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This page pertains to UD version 2.

obj: direct object

The direct object of a verb is the noun phrase that denotes the entity acted upon. Most often the direct object is in the accusative case but there are verbs that require their objects be in other cases (except for nominative and vocative).

Accusative example:

Koupil jsem auto . \n Bought I-have car .
obj(Koupil, auto)
obj(Bought, car)

Genitive example:

Cením si vaší pomoci . \n I-appreciate REFLEX your help .
obj(Cením, pomoci)
obj(I-appreciate, help)

Dative example:

Čelíme velkým problémům . \n We-face big problems .
obj(Čelíme, problémům)
obj(We-face, problems)

Instrumental example:

Univerzita nedisponuje takovým rozpočtem . \n University does-not-have-at-disposal such budget .
obj(nedisponuje, rozpočtem)
obj(does-not-have-at-disposal, budget)

In general, if there is just one object, it should be labeled obj, regardless of the morphological case or semantic role that it bears. If there are two or more objects, one of them should be obj and the others should be iobj. In such cases it is necessary to decide what is the most directly affected object (patient). The one exception is when there is a clausal complement. Then the clausal complement is regarded as a “clausal direct object” and an object nominal will be an iobj.


Prague Dependency Treebank

The manual annotation of the PDT does not distinguish direct and indirect objects. Therefore most non-clausal dependents labeled Obj in PDT are currently labeled obj in the converted data, even if it results in two or more direct objects attached to one verb. Occasionally a heuristic was used: if there are two objects, one of them accusative and the other dative, then the former is obj and the latter iobj. But such heuristics do not cover all possible objects, and even ditransitive verbs may occur without one of their objects because of ellipsis. In future, the valency lexicon Vallex could be used to identify the main object.

obj in other languages: [u]