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This page still pertains to UD version 1.

Dependencies

Note: nmod, neg, and punct appear in two places.

Core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep
nsubj csubj
nsubjpass csubjpass
dobj ccomp xcomp
iobj
Non-core dependents of clausal predicates
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nmod advcl advmod
    neg
Special clausal dependents
Nominal dep Auxiliary Other
vocative aux mark
discourse auxpass punct
expl cop
Noun dependents
Nominal dep Predicate dep Modifier word
nummod acl amod
appos   det
nmod   neg
Compounding and unanalyzed
compound mwe goeswith
name foreign
Coordination
conj cc punct
Case-marking, prepositions, possessive
case
Loose joining relations
list parataxis remnant
dislocated reparandum
Other
Sentence head Unspecified dependency
root dep

acl: clausal modifier of noun

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for acl.

edit acl

advcl: adverbial clause modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advcl.

edit advcl

advmod: adverbial modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for advmod.

edit advmod

amod: adjectival modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for amod.

edit amod

appos: appositional modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for appos.

An appositional modifier of a noun is a nominal immediately following the first noun that serves to define or modify that noun. It includes parenthesized examples, as well as defining abbreviations in one of these structures.

Като стигнаха до шосето , майката - жълта и сломена от тегло жена - още отдалеч загледа мъжа си . \n When reached-they to highway-the , mother-the - yellow and crushed woman - yet distantly looked husband her.REFL .
appos(майката, жена)
appos(mother-the, woman)

edit appos

aux: auxiliary

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for aux.

edit aux

auxpass: passive auxiliary

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for auxpass.

edit auxpass

case: case marking

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for case.

edit case

cc: coordinating conjunction

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for cc.

edit cc

ccomp: clausal complement

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for ccomp.

A clausal complement of a verb or adjective is a dependent clause which is a core argument. That is, it functions like an object of the verb, or adjective.

Виждам , че идва често . \n See-I that comes-he often .
ccomp(Виждам, идва)
ccomp(See-I, comes-he)

Such clausal complements may be finite or nonfinite. However, if the subject of the clausal complement is controlled (that is, must be the same as the higher subject or object, with no other possible interpretation) the appropriate relation is xcomp.

Аз обичах да разговарям с него . \n I liked to speak with him .
ccomp(обичах, разговарям)
ccomp(liked, speak)
Невеста Нена престана да вика . \n Aunt Nena stopped to shout .
xcomp(престана, вика)
xcomp(stopped, shout)

Example with copula:

Трудно е да я накараш да признае . \n Difficult-it is to her make confess .
ccomp(Трудно, накараш)
ccomp(Difficult-it, make)

edit ccomp

compound: compound

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for compound.

edit compound

conj: conjunct

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for conj.

edit conj

cop: copula

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for cop.

edit cop

csubj: clausal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for csubj.

A clausal subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a clause, i.e., the subject is itself a clause. The governor of this relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb. The dependent is the main lexical verb or other predicate of the subject clause.

Example 1: The clausal subject is the relative clause, which has a main verb.

Който е закъснял , ще чака . \n Who is late , will wait-he .
csubj(чака, закъснял)
csubj(wait-he, late)

Example 2: The clausal subject is the to-clause (да се срещнем)

Предстои да се срещнем . \n Coming-it-is to REFL.meet-each-other .
csubj(Предстои, срещнем)
csubj(Coming-it-is, REFL.meet-each-other)

edit csubj

csubjpass: clausal passive subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for csubjpass.

A clausal passive subject is a clausal syntactic subject of a passive clause (or more generally, any voice where the proto-agent argument does not become the subject of the clause).

Participle passive (the meaning is “It is said that belief will save us.”)

Казано е, вярата ще ни спаси . \n Said is, belief will us save .
csubjpass(Казано, спаси)
csubjpass(Said, save)

Reflexive passive (the meaning is “It is costly for one on our Earth to be a human.”)

Скъпо се плаща на тая земя да бъдеш човек . \n Costly REFL.pay at this land to be a-human .
csubjpass(плаща, бъдеш)
csubjpass(REFL.pay, be)

edit csubjpass

dep: unspecified dependency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dep.

edit dep

det: determiner

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for det.

edit det

discourse: discourse element

Yes-No question particle

In Bulgarian the Yes-No questions are formed with the question particle ли (li). At the moment this particle is annotated with the cs-dep/discourse relation.

Върна ли книгата на Петър ? \n Returned PART.li book-the to Peter ?
discourse(Върна, ли)
discourse(Returned, PART.li)

edit discourse

dislocated: dislocated elements

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dislocated.

edit dislocated

dobj: direct object

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for dobj.

The direct object of a verb is the noun phrase that denotes the entity acted upon. The direct object in Bulgarian corresponds to the position of the “Accusative” case, since nominals in Bulgarian do not have declension.

Accusative example:

Купувам му къща . \n Buy-I him house .
dobj(Купувам, къща)
dobj(Buy-I, house)

edit dobj

expl: expletive

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for expl.

edit expl

foreign: foreign words

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for foreign.

edit foreign

goeswith: goes with

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for goeswith.

edit goeswith

iobj: indirect object

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for iobj.

The indirect object of a verb is any nominal phrase that is a core argument of the verb but is not its subject or direct object. A prototypical example is the recipient of ditransitive verbs of speaking:

Говореше на всички като началник . \n Spoke-he to everybody like a-boss .
iobj(Говореше, всички)
iobj(Spoke-he, everybody)

The other examples include all arguments of a head that are not direct objects or subjects, and are PPs introduced by various prepositions. These cases are handled in the valency dictionary:

Ще те питам за нещо . \n Will you ask-I for something .
iobj(питам, нещо)
iobj(ask-I, something)

edit iobj

list: list

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for list.

edit list

mark: marker

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mark.

edit mark

mwe: multi-word expression

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for mwe.

edit mwe

name: name

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for name.

edit name

neg: negation modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for neg.

edit neg

nmod: nominal modifier

The nmod relation is used for nominal modifiers. They depend either on another noun (group “noun dependents”) or on a predicate (group “non-core dependents of clausal predicates”).

nmod is a noun (or noun phrase) functioning as a non-core (oblique) argument or adjunct. This means that it functionally corresponds to an adverbial when it attaches to a verb, adjective or other adverb. But when attaching to a noun, it corresponds to an attribute, or genitive complement (the terms are less standardized here).

Купих й плат за рокля . \n Bought-I her.CLITIC cloth for dress  .
nmod(плат, рокля)
nmod(cloth, dress)
Валя цяла нощ . \n Rained-it all night .
nmod(Валя, нощ)
nmod(Rained-it, night)
От всички маси ги следяха враждебни погледи . \n From all tables them.CLITIC followed hostile gazes  .
nmod(следяха, маси)
nmod(followed, tables)
Най-често Йовка мислеше за стринка си Елка . \n More-often Yovka was-thinking about aunt her.REFL Elka  .
nmod(стринка, Елка)
nmod(aunt, Elka)

edit nmod

nsubj: nominal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nsubj.

A nominal subject is a nominal phrase which is the syntactic subject of a clause; in Bulgarian, the phrase is condsidered to be in nominative (in spite of the fact that nouns in Bulgarian do not have declension) . (See csubj for when the subject is clausal. See nsubjpass and csubjpass for when the subject is not the proto-agent argument due to valence changing operations.) The governor of the nsubj relation might not always be a verb: when the verb is a copular verb, the root of the clause is the complement of the copular verb, which can be an adjective or noun.

В небето наизскачаха звезди . \n In-sky-the dashed stars .
nsubj(наизскачаха, звезди)
nsubj(dashed, stars)
Лепо беше хубаво момче . \n Lepo was a-pretty boy .
nsubj(момче, Лепо)
nsubj(boy, Lepo)

edit nsubj

nsubjpass: passive nominal subject

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nsubjpass.

A passive nominal subject is a noun phrase which is the syntactic subject of a passive clause. Similarly to Czech, in Bulgarian there are two kinds of passive: participle-based and reflexive(se)-based:

Биячите не бяха разкрити . \n Bullies-the not-were detected .
nsubjpass(разкрити, Биячите)
nsubjpass(detected, Bullies-the)
Черквата се затопли от свещите . \n Church-the REFL.got-warm from candles-the .
nsubjpass(затопли, Черквата)
nsubjpass(REFL.got-warm, Church-the)

edit nsubjpass

nummod: numeric modifier

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for nummod.

A numeric modifier of a noun is any number phrase that serves to modify the meaning of the noun with a quantity.

Къщата ни беше на два етажа . \n House-the our was at two floors  .
nummod(етажа, два)
nummod(floors, two)
Бензинът поевтинява средно с десет стотинки . \n Petrol-the gets-cheap average with deset stotinki  .
nummod(стотинки, десет)
nummod(stotinki, deset)

Note that indefinite quantifiers such as few, many are tagged u-pos/DET rather than u-pos/NUM. Therefore their relation to the quantified noun is not nummod but det:

Ако бях поет , аз бих написал много стихове . \n If was-I poet , I would written many poems  .
det(стихове, много)
det(poems, many)

edit nummod

parataxis: parataxis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for parataxis.

edit parataxis

punct: punctuation

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for punct.

edit punct

remnant: remnant in ellipsis

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for remnant.

edit remnant

reparandum: overridden disfluency

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for reparandum.

edit reparandum

root: root

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for root.

edit root

vocative: vocative

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for vocative.

edit vocative

xcomp: open clausal complement

This document is a placeholder for the language-specific documentation for xcomp.

An open clausal complement (xcomp) of a verb or an adjective is a predicative or clausal complement without its own subject. The reference of the subject is necessarily determined by an argument external to the xcomp (normally by the subject of the next higher clause). This is often referred to as obligatory control. These complements are always non-finite, and they are complements (arguments of the higher verb or adjective) rather than adjuncts/modifiers, such as a purpose clause. The name xcomp is borrowed from Lexical-Functional Grammar.

Можеш ли да плуваш ? \n Can PART to swim ?
xcomp(Можеш, плуваш)
xcomp(Can, swim)
Двете сестри започнаха да си шепнат още по-ниско . \n Two-the sisters started to REFL whisper even lower .
xcomp(започнаха, шепнат)
xcomp(started, whisper)

Note that the above condition “without its own subject” does not mean that a clause is an xcomp just because its subject is not overt. The subject must be necessarily inherited from a fixed position in the higher clause. That is, there should be no available interpretation where the subject of the lower clause may be distinct from the specified role of the upper clause. In cases where the missing subject may or must be distinct from a fixed role in the higher clause, ccomp should be used instead, as below. This includes cases of arbitrary subjects and anaphoric control.

Каза да не се-шегувам . \n Said-he to not REFL.kid-I  .
ccomp(Каза, се-шегувам)
ccomp(Said-he, REFL.kid-I)

edit xcomp