, Josef”|
|_;S||surname||Klaus, Havel, Němec, Jelcin, Svoboda||“Klaus, Havel, Němec, Yeltsin, Svoboda”|
|_;E||member of a particular nation, inhabitant of a particular territory||Němec, Čech, Srb, Američan, Slovák||“German, Czech, Serbian, American, Slovak”|
|_;G||geographical name||Praha, ČR, Evropa, Německo, Brno||“Prague, CR, Europe, Germany, Brno”|
|_;K||company, organization, institution||ODS, OSN, Sparta, ODA, Slavia||“ODS, UN, Sparta, ODA, Slavia”|
|_;R||product||LN, Mercedes, Tatra, PC, MF||“LN, Mercedes, Tatra, PC, MF”|
|_;m||other proper name: names of mines, stadiums, guerilla bases etc.||US, PVP, Prix, Rapaport, Tour||“US, PVP, Prix, Rapaport, Tour”|
Geo: geographical name
Names of cities, countries, rivers, mountains etc.
- Praha “Prague”, Kostelec nad Černými lesy, Německo “Germany”
Prs: name of person
This value is used if it is not known whether it is a given or a family name, but it is known that it is a personal name.
Giv: given name of person
Given name (not family name). This is usually the first name in European and American names. In Chinese names, the last two syllables (of three) are usually the given name.
- Jan, Jiří, Václav
Sur: surname / family name of person
Family name (surname). This is usually the last name in European and American names. In Chinese names, the first syllable (of three) is usually the surname.
- Klaus, Havel, Němec
Name denoting a member of a particular nation, or inhabitant of a particular territory. This does not include derived adjectives, nor nouns denoting languages (both groups are written in lowercase). Thus Čech “Czech [man]” belongs here but český “Czech” and čeština “Czech [language]” do not.
- Čech “Czech”, Němec “German”, Pražan “Praguer”
Com: company, organization
Names of stadiums, guerilla bases, events etc.
Negative: whether the word can be or is negated
In Czech, negation is mostly done using the bound morpheme ne-, and an independent negating particle (equivalent to English “not”) is rarely seen. Words that can take the morpheme of negation have the feature of negativeness.
Negative=Neg is not the same thing as
=Neg. For pronouns and other pronominal parts of speech
there is no such binary opposition as for verbs and adjectives. (There
is no such thing as “affirmative pronoun”.)
Pos: positive, affirmative
- přišel “he came”
- rozumný “wise”
- pěkně “nicely”
- přijetí “acceptance”
- nepřišel “he did not come”
- nerozumný “unwise”
- nepěkně “nastily”
- nepřijetí “non-acceptance, rejection”
NumForm: numeral form
Feature of cardinal and ordinal numbers. Is the number expressed by digits or as a word?
Word: number expressed as word
- jeden “one”, dva “two”, tři “three”
Digit: number expressed using digits
- 1, 2, 3
Roman: roman numeral
- I, II, III
NumType: numeral type
Czech has a complex system of numerals. For example, in the school grammar of Czech, the main part of speech is “numeral”, it includes almost everything where counting is involved and there are various subtypes. It also includes interrogative, relative, indefinite and demonstrative quantifiers (words like kolik “how many”, tolik “so many”, několik “several”), so at the same time we may have a non-empty value of PronType.
From the syntactic point of view, some numtypes behave like adjectives
and some behave like adverbs. We tag them cs-pos/ADJ and
cs-pos/ADV respectively. Thus the
NumType feature applies to
several different parts of speech:
- cs-pos/NUM: cardinal numerals
- cs-pos/DET: quantifiers
- cs-pos/ADJ: adjectival ordinal and some generic numerals
- cs-pos/ADV: adverbial (e.g. ordinal and multiplicative) numerals
Card: cardinal number or corresponding interrogative / relative / indefinite / demonstrative word
- jeden, dva, tři “one, two, three”
- kolik “how many”
- několik “several”, mnoho “many”, málo “few”
- tolik “so many”
Ord: ordinal number or corresponding interrogative / relative / indefinite / demonstrative word
This is a subtype of adjective or adverb.
- první “first”; druhý “second”, třetí “third”
- kolikátý lit. how manieth “which rank”
- několikátý “some rank”
- tolikátý “this/that rank”
- poprvé “for the first time”; podruhé “for the second time”; potřetí “for the third time”
- pokolikáté “for which time”
- poněkolikáté “for x-th time”
- potolikáté “it has been so many times”
Mult: multiplicative numeral or corresponding interrogative / relative / indefinite / demonstrative word
This is a subtype of adverb.
- jednou “once”; dvakrát “twice”; třikrát “three times”
- kolikrát “how many times”
- několikrát “several times”
- tolikrát “so many times”
This is a subtype of cardinal numbers. It may denote a fraction or just the denominator of the fraction.
- půl / polovina “half”; třetina “one third”; čtvrt / čtvrtina “quarter”
Sets: number of sets of things
Morphologically distinct class of numerals used to count sets of things, or nouns that are pluralia tantum.
- dvoje / troje boty “two / three [pairs of] shoes”; as opposed to normal cardinal numbers: dvě / tři boty “two / three shoes”
Gen: generic numeral, i.e. a numeral that is neither of the above
Czech school grammar distinguishes this subclass, which is why it
appears in Czech tagsets. (Note that
“generic numerals” in Czech grammar also include the
- čtvero, patero, desatero (specific forms of four, five, ten; they are morphologically, syntactically and stylistically distinct from the default forms čtyři, pět, deset)
- dvojí, trojí, čtverý (twofold, threefold, fourfold; these are morphologically and syntactically adjectives)
NumValue: numeric value
In Czech, number “one” agrees with the counted noun in Gender, Number and Case. Number “two” agrees in gender and case and numbers “three” and “four” agree in case. These numerals behave similarly to adjectives. Numbers “five”, “six” etc. behave differently. If the case of the counted phrase is genitive, dative, locative or instrumental, the numeral agrees in case with the noun. However, if the case of the whole phrase is nominative, accusative or vocative, then the numeral dictates that the noun is in genitive. This behavior is similar to nouns modified by other nouns in genitive. (Note that this is why in the Czech PDT some numeral nodes are annotated as governing nouns instead of modifying them.) In addition, the whole phrase (number + counted noun) together behaves as neuter singular (this is important for subject-verb agreement).
Specific behavior of low-value numerals is the reason why there is a separate feature to mark these numerals.
1: numeric value 1
- jeden, jedna, jedno “one”
2: numeric value 2
- dva, dvě “two”
3: numeric value 3 or 4
- tři “three”, čtyři “four”
Sing: singular number
A singular noun denotes one person, animal or thing.
- starý muž přišel “an old man came”
- mladá žena přišla “a young woman came”
- malé kuře přišlo “a small chicken came”
Plur: plural number
A plural noun denotes several persons, animals or things.
- staří muži přišli “old men came”
- mladé ženy přišly “young women came”
- malá kuřata přišla “small chickens came”
Dual: dual number
A dual noun denotes two objects. The dual number has almost vanished from Czech with the exception of special instrumental case suffixes for body parts that occur in pairs, and any adjectives that modify them.
The noun noha means either “leg” of a human, or of a table. Dual is used for the former and plural for the latter:
- holka s dlouhýma nohama “a girl with long legs”
- stůl s dlouhými nohami “a table with long legs”
The numeral sto “hundred” has also a special form of plural that is actually the dual:
- dvě stě “two hundred”
- tři sta “three hundred”
Ptan: plurale tantum
Some nouns appear only in the plural form even though they denote one
thing (semantic singular); some tagsets mark this distinction.
Grammatically they behave like plurals, so
Plur is obviously the
back-off value here; however, the
non-existence of singular form sometimes means that the gender is
unknown. In Czech, special type of numerals is used when counting
nouns that are plurale tantum (NumType
- nůžky, kalhoty “scissors, pants”
Coll: collective / mass / singulare tantum
Collective or mass or singulare tantum is a special case of singular. It applies to words that use grammatical singular to describe sets of objects, i.e. semantic plural. Although in theory they might be able to form plural, in practice it would be rarely semantically plausible. Sometimes, the plural form exists and means “several sorts of” or “several packages of”.
- lidstvo “mankind”
Prague Dependency Treebank
The PDT tagset does not distinguish
therefore this distinction is not being made in the converted data.
Number[psor]: possessor’s number
Possessives may have two different numbers: that of the possessed object (number
agreement with modified noun) and that of the possessor. The
Number[psor] feature captures the possessor’s number.
Sing: singular possessor
- můj pes “my dog”
- mí psi “my dogs”
Plur: plural possessor
- náš pes “our dog”
- naši psi “our dogs”
Person is a feature of personal and possessive pronouns, and of verbs. On verbs it is in fact an agreement feature that marks the person of the verb’s subject. Person marked on verbs makes it unnecessary to always add a personal pronoun as subject and thus subjects are sometimes dropped (Czech is a pro-drop language).
1: first person
In singular, the first person refers just to the speaker / author. In plural, it must include the speaker and one or more additional persons.
- dělám “I do”
- děláme “we do”
2: second person
In singular, the second person refers to the addressee of the utterance / text. In plural, it may mean several addressees and optionally some third persons too.
- děláš “you.
- děláte “you.
3: third person
The third person refers to one or more persons that are neither speakers nor addressees.
- dělá “he/she/it does”
- dělají “they do”
Boolean feature of pronouns, determiners or adjectives. It tells whether the word is possessive.
While many tagsets would have “possessive” as one of the various pronoun types, this feature is intentionally separate from PronType, as it is orthogonal to pronominal types. Several of the pronominal types can be optionally possessive, and adjectives can too.
Yes: it is possessive
Note that there is no
No value. If the word is not possessive, the
Poss feature will just not be mentioned in the
FEAT column. (Which
means that empty value has the
- possessive personal pronouns/determiners: můj, tvůj, jeho, její, náš, váš, jejich “my, your, his, her, our, your, their”
- possessive reflexive pronoun/determiner: svůj “one’s own”
- possessive relative pronoun/determiner: jehož “whose”
- possessive adjectives: otcův “father’s”, matčin “mother’s”
PrepCase: case form sensitive to prepositions
Some personal pronouns have different forms depending on whether they are objects of prepositions or not.
Default empty value means that the word form is neutral w.r.t. prepositions.
Npr: non-prepositional case
This word form must not be used after a preposition.
- jeho, jemu, jím “him” (
Pre: prepositional case
This word form must be used after a preposition.
- něho, němu, něm, ním “him” (
PronType: pronominal type
Prs: personal or possessive personal pronoun or determiner
- já, ty, on, ona, ono, my, vy, oni, ony, ona, se “I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they, they, they, oneself”
- můj, tvůj, jeho, její, náš, váš, jejich, svůj “my, your, his/its, her, our, your, their, one’s own”
Int: interrogative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
Note that possessive interrogative determiners (whose) can be distinguished by the Poss feature.
- kdo “who”
- co “what”
- jaký “what kind of”
- který “which”
- čí “whose”
- kolik “how many”
- kolikátý “how-maniest” (ordinal number)
- kolikrát “how many times”
- kde “where”
- kam “where to”
- kdy “when”
- jak “how”
- proč “why”
Rel: relative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
Note that this class heavily overlaps with interrogatives, yet there are pronouns that are only relative.
- jenž, což “which, that” (relative but not interrogative pronouns)
- jehož “whose” (possessive relative pronoun)
Dem: demonstrative pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
These are to some extent parallel to interrogatives.
- tento “this”
- tamten “that”
- takový “such”
- týž “same”
- tolik “so many”
- tolikátý “so-maniest” (ordinal number)
- tolikrát “so many times”
- tady “here”
- tam “there”
- teď “now”
- tehdy “then”
- tak “so”
Tot: total (collective) pronoun, determiner or adverb
- každý “every, everybody, everyone, each”
- všechno “everything, all”
- všude “everywhere”
- vždy “always”
Neg: negative pronoun, determiner or adverb
- nikdo “nobody”
- nic “nothing”
- nijaký “no (kind)”
- ničí “no one’s”
- žádný “no, none”
- nikde “nowhere”
- nikam “(to) nowhere”
- nikdy “never”
- nijak “no way” (lit. “no-how”)
Ind: indefinite pronoun, determiner, numeral or adverb
- někdo “somebody”; kdokoli “anybody”; málokdo “few people”; leckdo “quite a few people”; kdosi “somebody”
- něco “something”; cokoli “anything”; máloco “few things”; lecco “quite a few things”; cosi “something”
- nějaký “some kind of”; jakýkoli “any kind of”; lecjaký “just any”; jakýsi “some, certain”
- některý “some”; kterýkoli “any”; málokterý “few”; leckterý “quite a few”; kterýsi “some”
- něčí “someone’s”; číkoli “anyone’s”; lecčí “of quite a few people”; čísi “someone’s”
- několik “several”; málo “few”; mnoho “many”
- několikátý “severalth” (indefinite ordinal numeral)
- několikrát “several times”
- někde “somewhere”; kdekoli “anywhere”; málokde “few places”; leckde “quite a few places”; kdesi “somewhere”
- někam “(to) somewhere”; kamkoli “(to) anywhere”; kamsi “(to) somewhere”
- někdy “sometimes”; kdykoli “anytime”; málokdy “few times”; leckdy “quite a few times”; kdysi “once (long ago)”
- nějak “somehow”; jakkoli “anyhow”; lecjak “quite a few ways”; jaksi “somehow”
In Czech, reflexive pronouns have various functions:
- Reflexive object of a verb means that the object is the same entity as the subject: Jan si koupil auto = “Jan bought himself a car” vs. Jan mu koupil auto = “Jan bought him [someone else] a car”
- Reflexive object of a verb in plural may also indicate a reciprocal action. This usage of the reflexive pronoun is translated to English as “each other”. Unlike e.g. German, Czech does not have a special reciprocal pronoun and the reflexive pronoun is used instead: Jan a Marie se milují = “Jan and Mary love each other”
- Reflexive pronoun in a subjectless clause constitutes so-called reflexive passive: To se napíše zítra (reflexive passive, the verb is morphologically in active form) vs. To bude napsáno zítra (normal passive, with auxiliary finite verb and a passive participle) “That will be written tomorrow”
- Some verbs are mandatorily reflexive, i.e. they never occur without the reflexive pronoun. The pronoun does not alter the meaning in any way, but without it the sentence would not be grammatical: Jan se směje “Jan laughs”
Reflexive possessives indicate that the subject of the clause is the possessor:
- Jan prodal své auto. “Jan sold his [own] car.”
- Jan prodal jeho auto. “Jan sold his [someone else’s] car.”
Yes: it is reflexive
Note that there is no
No value. If the word is not reflexive, the
Reflex feature will just not be mentioned in the
column. (Which means that empty value has the
- reflexive personal pronouns: se, si, sebe, sobě, sebou (occurs in various cases but not in nominative and vocative; does not distinguish Number)
- reflexive possessive pronoun: svůj
Style: style or sublanguage to which this word form belongs
This may be a lexical feature (some words-lemmas are archaic, some are colloquial) or a morphological feature (inflectional patterns may systematically change between dialects or styles).
Arch: archaic, obsolete
- biblí, bukův, dubův, činějí
Form: formal, literary
Norm: normal, neutral
- normal paradigm of hard adjectives: mladý, mladého, mladému, mladém, mladým, mladí, mladých, mladým, mladé, mladými “young”
- colloquial paradigm of hard adjectives: mladej, mladýho, mladýmu, mladým, mladým, mladý, mladejch, mladejm, mladý, mladejma “young”
Expr: expressive, emotional
Prague Dependency Treebank
PDT does not classify lemmas according to style.
It marks non-standard inflections.
In general, the style feature is used infrequently and only two values are to be expected:
Tense is a feature that specifies the time when the action took / takes / will take place, in relation to the current moment or to another action in the utterance.
Past: past tense
The past tense denotes actions that happened before the current moment. Past tense in Czech consists of the past participle (also called active participle or l-participle), which is accompanied by a present auxiliary verb in the first and second persons, and stands alone in the third person.
The auxiliary (if any) is in its present form, so it will have
The participle has
Tense=Past, even though it can also be used to form present conditional.
- Šel jsem domů. “I have gone home.”
- Šel jsi domů. “You have gone home.”
- Šel domů. “He has gone home.”
Pres: present tense
The present tense denotes actions that are happening right now or that usually happen.
Note that morphologically present forms of perfective verbs have actually a future meaning
but they will still be marked
- Přicházím domů. “I come / am coming home.” (Přicházet is an imperfective verb.)
- Přijdu domů. “I will come home.” (Přijít is a perfective verb.)
- Jdu domů. “I go / am going home.” (Jít is an imperfective verb.)
Fut: future tense
The future tense denotes actions that will happen after the current moment. Future tense in Czech is formed in one of three ways, depending of the verb:
- Present forms of perfective verbs have future meaning. These forms are tagged
- The verb být “to be” has a set of distinct future forms. They combine a future stem bud with present suffixes.
A small set of verbs (mostly motion verbs) have also future forms. These are formed as the present form (present stem and suffix)
with the prefix po-.
Although these forms are morphologically very close to the present forms, they are tagged
Tense=Futbecause the same lemma has also present forms and the feature must distinguish the two.
- The remaining imperfective verbs have periphrastic future forms, consiting of the future form of the auxiliary být,
and the infinitive of the content verb. Only the auxiliary will have
Tense=Fut, while there will be no tense information at the infinitive.
- Půjdu domů. “I will go home.” (Jít is an imperfective verb, phonological rule transformed the prefix po- to pů-.)
- Budu přicházet domů. “I will be coming home.” (Přicházet is an imperfective verb and it forms future periphrastically.)
Variant: alternative form of word
Sometimes there are multiple word forms for the same lemma and set of features.
Variant feature helps distinguish alternate forms.
In Czech there are two groups of words where double forms are regular and worth capturing:
short forms of adjectives and short (clitic) forms of personal pronouns.
This feature only marks the non-standard short forms, hence there is only one value,
For the long standard forms the
Variant feature remains unspecified.
Short: short form of adjectives
The short form is called nominal form of adjective (jmenný tvar přídavného jména), as opposed to the long form, which is pronominal because it originated as a combination of a nominal form and a personal pronoun. But this is ancient history of the language. In modern Czech, only a subset of the nominal forms survive, and using them sometimes sounds slightly archaic. They are used as nominal predicates with copula, but they do not appear as premodifiers of nouns. The pronominal forms are considered standard, except for two frequent adjectives that do not have them: třeba, rád.
- možno “possible”, schopen “able”, nutno “necessary”, znám “known”, spokojen “satisfied”, povinen “supposed to”, ochoten “willing”, jist “sure”, vědom “knowing”, přítomen “present”, roven “equal”, patrno “apparent”, hotov “finished”, spjat “connected”, vinen “guilty”
- Long equivalents: možné, schopný, nutné, známý, spokojený, povinný, ochotný, jistý, vědomý, přítomný, rovný, patrné, hotový, spjatý, vinný
Short: short (clitic) form of personal pronouns
Some personal pronouns in dative and accusative Case have double forms. The normal (long) form is more independent in terms of positions it can take in word order. The short forms are clitics (http://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C5%99%C3%ADklonka). They are separate words (unlike in some other languages) but in the word order they usually stick to the second position.
- mi, mě, ti, tě, mu, ho, si, se
- mně, mne, tobě, tebe, jemu, jeho, sobě, sebe
- “me, me, you, you, him, him, oneself, oneself”
VerbForm: form of verb or deverbative
Even though the name of the feature seems to suggest that it is used
exclusively with verbs, it is not the case.
Part value can be used also with adjectives.
It distinguishes participles from other verb forms,
and participial adjectives from other adjectives.
Fin: finite verb
- nesu, neseš, nese, neseme, nesete, nesou “I carry, you carry, he/she/it carries, we carry, you carry, they carry”
- nes, nesme, neste “carry” (imperative in different persons and numbers)
- jsem, jsi, je, jsme, jste, jsou “I am, you are, he/she/it is, we are, you are, they are”
- budu, budeš, bude, budeme, budete, budou “I will be, you will be, he/she/it will be, we will be, you will be, they will be”
- bych, bys, by, bychom, byste, by “I would, you would, he/she/it would, we would, you would, they would”
- buď, buďme, buďte “be” (imperative in different persons and numbers)
Infinitive is the citation form of verbs. It is also used with the auxiliary být to form periphrastic future tense, and it appears as the argument of modal and other verbs.
- nést “to carry”
- být “to be”
Participle is a non-finite verb form that shares properties of verbs and adjectives. Czech has two types of participles:
- The past participle (also called active participle or l-participle) is used to form the past tense, and the conditional mood in present or past tense.
- The passive participle is used to form the passive voice (in any tense or mood).
- nesl, nesla, neslo, nesli, nesly “carried” (past participle in different genders and numbers)
- nesen, nesena, neseno, neseni, neseny “carried” (passive participle in different genders and numbers)
- byl, byla, bylo, byli, byly “was/been” (past participle in different genders and numbers)
The transgressive, also called adverbial participle, is a non-finite verb form that shares properties of verbs and adverbs.
Imperfective verbs form present transgressive, meaning “while doing”.
Perfective verbs form past transgressive, meaning “having done”.
- nesa, nesouc, nesouce “carrying” (present transgressive in different genders and numbers)
- přines, přinesši, přinesše “having brought” (past transgressive in different genders and numbers)
- jsa, jsouc, jsouce “being” (present transgressive in different genders and numbers)
- byv, byvši, byvše “having been” (past transgressive in different genders and numbers)
- zírali na mne, pevně svírajíce své zbraně “they stared at me while gripping their guns firmly”
- udělavši večeři, zavolala rodinu ke stolu “having prepared the dinner, she called her family to the table”
Voice is a feature of verbs that helps map the traditional syntactic functions, such as subject and object, to semantic roles, such as agent and pacient.
Act: active voice
The subject of the verb is the doer of the action (agent), the object is affected by the action (pacient).
All finite verb forms and the active/past participles are tagged
- Napadli jsme nepřítele. “We attacked the enemy” (the active participle napadli can be used to form either past tense or conditional mood; here it forms the past tense.)
Pass: passive voice
The subject of the verb is affected by the action (patient). The doer (agent) is either unexpressed or it appears as an object of the verb.
Only the passive participle is tagged
- Jsme napadeni nepřítelem. “We are attacked by the enemy” (the passive participle napadeni is used to form passive in all tenses; here it forms the present passive.)