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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

POS tags

Open class words Closed class words Other
ADJ ADP PUNCT
ADV AUX SYM
INTJ CONJ X
NOUN DET
PROPN NUM
VERB PART
PRON
SCONJ

ADJ: adjective

Definition

Adjectives are words that typically modify nouns and specify their properties or attributes. They may also function as predicates, as in

Example: [bg] Колата е зелена / Kolata e zelena (The car is green.)

The ADJ tag is intended for ordinary adjectives only. See DET for determiners and NUM for numerals.

In Bulgarian the words that map to the ADJ tag from the BulTreeBank tagset are:

Example: [bg] добър / dobar (good) 7-годишен / 7-godishen (seven-years-old)

Example: [bg] Иванова книга / Ivanova kniga (Ivan’s book)

Example: [bg] втори / vtori (second)

Example: [bg] идващ / idvasht (coming)

Example: [bg] намерен / nameren (found)

Example: [bg] направил / napravil (made)

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

edit ADJ

ADP: adposition

Definition

Adposition in Bulgarian is a preposition. In the BulTreeBank tagset it is encoded as R. Thus, the preposition comes before a complement composed of a noun phrase, noun, pronoun, or clause that functions as a noun phrase, and forms a single structure with the complement to express its grammatical and semantic relation to another unit within a clause.

Examples

In Bulgarian, prepositions can take the form of fixed multiword expressions, such as in spite of, because of, thanks to in English. They are treated as multiwords in the treebank, but for the purposes of mapping to this level, they are treated compositionally.

Examples

is analyzed as

edit ADP

ADV: adverb

Definition

In the group of Bulgarian adverbs there are words that typically modify verbs for such categories as time, place, direction or manner. They may also modify adjectives and other adverbs, as in very briefly or arguably wrong. Some adverbs can modify even [nouns] (Noun).

In BulTreeBank tagset the corresponding POS tag is D.

There is a closed subclass of pronominal adverbs that refer to circumstances in context, rather than naming them directly; similarly to pronouns, these can be categorized as interrogative, relative, demonstrative etc. Pronominal adverbs also get the ADV part-of-speech tag but they are differentiated by additional features.

In the BulTreeBank tagset the corresponding tags are as follows:

Examples

Note that there are words that may be traditionally called numerals in some languages (e.g. Bulgarian) but they are treated as adverbs in the universal tagging scheme. In particular, adverbial ordinal numerals ([bg] първо / parvo “for the first time”) are tagged ADV. The mapped tags present the neuter singular indefinite forms of the ordinal numerals: Monsi. In this way there will be ambiguity with the class of [adjectives] (ADJ).

Another adverbial numeral that goes under ADV is Md#:

Examples

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

edit ADV

AUX: auxiliary verb

Definition

An auxiliary is a function word that accompanies the lexical verb of a verb phrase and expresses grammatical distinctions not carried by the lexical verb, such as person, number, tense, mood, aspect, voice or evidentiality. It is often a verb (which may have non-auxiliary uses as well) but many languages have nonverbal TAME markers and these should also be tagged AUX. The class AUX also include copulas (in the narrow sense of pure linking words for nonverbal predication).

Modal verbs may count as auxiliaries in some languages (English). In other languages their behavior is not too different from the main verbs and they are thus tagged VERB.

Note that not all languages have grammaticalized auxiliaries, and even where they exist the dividing line between full verbs and auxiliaries can be expected to vary between languages. Exactly which words are counted as AUX should be part of the language-specific documentation.

In Bulgarian the auxiliary verbs are varieties of the verb ‘to be’:

Modal verbs count as main verbs in BulTreeBank tagset and they are thus tagged VERB.

Also, the following verbal particles (Tx) are viewed as auxiliaries:

Examples

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

edit AUX

CCONJ: coordinating conjunction

Definition

A coordinating conjunction is a word that links words or larger constituents without syntactically subordinating one to the other and expresses a semantic relationship between them.

In BulTreeBank tagset there are three types of conjunctions:

Cc (single coordinating conjunction)

Examples

Cr (repetitive conjunction). These usually contain at least two parts.

Examples

Cp (single and repetitive conjunction). These usually are used as singletons, but they also might be used in a repetitive chain.

Examples

edit CCONJ

DET: determiner

Definition

Determiners are words that modify nouns or noun phrases and express the reference of the noun phrase in context. That is, a determiner may indicate whether the noun is referring to a definite or indefinite element of a class, to a closer or more distant element, to an element belonging to a specified person or thing, to a particular number or quantity, etc.

In Bulgarian the definite article is part of the word, thus it is not considered as determiner.

However, the following pronouns are mapped to detereminers:

Note that the attributive usages (#a#) and possessive attributive usages (#p#) go directly into DET category, while entities (#e#) can be either determiners or pronouns. The possessive pronouns (Ps#) are mapped with only their long forms (#l#). The short forms are clitics and will be treated differently.

Examples

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

The symbol `@’ marks the suppresion with one feature in the tag.

edit DET

INTJ: interjection

Definition

An interjection is a word that is used most often as an exclamation or part of an exclamation. It typically expresses an emotional reaction, is not syntactically related to other accompanying expressions, and may include a combination of sounds not otherwise found in the language.

Note that words primarily belonging to another part of speech retains their original category when used in exclamations. For example, God is a NOUN even in exclamatory uses.

In BulTreeBank annotation scheme the interjections are tagged as I. These include the following groups: exclamations and onomatopoeic words.

In cases like God, the lemmas are tagged as both: Noun and Interjection. Thus, only the Noun usage will be kept in the universal setting.

The feedback particles, such as: yes and no are mapped to INTJ with the labels:

edit INTJ

NOUN: noun

Definition

Nouns are a part of speech typically denoting a person, place, thing, animal or idea.

The NOUN tag is intended for common nouns only.

In Bultreebank the common nouns are annotated with the tag Nc#.

Examples

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

edit NOUN

NUM: numeral

Definition

A numeral is a word, functioning most typically as a determiner, adjective or pronoun, that expresses a number and a relation to the number, such as quantity, sequence, frequency or fraction.

Note that cardinal numerals are covered by NUM whether they are used as determiners or not (as in Windows Seven) and whether they are expressed as words (four), digits (4) or Roman numerals (IV). Other words functioning as determiners (including quantifiers such as many and few) are tagged DET.

In Bultreebank tagset the tag which maps to NUM, is Mc#.

Examples

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

edit NUM

PART: particle

Definition

Particles are function words that must be associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning and that do not satisfy definitions of other universal parts of speech (e.g. adpositions, coordinating conjunctions, subordinating conjunctions or auxiliary verbs). Particles may encode grammatical categories such as negation, mood, tense etc. Particles are normally not inflected, although exceptions may occur.

In the Bultreebank tagset the following tags map to PART: Tn, Ti, Tx, Tm, Tv, Te and Tg. (Note that Ta is considered INTJ in the universal tagset. The Tn particle не / ne “no” is also considered INTJ).

Examples

edit PART

PRON: pronoun

Definition

Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns or noun phrases, whose meaning is recoverable from the linguistic or extralinguistic context.

Pronouns under this definition function like nouns.

The BulTreeBank annotation scheme adopted the idea that pro-nouns, pro-adjectives and pro-adverbs are labeled as Pronouns. However, for the mapping to the universal tagset, this group was split into several parts-of-speech: determiners, adverbs, pronouns.

The tags that correspond to Pron are: Pp#, Pde#, Pre#, Pce#, Pie#, Pfe#, Pfy#, Pne#, Piy#.

Examples

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

edit PRON

PROPN: proper noun

Definition

A proper noun is a noun (or nominal content word) that is the name (or part of the name) of a specific individual, place, or object.

The tagPROPN maps to the following tags in the BulTreeBank scheme: Np#, H# The tag Np# refers to proper nouns, while the tag H# handles two cases: 1. family names, which are mapped here as proper nouns, and 2. name adjectives, which are mapped to adjectives.

Examples

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

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PUNCT: punctuation

Definition

Punctuation marks are non-alphabetical characters and character groups used in many languages to delimit linguistic units in printed text.

Punctuation is not taken to include logograms such as $, %, and §, which are instead tagged as SYM.

The punctuation in the BulTreeBank scheme follows the same principles as in the Universal tagset. Thus, it includes: period, comma, colon, etc.

Examples

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SCONJ: subordinating conjunction

Definition

A subordinating conjunction is a conjunction that links constructions by making one of them a constituent of the other. The subordinating conjunction typically marks the incorporated constituent which has the status of a (subordinate) clause.

For coordinating conjunctions, see CONJ.

In the BulTreeBank annotation scheme, our tag Cs is mapped to the universal one SCONJ. According to our scheme the multiword subordinate conjunctions are also labeled as Cs. So, such cases are excluded here and analysed compositionally, as recommended in the universal tagset.

Examples

edit SCONJ

SYM: symbol

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for SYM.

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VERB: verb

Definition

A verb is a member of the syntactic class of words that typically signal events and actions, can constitute a minimal predicate in a clause, and govern the number and types of other constituents which may occur in the clause. Verbs are often associated with grammatical categories like tense, mood, aspect and voice, which can either be expressed inflectionally or using auxilliary verbs or particles.

The BulTreeBank annotation scheme provides the following mappings here: main verbs, copulas and modal verbs. Note that modal verbs do not have special labels in our annotation scheme. Participles and gerund are considered also VERB. Below the specific labels that map to VERB are given.

Examples

Note that the present active participle V#car# is mapped only to ADJ.

Note that the symbol `#’, used in the Universal POS section indicates a holder for arbitrary number of features, suppressed in the respective tag as irrelevant in the BulTreeBank tagset, when mapped to the Universal one.

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X: other

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for X.

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